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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1986 (DOST Vol. VI).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Quhilk, adj. and pron. Also: quhillk, quhilke, qvhilk, quhylk, qwhilk(e, qwhylk, quhilque; qhuilk, qhuylk, qhwylk; qhilk; quilk, quylk, qwilk(e, qwylk(e, qvylk(e; quihilk; whilk(e, vhilk, uhilk, vhuilk; quhelk, qwhelk, qhuelk; queilk; quholk; wealk; qu(h)ik(e, quhic, quhyk, quheke, qwicke. [ME wilk(e (c 1200), wylk (1424), ME and e.m.E. whillc, whillk- (Orm), whilk(e (14th c.), whylk(e, north. ME quhylk (14th c., Cursor M.), east midl. and north. ME quilc (Gen. & Ex.), quilk (Cursor M.), also quelk (c 1375, Cursor M.), ME also hwælch (c 1200), weche (1387), whech(e (15th c.), qweche (1418), and wulc (a 1200), whulch(e (Layamon), hwuch (c 1200), woch(e (c 1200), whuch(e (14–15th c.), etc., and see Quhich(e adj. and pron., OE hwilc, whence also late OE hwylc, and OE hwelc.]In modern editions no doubt freq. representing the abbreviations qlk, qk, qulk, qlke, or qilk.

I. In interrogative use, requiring a choice or a specification to be made. 1. adj. Which, what (person, thing, or group of persons or things). In a. direct and b. indirect speech.a. ?1438 Alex. ii 2527.
Quhilk thre thingis are maist sufficiand To lele lufe?
c1475 Wall. xi 1277.
‘Twa … mon be befor me thar.’ ‘Quhilk ij ar thai?’
a1500 Colk. Sow i 13.
Now quhilk penny of the thre Wes best bestowit, say ȝe?
1513 Doug. i vii 73.
Quhilk place is this, my frend, quod he
Ib. ii vi 52.
To quhilk other fortres sall we speir?
b. a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 31.
In quhilk place of thire thre He wes, ȝe sal nocht wit fore me
14.. Edinb. Univ. MS La. ii 318.
I sal quod the angel tel thé On quhilk men the feynd has pouste
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 698.
Wes nane sa sutell couth se Quhilk gome suld gouern the gre
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1983.
Than (said I) Father, gyf ȝe can, Quhilk four bene thay, schaw me, I pray ȝow
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xviii 26.
Trow ȝe to ly lurk and do na mair To se quhilk syde sall haue the victorie

2. pron. Which person or thing or group? Which one or ones of a pair or number? (Requiring a choice or specification.) In a. direct and b. indirect speech.Also quhilk that, and, only in Dalr., also inflected as pl.a. (1) uninfl. c1420 Wynt. v 1130.
Quhilk is he That thi bowrche wyll thare-off be
Ib. vii 1535.
Quhilk is the sted of thi duelling?
a1500 Henr. Thre Deid Pollis 44.
Quha was farest or fowlest of ws thre? Or quhilk of ws of kin was gentillar?
c1475 Wall. vi 378.
Be wryt or word quhilk likis yow best till haiff?
Ib. viii 972.
Quhilk hald ye for the best?
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 530. 1513 Doug. x ii 29.
Quhilk of our hard poweris wrocht sic thyng?
1580 Hay in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 45/21.
To quhilk of the heavines was the Apostels lifted?
?a 1627 Catechism in S. Leith Rec. II 280/1.
Q. How many things learned ȝo of this …? A. Twa. Q. Quhilk is the first … Q. Quhilk is the secound?
(2) inflected 1549 Lamb Resonyng 7/5.
Quhilkis be tha just causis?
b. (1) 1375 Barb. xi 452.
[They] gud tent suld ta Quhilk of thame had of help mister
a1400 Leg. S. xx 243.
Wemane, awysis ȝow Quhilk of thyre twa ȝe wil tak nov
?1438 Alex. ii 3298.
Emynedus … asked quhilk was Gaudefere
c1400 Troy-bk. i 5.
Dyomedes byrdes … gud knawlege haue Quhilk is a man of Latyn land Besyd a Grek
c1420 Ratis R. 155, 156.
Smelinge … makis the knawleginge quhilk is weil-smeland suet odore And quhilk is stinkand aire vnpure
c1420 Wynt. viii 6719.
He gert inqueyre Off all tha men that wyth him were Quhilk luffit peramourys
1425 Soc. Ant. II 386.
Thai suld … determane lely qwhilk of the said parties has ful richt
1513 Doug. x ii 7.
Quhat maner man, or quhilk of goddis, lat se, To move batale constrenyt hes Ene
1533 Bell. Livy I 121/17.
Thir two brethir … kest cavillis … quhilk of thame suld kis thare moder first
a1578 Pitsc. I 154/16. 1628 Misc. Spald. C. V 224.
Ane kewill being cassin, quhilk of the twa grounds beginis to pay thair pultrie
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 919.
Quhilk that happynit the lak, Couth na leid say
(2) 1596 Dalr. I 2/12.
Afoir I declare quhilkes ar proper to Scotland, I wil [etc.]
Ib. 8/28, 30.

II. As compound relative in indefinite or generalised use. 3. adj. Whichever (one or ones); whatever, any … that. 1533 Bell. Livy II 251.
Ane band was maid betuix Romanis and Albanis und[er] thir ferme condicionis: off quhilk peple the cieteȝanis war wictorius that samyn people sal regne [etc.]
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxiv 50.

4. pron. Whichever person or group of persons of two or more (persons or groups). Also b. Whichever (of two or more alternative choices).With and without that or at following.(1) 1400 Red Bk. Menteith I 170.
I may haue spekyng with quhilk of thaim that yhe will send
1455 Acts II 43/2.
And quhilk of the forspekaris that [etc.] … sall pay v lib. to the king
1478 Acta Conc. I 14/1.
To bring … the said rentale to the said day quhilk of thaim that has it
1480 Ib. 71/2. 1530–1 Edinb. B. Rec. II 45. c 1532 Breadalbane Doc. No. 43.
Quhilk of the saidis parteis at faillis to vtheris … sall pay [etc.]
(2) 1476 Reg. Great S. 310/2.
That quhilk of us happinis to be warnit sal comper
1494 Loutfut MS 2b.
For quhilk of thaim is mansuorn sal haue thre enemys aganys thaim
1535 Stewart 39362.
Cheis him, he said, quhilk of thame he had lever … with him in battell go
b. 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 35.
At qwhilk of the thre places … hym likis that the day sal be haldin
c 1466–80 Letter from Lord Hamilton MS.
I haf ordande hym … to se … Inglande … [and] ȝour lande & quhilk plesis hym best to raman theron a ȝher or twa in his hamcummyn
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1199.
How wourschipful Wavane had wonnin him on weir, To wirk him wandreth or wough, quhilk war his wil
c1500 Harl. MS 4700 260a.
He sall … be deliuerit in evin handis or ellis in the wardanis handis at the will of the parteis quhilk thai had levir

III. As compound relative pron. in definite sense (or with ellipsis of the antecedent). 5. That which; also, those whom; what.(1) c1460 Consail Vys Man 46.
Syne in that breth oft-tyme thai brew Quhilk eftirwart ful sare thai rew
c1475 Wall. xi 87.
I haiff no land bot quhilk the king gaiff me
Ib. 478.
Thow wald I did quhilk is our hye a mys
1513 Doug. i Prol. 427.
Ene dyd na thing … Bot quhilk the goddis commandit hym beforn
1533 Boece 190.
[To] do be slicht and polecye quhilk he mycht nocht be force
c1590 Fowler II 71/11.
Now monarchies ather ar hereditaire or newe, vncouthe, and quhilk haith not bene sene afore
c1616 Hume Orthog. 32.
A word impersonal is qlk in al formes of speach keepes one face
1622-6 Bisset I 219/14.(2) c1475 Wall. xi 321.
Na men he tuk bot quhilk he hydder brocht

IV. The simple relative.Two important studies of the relative pronoun in Older Scots are S. J. G. Caldwell The Relative Pronoun in Early Scots (Helsinki, 1974), and S. Romaine Socio-Historical Linguistics (Cambridge, 1982), chapters 3–7.

6. adj. The quhilk and, espec. in later use, quhilk: Which. In non-restrictive, esp. resumptive, use, as in 8 and 9 below.Sometimes inflected when qualifying plural, and occas. also singular, nouns.Qualifying designations of a. things, b., less freq., persons.a. uninfl. (1) c 1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1.
The qvylk payment sa made I will at the landys be haldyn eftyr the tenovr of the ald charterys … in the wytnes of the qvylk thing to this presens I haf set my seyll
1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 7.
The forsayde Jon askyt me wes that the conclucyoun of myne ordenans to the qwhylk askyng I … answeryt that … yha
1386 Rot. Sc. II 85/2.
1387 Edinb. Chart. 35.
1388 Bamff Chart. 22.
The qwylke forsayd personis has eyvynly departit tham in tua, and in the wetnes of the qwilke thyng [etc.]
1390–1 Acts I 217/1.
Apon the qwilk our lorde the kynges grant the said Schir Thomas … requerit me … to make hym ane instrument
1391 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 3.
1397 Acts I 208/1.
1400 Maxwell Mem. I 138.
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 478.
Go ȝhe And … kendile gret lyght, Of the quhilk lyght kendlit [etc.]
1401 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 8.
For the quilk request … at the quilk acord
1402 Ib. No. 9.
1407 Bk. Carlaverock II 418.
1413 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 364.
Of the whilke sowme I hald me well payid
1422 Stirlings of Keir 208.
1425 Soc. Ant. II 387.
The quhilk gauyle sall contene in brede [etc.]
1425 Liber Melros 544.
The qwylke assyse was thir personis [etc.]
1428 Ib. 519.
1431 Reg. Great S. 45/2.
The quhillk pensioun
1432 Ayr B. Ct. 28 July.
The qwylk day
1438 Ib.
The quhilk day
c 1439 Cop. St. A. 177.
1440 Aberd. B. Rec. I 395.
The quhilk Mononnday the courte affermyt the said Will. comperit
1456 Hay I 64/28.
A labourare … broddit his ox … the quhilk ox spak … quhy broddis thou me?
Ib. 60/7, etc. c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 1376.
[The shot] farrar in vpoun thair vangarde spred The quhilk vangard ane duk Betin led
1481–2 Misc. Spald. C. II 324.
The qwylk mes
1490 Irland Mir. I 31/3.
The quhilk opinioune apperandly Arestotill held
a1500 Bk. Chess 39. 1507 Edinb. B. Ct. Bk. 29.
For the quhilke crime he put him in the baillies wil
1507–8 Rec. Earld. Orkney 80.
1511 Wemyss Chart. 129.
In witnes of the qwhelk thing
1513 Doug. viii vii 111.
Vndre the quhilk byg iland in the see Ane coif thar is
Id. Direct. 123. 1518 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 48.
Quhyk [ed. quhylk]
a1538 Abell 23b.
I grant me ane weman of the quhilk kynd I cannocht denude me
1542 Reg. Episc. Glasg. 559.
In Parliament haldin … the xv daye of Marche [etc.] … The quhilque daye … Gavin archbishop of Glasgow … schew that [etc.]
1546 Aberd. B. Rec. I 238.
Ane bulget of blak ledder … within the quhilk bulget was contenit this geir following
1548 St. A. Baxter Bks. 3
1549 St. A. Baxter Bks. 4, etc.
1573-1600 Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 126/5.
The quhilk argument is sa cleir and manifest
1585 Inverness Rec. I 303. 1607 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxxxvii.
Sen the quhilk tyme that mater hes sleiped till now
1612 Orkney & Shetl. Ct. Bk. (ed.) 17. 1615 Aberd. B. Rec. II 322.
On the south east syde of the halff pennie hous, of the quhilk hous Williame … tuik doune ane dovet
1655 Stitchill Baron Ct. 1.
The qlk day
1691 Crail Squaremen 2.
The whilk day
?a 1700 Ib. 1.
The wealk day
(2) 1388 Bamff Chart. 22.
The qhuylk toftis haldis of lenthe achttene fal lang
1389 Liber Melros 449.
The qwilk lettres
1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
The qwhilk skathis our lege lorde … has paciently tholyte
1413 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 643.
In to the whilke landys
1456 Hay II 55/35.
Of the quhilk sevin synnis
a1500 Bk. Chess 2018. 1503 Halyb. 270.
The quhilk xv ellis cost vi li. ii s. gs.
1513 Doug. xii ii 83. 1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 145.
Off the quhilk demandis the xxv day of Julij … wes assignit … to reassue ane ansuer … to the whilk day the maist pairt of the nobilitie wes writtin for
1600-1610 Melvill 718.
At the quhilk wordis the great bisschope kendelit sua [etc.]
1641 Kirkcudbr. Min. Bk. 165.
The quhilk sex dayes being bypast and nae peyment maid
(3) 1385 3rd Rep. Hist. MSS App. 410/2.
The dome of qwhilk decrete the forsayde Sir Patrick … graciously deferryt
1408 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 221.
In witnes of qwhilk thing … we haf set oure seal
1439 Acts II 54/2.
Be the occasioun of whilk withdrawing of liberte fra hir
Considering that whilk thing was done of gude ȝele
1470 Liber Aberbr. 108.
Quhilk interruptioun maid be the said bailye is weill knawyn tyl [etc.]
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1234 (Harl.).
In hell of corporall fire is huge heit Quhilk fire … sall indure
1507 Dumfries B. Ct. 2a (1 Dec.).
Quholk daye it is assigned Will Scott till acquhit hym lachfully
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) lii 215. 1513 Doug. viii xii 91.
Quhilk Nylus ryver … Hys large skyrt onbrede spred
Ib. ix vi 31.
Thys is our passage, quhilk way we mon wend
Ib. 84.
A multitude of commonys of birth law, By quhilk resson thar namys ar onknaw
1543–4 Corr. M. Lorraine 57.
Quhilk hous nocht beand haistely deliverit my lord governour … wil pas [etc.]
1562-3 Winȝet I 21/17.
[He] ingerit him self to offer the brynt sacrifice … to quhilk office he wes not callit
Ib. 57/35.
For quhat veritie culd Johne Knox schaw for his lauchfull vocatioun (quhilk ane article specialie he cheseit out of sa mony to confute [etc.])
1558-66 Knox II 60.
Aganist quhilk place war bent aucht cannounis
1585 Warrender P. (S.H.S.) I 179.
1600-1610 Melvill 139.
Thrie grait lights! … (of quhilk sort I wat nocht giff ther was manie scores in all Christiandome)
1633 Orkney Witch Trial in Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. V 553.
So soone after as scho reveilit it scho died, quhilk death was wrought be your deid
a1650 Row 387.
In his ward for nine or ten weeks, in all whilk space he never got libertie to take the aire
1657 Moses Bundles, Misc. P. MS (Edinb. City Chambers), Bundle 39, No. 1642.
Exceptand fourtein kings foot towards the toun wall quhilk foote contening eleven inches and ane halfe
1674 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS 9 June.
Quhilk sowme was givin wp [etc.]
(4) 1425 Soc. Ant. II 386.
Whilk lands lyis in the saide burgh
1439 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 143.
For to haf ressauit … twelf pundis … quhilk twelf pundis [etc.]
1456 Hay II 79/37.
Of quhilk gudis he gyfis habundaunce to wys men
1535 Stewart 25902. 1546 Blackfriars Perth 216.
Quhilk malis [etc.] … are liquidat in the said decrete
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 80.
Thocht all quhilk argumentis … faillit, ȝit [etc.]
c1590 Fowler II 39/3.
Quhilk infirmityes notwithstanding sal na way preiudge thair saluatioun
inflected (1) 1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 7.
And to the wytnes of the qwylkis al and syndry in thir endentyt lettrys contenyt tyl ilke parte … I hafe put my sele
1391 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 163.
Of the qwhilkes erledom and lordshipe … the said Schir Malcolms wyf is verray … ayre
1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 35.
The qwhilkis commissions ar interchangit
1397 Acts I 208/1.
1398 Ib. 211/2. 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58.
1418 Liber Melros 502.
The qwhilkis indentours
1424 Dumbarton B. Rec. App. ii 2.
To the qwhilks al thyngis to be fulfillit
1438 Ayr Friars Pr. Chart. 49.
In witnes of the quhilkis thyngis
1439 Acts II 54/2.
1456 Hay I 112/13.
The quhilkis twa thingis makis all the gudenes of the felde in bataill
1494 Acta Conc. I 361/2.
Of the quhilkis landis the said William wes in liferent
1500 Edinb. B. Rec. I 81. 1502 Acta Conc. III 177.
The quilkis thre dayis being runnyn
1527–8 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 92.
The quhilkis wordis befor said
1560 Stirling B. Rec. I 75.
The quhilkis sowmis of money [etc.] … to put to proffit to [etc.]
1587 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 46 (4 May).
Vpone the quhilkis refuisis … Mr. Johne raquirit instrument
1668 Culross II 161.
For the whilks causes …
(2) 1398 Acts I 211/2.
That … a grete message sal be send in France the qwhilkis message sal be chosyn be [etc.]
1399 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 41.
In witnes of the qwhilkis thing I hafe put to my seale
1558 Inverness Rec. I 27.
For the quhilkis statutt discharging the saidis dekyne [etc.] … suld [etc.]
(3) 1497–8 Newbattle Coll. (Reg. H.) Somerville.
Qwylkis foresutht myle & croft
1513 Doug. vi xvi 39.
Quhilkis all this crwell goddes … Had … Into wyld bestis schap … translait
1517 Grant Chart. 63.
jm scheip, ȝouis, scheip and wedderis … quhilkis gudis [etc.]
1531 Edinb. B. Rec. II 55.
Quhilkys statutis
1579 Acts III 180/2.
To quhilkis lessonis in the law salbe ordiner auditoris all the aduocattis [etc.]
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 68/36. c 1603 Sc. Hist. Rev. XL 111.
Except the discharge and acquittance … whilks acquittances [etc.]
1611 Reg. Panmure I xxviii.
Quhilkis thingis I think sould not heawe beine done if [etc.]
c1650 Spalding II 232.
Quhilkis visionis the people thocht to be prodigious tokenis
b. uninfl. (1) 1388 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 294.
The whilk forestar sall [etc.]
1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21.
The qwylk bischap mad hym rycht resonabil demaundes
1506 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. 248.
To the quilk lorde I geiwe … my schipe
1513 Doug. x vii 68.
The quhilk Anchemolus was that ilk … Defowlyt hys faderis bed incestuusly
1554 Misc. Bann. C. III 78.
The quhilk Eirle Maliseus first [etc.]
(2) 1388 Bamff Chart. 21.
The qhuylk men the gret ath swere that [etc.]
Ib. 22.
The qwilke foure layd the lande wyth lyne [etc.]
1396 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. I 96.
The qwylk ayris faylyȝeand peraventour
c 1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 53.
14.. Acts I 357/2.
1456 Hay I 58/16.
The quhilk barnis thai slew all haley
1588 King Cat. 33.
The quhilk sancts
(3) 1487 Acts II 177/1.
He sal bring thaim to the schireff of the schire quhilk schireff sal [etc.]
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) ii 19.
Quhilk king us bring unto his ryng
1513 Doug. v vii 20.
Quhilk Butes, to vnderstand, Fra Bebrycy com [etc.]
a1586 Maitland Ho. Seytoun 18.
Quhilk Christell … micht nocht brouk [etc.]
(4) c1475 Wall. i 47.
Our Prynce Dawy … Thre dochtrys had … Off quhilk thre com Bruce, Balȝoune and Hastyng
1604 Acts Sederunt i 37.
The names of quhilk fyftein advocattis … followis
c1610 Melville Mem. 13.
Quhilk tua … leichted aff ther horse
inflected (1) 1398 Acts I 211/2.
The qwhilkis persones sal be chosyn
1509 Rec. Earld. Orkney 84 (see (2)). 1582 Glasgow B. Rec. I 93.
Off the quhilkis lippir sum hes speciall freindis … quha resauis thame
(2) 1509 Rec. Earld. Orkney 84.
Quhilkis personis ar to say, Henry Gariocht, Andro Leslye [etc.], … the quhilkis persons bure [etc.]
1559 Edinb. B. Rec. III 32.
Quhilkis personis acceptit the said charge vpone thaim
1570 Inverness Rec. I 195.
Quhilkis personis sall sycht [etc.]
1631 Justiciary Cases I 163. 1562-3 Winȝet II 28/23.
Women ladin with sin, quhilkis women ar led with sindry lustis

c. ? Followed by (redundant) indef. art. — 1513 Doug. i i 25.
Thare was ane ancyant cite hecht Cartage, … Of quhilk a land Juno … As to hir special abuf al otheris maid

d. Followed by (redundant or correlative) that. — 1533 Boece 140b.
In the quhilk tyme that Romanis war at hereschip in Brigancia
1566 St. A. Baxter Bks. ii.
The quihilk day that Robert Arthur is enterit mester … hes receuit his duety

7. pron. Introducing a restrictive relative clause, i.e. one which is necessary to identify fully the antecedent as a member of its class by restricting or defining its possible range of reference: That: who, whom; which.Sometimes inflected in plural and, occas., in singular use.a. With pron., also absol. ordinal num., antecedent, of persons and things, as subject or object of a verb.uninfl. (1) 1513 Doug. xi v 82.
As he the quhilk pretendis to weld the ryng [etc.]
1540 Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 96.
Now wander and wa be to thame all thair lyvis, The quhilk ar maryit with sic vnhappy wyvis
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 52.
In Christ tha byde nocht … The quhilk … Dois nocht imbrace his wourd [etc.]
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 7527.
Of that quhilk Caulus said
1562-3 Winȝet I 51/12.
That quhilk the prophete spak afore
1567 Conf. Faith in Acts (1597) ii 5.
Vnles the Spirit of the Lord Jesus quicken that quhilk is dead
He beginnis to hait that quhilk before he loued
1600 Hamilton Facile Tr. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 234/22.
Les nor that be restorit whilk is tane auay
c1616 Hume Orthog. 31.
We avoue that quhilk we knaw
1656 Glasgow B. Rec. II 346.
For selling of that quhilk schoe had then amongst hir handis
c1475 Wall. v 219.
Quhat it was in liknes of Faudoun Quhilk brocht his men to suddand confusioun
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 52.
Throu helpe of Him quhilk deit on the tre
1533 Gau 49/29.
He quhilk passit dwne he is the same quhilk passit vp abwne
1533 Boece 45.
Off all kingis Fergus was first quhilk in Albion tuke thay armes
1562-3 Winȝet I 59/4.
This kirk quhilk my aduersar insinuatis to be it quhilk he callis papistical
Ib. II 31/10.
To preche … ony thing to … Catholiks, by it quhilk thai hef resauit
Ib. 64/11.
Na thing of thair awin almaist euir produce thai quhilk thai intend nocht to schaddow oure also with the wordis of scriptuir
1638 Rothes Affairs Kirk 200.
If all be trew quhilk was reported
(3) 1428 Liber Melros 521.
Mony vthirris quhilk war apon the forsaid assis togyddir
1513 Doug. vi ii 111.
Thai quhilk [Sm. quilk] bene gendrit of goddis, may thidder attayn
1533 Gau 15/11.
Thay quhilk sais to thair broder wordis of ir
Ib. 51/34.
He sal cum and dume thayme quhilk thane sal be liffand
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 83.
Thay quhilk had murtherit a king
16.. Rudiments fol. 30a.
Concessiue conjunctiones ar they quhilk grant somquhat to quhilk the latter sentence did or would withstand
1513 Doug. vi ix 162.
Thai beyn alsso within ȝon pyt turment Quhilk at thar bredir envy held
1551 Hamilton Cat. 98.
Nocht only thai braik this command quhilk stelis, … bot also [etc.]
inflected (1) 14.. Burgh Laws c. 6 (B).
Al playntys the qwhilkis ar rysyn in burgh … aw to be determynd within the burgh owtane tha the qwhilkis pertenys to the kyngys croun
(2) 14.. Acts I 12/2.
Al thai the quhilkis ar destitut
1513 Doug. vii xii 49.
A thousand fers folkis assemlyt he: Thay quhilkis with rakis ourturnys euery bra … And thame alsso dwelland in hillys he
Ib. xii x 64.
Sum otheris schotis dartis [etc.] … At thame quhilkis on the barmkyn hed remanys
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 145. 1531 Crim. Trials I i 155.
To lat thaim abid at hame, quhilkis has na knaulege [etc.]
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1199.
Those quhilkis come of Sethis blude … Suld nocht [etc.]
1562-3 Winȝet II 53/9.
For sum ar quhilkis fra hand aluterlie blawis away
1568 Liber Coll. Glasg. lxxx-iii.
That ye and euere ane of yow quhilkis hes intrommettit of the saidis crops [etc.]
c1590 Fowler II 27/26.
Vnto those, quhilks ȝit … riftingly he speuis forth against me

With noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb, b. personal and c. non-personal.Examples of the quhilk (is after c 1500 are rare in this use, apparently occurring only in verse and at a distance from the antecedent.b. uninfl. (1) c1475 Wall. iv 704.
Till this woman the quhilk I spak of ayr
Ib. xi 204.
Thir campiounis twa The quhilk befor Wallace hapnyt to sla
Ib. vi 579. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5801.
All kyngis and quenis thare salbe kend, The quhilk sic lawis did defend
(2) 1456 Hay I 234/23.
Gif thare war a man becumyn blynd, quhilk othir tymes had bene a man of were
a1500 Bernardus 215.
A mane he says quhik al his fantasy Has geffyne to vice … A wyfe he sal hafe purte til hir name
c1475 Wall. v 970.
The bauld Graystok was slayne, And mony man quhilk wes off mekill mayne
1504 Treas. Acc. II 433.
To ane wif be the kingis command quhilk chasit hame ane of the kingis deir
1513 Doug. x iv 96.
Thys Ocnus was the ilk man quhilk expres Of Mantua the cite dyd he wall
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5727.
The verray instrument Quhilk wald haue him supportit
1570 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
Ane capitane quhilk desyris to vinqueis his enemeis suld … use subtilitie
?a 1627 S. Leith Rec. II 286/2.
I confess that thair is no God quhilk I sould [etc.]
(3) 1454 Douglas Chart. 383.
Than we … sal infefte … the said Marc … his ayris or assignais quhilk sal happin to be vexit in the tyme [etc.]
1482–3 Acta Conc. II ciii.
Thre or four sindri persons quhilk war suspect of the law
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 587 (Asl.).
The deid of synnaris is endles dampnacoun Quhilk levis in syn
a1500 K. Hart 34. 1507 Treas. Acc. III 393.
To the gunnaris quhilk kest the gunnis the day of the justing
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus iii 800.
For the thre kingis quhilk war befoir denude Out of this clan
1587-99 Hume 128/168.
I haue heard of some men, quhilk at the latter houre … hes burst forth with horrible blasphemies
1589–90 Edinb. B. Rec. V 16.
For the chairges of the Irlandmen quhilk wes with the Spayngyerts
inflected (1) c1420 Wynt. i 487.
Quhen the kyngys foure war dede The quhilkys Abraham swa perswyde
14.. Acts I 329/2.
And wit[h] all syndrie officiaris the qwhilkis has had entermettyn … fra [etc.]
1497 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 71.
All vther personis the quhilkis takis vpoun thame to hale the said … infirmitie
(2) 1518 Glenartney Doc.
Thare is diuers personis quhilkis huntis the dere
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 149.
Thir Danys quhilkis fled to thair schippis gaif … gold to Makbeth to suffir thair nobillis quhilkis war slayn at this last ieoparde to be beryit at [etc.]
1547 Armstrong Hist. Liddesdale I App. lxxxiii.
To foure men of Selkirk, quhilkes kepit nyne oxin fra [etc.]
1549 Lamb Resonyng 35/8.
I will nocht ȝour lordis and ladyis rehers quhilkis for the trewth wes miserablie murdreit
1560 Digest Justiciary Proc. C. 12.
All persones quhilkis had defylit them selfis in adulterye
1583 Edinb. Univ. Chart. 90.
The youth and persones quhilkis salbe committit to his chairge
c. uninfl. (1) c 1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1.
Sa that he hald thayme in fre blancheferme … for the self peny the qvylke is nemyt before
1387 Edinb. Chart. 35.
In fourme the qwylk eftir folowys
1393 Reg. Morton II 192.
Al richt and claime the qwilk thai … has had
1400 Maxwell Mem. I 139.
The ten markis worth of land the qhwylk is callit [etc.]
1402 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 9 (see 8 c uninfl. (1) below). 1417 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 249.
Out the land the qwhilk was qwhilum … Fergous Wilsonnis liand betuix the landis the qwhilkis war quhilum John Barbauris
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 157.
Dark as rock the quhilk the sey vpcast
1549 Lamb Resonyng 5/18.
ȝow appeir nocht haif red ane vthir tractat … the quhilk is … prentit … the [1548] ȝeiris of Christ
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. cviii 47.
I pray … sic iustice be done … The quhilk may gar the rasche busk keip the kow
(2) 1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 7.
Certane endentarys and obligacions the qwylk I ordaynyt thaim to sele
(3) 1456 Hay I 164/16.
And I dissave hym under that assuraunce quhilk I hecht him
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2300.
The guse is ded quhilk the gret eggis lent
1477 Edinb. Chart. 141.
And all vthir claith quhic is within vj quartaris
1535 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 150.
To vyrk furcht the vob … quhilk he hes begoundin, and geif the tother vob hayme agane
1551 Hamilton Cat. 111.
Ilkane idil word quhilk men and wemen speikis
1562-3 Winȝet I 77/8.
Allegeing … that thing to thame quhome ȝe cal papistis quhilk neuir ane of thame … thocht anis in mynd
1568 Buch. Indict. 39.
He felt the begynnyng of that plaig qlk thairefter sa inquietit hym
1576 Orkney Oppress. 86.
For ilk tuelff lespound butter quilk was pait of auld, fyvetene lespund
c1590 J. Stewart 20/202.
ȝit sall I biet the low, Low quhilk combuirs my ardent douce desyre
1591 Misc. Spald. C. II 218.
Vnder all hiest pane … quhilk ye may incur
1602 Colville Paraenese 28.
Schedoth institut nor prescryue no reull … vhilk is vnholy
c1610 Melville Mem. 4.
c1616 Hume Orthog. 7.
1630 Spalding I 381.
1638 Dickson in Sel. Biog. II 21.
That text quhilk they would seeme to prove their errours by, quhich text of theirs, being compaired …
1643 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 174.
Ane ȝoung quoyak calfe whilk did eat ane beat of lint unto ȝou
a1650 Row 431.
The horse whilk would suffer no man to ryde upon him but Alexander
(4) 1501 Treas. Acc. II 82.
For iijcxxiiij Swithin burdis quhilk ȝeid to Strivelin
1551 Hamilton Cat. 6.
Seik nocht to ken thai thingis quhilk ar abone thi capacitie
1565 Facs. Nat. MSS III lvi.
According to that grite favouris quhilk at all tymes … I have fundin at your hand
a1578 Pitsc. I 1/2.
Heir beginnis the historie and cronickillis of Scotland quhilk was left onwrettin be … Maister Hector Boes
1585 Cal. Sc. P. VIII 107.
I … recommend the berare … and his honest actionis unto your honors protection quheke he hes to suit in England
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 42/23.
1600-1610 Melvill 320.
1611 Rec. Old Aberd. I 50.
[Claim for] propertie and posessione, kyndaus [sic] and gud vill qlk scho in anievayis haid hes
1659 Rothesay Par. Rec. 14.
The bones quhilk they dig vp when they hock the grave
inflected (1) 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 34.
All the landys … & possessyovnys the qvylkys scho has … with in the kynryc
1398 Acts I 211/2.
1400 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 7.
14.. Burgh Laws c. 6 (B) (see a inflected (1) above). 1447 Newbattle Coll. (Reg. H.) Somerville.
Al costis [etc.] … the qwylkis he or thai sustenys
a1500 Henr. Fab. 233.
Quhat plesans is in feistis delicate The quhilkis ar geuin with ane glowmand brow?
1499–1500 Acta Conc. II 389.
Of the landis the quhilkis ar now prisit to the sade Schir Alexander
(2) 1418 Liber Melros 502.
Tha landis qwhilkis lyis in debate
1429 15th Rep. Hist. MSS App. viii 10.
All accyons qwilkis he hasse … to the forsaid William
1456 Hay II 108/6.
The kyndis of divers condiciounis of influences of the hevin quhilkis … steris all naturale thingis [etc.]
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 474.
Thir ar the thewis in party Quhilkis fullis oysis comonly
1486 Prot. Bk. J. Young I 13.
The throwgang and passag quhilkis is now wnbiggit
?a1500 Dewoit Exerc. heading.
In the honour of the … panis quhilkis our salluour … thollit
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 68/56.
I have insert in the hinder end … maist kyndis of versis quhilks are not … brokin
1596 Dalr. I 3/20.
Seing the tua partes quhilkes now ar vnder the impire of Ingland ar called [etc.]
1605 Douglas Bequest IV 22 May.
[The] luiff fawor and effectioun quhilkis I beir to him
1642 Melrose Reg. Rec. I 133.
For the richts … quhilks they have to the … fischings
(3) 1566 Inverness Rec. I 144.
For his kyndnes of the tact quhilkis he set him of the landis of Culcabok

d. With possess. noun or pron. antecedent, as subj. or obj. of a verb. c1420 Wynt. vii 620.
Willamys dochtyr, scho wes plesand, The quhilk be conqwest wan Ingland
1482–3 Acta Conc. II cvi.
Because he mariit without his consent quhilk is his ourlord
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 77.
The remanent of thair frendis quhilkis war murdrist be [etc.]

As the obj. of a preceding preposition. With e. non-personal and f. personal antecedents.e. uninfl. 1423 Haddington Corr. II 229.
The howse, in the qwilk Ion of Hornedene indwellyt
1456 Hay I 297/7.
That unhapp cummys to thes lands of quhilk the king is a barne
a1500 Henr. Test. Cress. 108.
Calchas … Wes keiper of the tempill … In quhilk Venus and … Cupido War honourit
1533 Gau 83/21.
Quhen he ramembers thay wordis with the quhilk he prayis
c1550-c1580 Art of Music 1b.
The long is ane figur of quhilk the lynth dois dubill the breid
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 145.
[She] placit the trwff in that same plaice owt of the quhilk scho twik it
1597 Acts IV 139/2.
[To] be execut at the mercat croce of the heid brught … of the saidis baillereis and steuartreis within the quhilk the saidis personis duellis
inflected 1381 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 4.
Of all othir landes [etc.] … with the apportenancez of the qwhilkes … hir spouse deid vestiit
?1438 Alex. ii 2526.
Thre thingis I pray thé nemmin heir Of quhilkis sum men in errour are
1439 Acts II 54/1.
The said princes … has ripely examinit … the motyuis be the quhilkis the foresaid personis war stirit to withdraw the foresaid liberte fra hir
1490 Irland Mir. I 90/3. c1520-c1535 Nisbet Matth. xi 20.
Than Jesus began to say repreef to citees in quhilkis ful mony virtues of him war done
f. uninfl. 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 33.
Of a nobil man to the quylk I am of kyn George of Douglas, Erle of Angous
Arundel MS 285/196.
Suithly ȝe ar the twa in the quhilk God … spiritualy biggit to him a hous
inflected 1398 Acts I 210/2.
He may at his lykyng gerre calle his officeris to the qwhilkis he hes giffyn commissioun and accuse thaim [etc.]
1533 Bell. Livy I 10/15.
Attoure thare was neuer pepil in quhilkis avarice … gat later intres
1573 Tyrie in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 29/3.
That ye ar of this prophetis, of the quhilkis S. Paull makis mentione

g. Governed by a following preposition, chiefly one coming after the verb.(1) ?14.. Ship Laws c. 27 (B).
Befor he hafe his fraucht of the gudys the qwhylkys thai ar in debate fore
1587–8 Cal. Sc. P. IX 541.
Againe that tyme quhilk I spack of to ȝow
1591 Wedderb. Compt Bk. 166.
Send with John Ogiluy to Flanderis the bres quhilk the armes wes on
(2) c1475 Wall. xi 947.
The tym was past by Off the promes the quhilk at he was bund

h. Followed by that, at. ?1438 Alex. ii Prol. 22.
To translait in Inglis leid Ane romains quhilk that I hard reid
1459 Laing Chart. 37.
Syndry unlawis amerciamentis … and deuteis quhilk at the saide Thomas is infallyn or inroun in oure courtis
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 307.
A thing I behald Quhilk that the goddis anis on me tald
c1500 Harl. MS 4700 fol. 281b.
Thir ar the resonis throu the quhilkis that ane lord or ane lady may … forfet thair tenend

8. pron. Introducing a ‘descriptive’ relative clause: Who, whom; which.i.e. a non-restrictive relative clause dependent on the antecedent and adding descriptive or necessary explanatory information concerning it (albeit the antecedent is fully identified in itself).In some examples the distinction between this and the following sense is difficult to make.

a. With pron. antecedent. 1513 Doug. i v 10.
O thou, … quhilk governys rewlis and steris Baith goddis and men be thyne etern empyre
Ib. vi i 110.
Thow quhilk direkkit the Troiane dartis so
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 149.
Eschapit nane bot sa mony as wer at the deliuerance of Sweno, quhilkis wer bot ten men in novmer, by the marynaris
1560 Rolland Seven S. 383.
Ane of thame said, quhilk namit was Craton, To his fellowis, sayand [etc.]

b. With personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb, also in the possess.uninfl. (1) a1400 Leg. S. vi 389.
In God fermly til trew, The quhilk in substance bot ane is [etc.]
Ib. ii 338. 1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 12.
Til wr lufd cosyn Dame Mergaret Steward … the qwilk we fand suiornand in the castel of Temptaloun the qwilk we haff nov in ward
c1420 Wynt. ix 551.
The sevynd Clemont … Made Maystyr Waltyr Traylle byschape, The qwhilk wes his famylyare
1429 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXXI 145.
Till a man cumyn fra the kyng to passe in the illis xij d. the qwilk is cald Betoun
1456 Hay I 37/10. c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 673.
That ane king Nicolas … was cum to littill Armenie … The quhilk was king of Percie and of Mede
c1475 Wall. vii 745.
Off ald Rukbe the quhilk we spak off ayr
Ib. ix 8. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 913.
We ar forbyddin be the Lord, The quhilk hes geuin ws lybertie Tyll eait of euery fruct and tre Quhilk growis in to Paradyse
1567 G. Ball. 172.
Geue Christ, the quhilk hes me redrest, Be on my syde
(2) c1420 Wynt. i 2.
In honowre of the ordrys nyne Off haly angelys the quhilk dywyne Scrypture lowys
(3) c1450-2 Howlat 374 (A).
Our souerane of Scotland his armes to knawe, Quhilk sall be lord … Our braid Brettane
1456 Hay I 11/35.
In the tyme of the Emperour Constantyne, quhilk was the first that dowit haly kirk
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 200.
Quha was blythar than the nobill quene Quhilk thus desauit wickidlie hes bene
c1475 Wall. ii 289,etc. a1500 Seven S. 617, etc. 1501 Treas. Acc. II 100.
To gif to Cipriane de Rege, quhilk com fra the Legait
1508 Reg. Privy S. I 253/2.
A respitt to Johne Flegeare, for the refe of ane mattok fra umquhill Robert Hude, quhilk had stollin the same fra him of befor
1513 Doug. i vi 67.
Ane husband, quhilk Sycheus hecht, had sche
1533 Bell. Livy II 166/2.
Ane Romane knycht, that was standard amang the statiounis … inquirit ane cieteȝane of Veos, quhilk was standand on the wall nocht fer fra him [etc.]
1540 Lynd. Sat. 2863 (Ch.).
Ane cavell quhilk was never at the scule Will … keip ane bischops mule
1548 Boyd Fam. P. No. 26 (6 Aug.).
Sen the deces of Thomas Colwill of Pemont quhilk decessit in the feild of Fawsyde
1555 Treas. Acc. X 299.
To … Snauldoun heroauld, quhilk passit to [etc.]
?1576 Buch. Wr. 57. Hume 11/7.
With you that haif wissit me to be ane Kentys man, quylk in a maner is ane centaure
1595 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. I 220.
Sett upone Georg Cloustouns rige be the said Georges man quhilk was making on his corne
(4) a1500 Henr. Fab. 597 (Bann.).
Tak witnes of the feindis infernall, Quhilk huntit war doun fro the hevinly hall
1508 Aberd. B. Rec. I 439.
[To] rid with Robert Huyid and Litile Johne, quhilk was callit, in yers bipast, Abbat and Prior of Bonacord
1530 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 43.
To Johne Turnour [etc.] … quhilk callis the hurle cartis
1533 Boece 45.
Thay suld invaid the victouris quhilk wery war and irkit in fecht
c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 19.
Sum of campiounis and of knichtis … Quhilk vailȝeandlie did stand in stour
1554 Duncan Laideus Test. 167.
I leif vnto thé Deyne Dignitie … With greit attendance quhilk he sal not mis
1571 Cal. Sc. P. IV 52.
[To] have present money to the paiment of the men of weir quhilk alreddy wantis a monethis pay
inflected (1) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 999.
[The] wemen … The quhilkes frome gyrnes of ded Ware eschaped
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxiv 10.
Or ellis of virginite, The quhilkis mast dygne is of the thre [virtues]
(3) 1456 Hay I 211/27.
For efter the condicioun of the peple quhilkis ar sum wele, sum evill inclynde, sum wald [etc.]
1466 Acta Aud. 4/1.
Of the eschete of Nevin McKilroy [etc.] … quhilkis was justifijt in the justice aris of Wigtoune
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 222.
Nixt hir raid … Twelf damisellis … Quhilks semit of hir counsell maist secre
1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 271.
Vther sindry infinitt pepill come with him on thair auentouris, quhilkis had bot small insycht at hayme
1549 Compl. 27/8.
That the cruel Inglis men, quhilkis ar boreaus ande hang men [etc.] …, that thai ar [etc.]
c 1566 Fife Sheriff Ct. 406. Pitsc. I 24/29.
Thair clerk seriand and dempstar quhilkis ar the principall memberis of court
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 66/2.
Nor ȝit to curious folks, quhilks carping dois deiect thee
(4) 1496 Acta Conc. II 38.
Of art and part of the slauchter of umquhile Dyonyse of Hammyltoun quilkis was slane on Mydsummer evin
possess. 1573 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 761.
As schiref principale … to quhilkis iurisdictioun the maist pairt of the saidis complenaris are subiect

c. With non-personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb.Also, in accounts, with the ‘antecedent’ following the relative clause.uninfl. (1) 1402 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 9.
Of the landis of the Cragtoune the qvhilk is callyt Cragmaile … the qvhilk is nw the saide Katerinys
c1420 Wynt. ix 2716.
That fest fell on Palm Sonday, The quhilke before Pasch fallis ay
1461 Liber Plusc. I 395. c1475 Wall. vi 18.
His lusty payne the quhilk I spak off ayr
1506 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. I 250.
My goldin chenȝe, the quhilk is callit ane collar
1513 Doug. iv ii 2, etc. 15.. Dum Wyf 38.
Vnder hir toung thow lay Of qwaiken espin leif The quhilk betaiknis wound
1560 Rolland Seven S. 9721.
Than Alexander quha was laitlie deposit Fra his kingdome the quhilk he suld haue josit Hard tell [etc.]
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 475.
The steppis he saw … The quhilk neirhand ane thousand ware
1458 Peebles B. Rec. I 130.
A gra gon and a red bonet, the qwilk scho coft at John Smayl
c1475 Wall. iii 92.
1566 Canongate Kirk S. (ed.) 91.
To lern the Lordis prayer, the beleif and commandmentis, the quhilk he is ignorant and promiset to lern
1567 G. Ball. 15.
Dum ceremoneis, the quhilk thame self hes maid, And wowis vaine, quhilk thay did neuer keip
(3) 1456 Hay I 213/14.
Burgone, quhilk was than callit a realme, and callit the king ryke of Burgoyne
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 232.
Thai think and wyllis al gudlynes, Quhilk in thar hart euir rutyt vas
1461 Liber Plusc. I 336.
This rewm, quhilk was in poynt to be tynt and vndone for falt of gouernance
1484 Acta Aud. 138*/1.
The wrangwis withhalding fra him of a croce present cow, quhilk he deliuerit him in keping
1508 Treas. Acc. IV 127.
To the king quhilk he kest to the pure folkis x s.
1533 Boece 416b.
The king … repressing his ire, quhilk eftirwart was to isch, sufferit the barouns depart
1549 Compl. 67/7.
I sau the vattir lille quhilk is ane remeid contrar gomoria
1568 Mary in Ellis Orig. Lett. i Ser. II (1824) 253.
ȝe schal si my bel vhuilk is opne
1576 Orkney Oppress. 44.
At the last Lawting haldin in Scalloway, quhilk is the heid court of the cuntrie
c 1588 Cath. Tr. 256/20.
1596 Dalr. II 361/10.
Bot in this parleament quhilk rather we may say negleget nor forȝet this als is to be noted
1609 Rep. Hist. MSS, Varr. Coll. V 113.
Excuse my hemlines, vhilk procedis of love
1624 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 139.
Going in ȝour seller, quhilk was dungeon mirk
1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I 311.
That ye ar mindfull of the old freyndship qhilk for many ages past hes beine inviolablie keipit
1641 Sc. N. & Q. i Ser. XII 59.
The nixt Setterday qlk wes the thrid of July wes the sermon of preparation befoir the next Sabothe qlk wes the Communion day
1668 Melrose Reg. Rec. II 199.
His removeing from Melros … , quhilk was at Lambass 1667
(4) 1422 Thanes of Cawdor 10.
Fourti markeȝ … quhilk Wilyame the Haye, your fadir, wes oblisit to pay to us of the quhilk we quitcleme you … be … thir lettris, to the quhilk our seele we haf gert beput
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 123.
And al vthire maner of wykit werkis and wykyt folk quhilk was all bot … afflixione of spreit in this lyf
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2576.
Ma than thre thousand schipis passit he thair Quhilk ilkane haid ane hunder men and mare
c1475 Wall. xi 268.
The worschip, and the gret nobilnace, Off hym, quhilk sprang that tym in mony place
1531 Bell. Boece I xxxvi.
Blak stanis, quhilk hes sa intollerable heit quhen thay ar kendillit
1541 Treas. Acc. VII 448.
For litting of xij elnis blak quhilk wes raid vj s.
c1590 Fowler I 229/11. c1650 Spalding I 3.
Stey the tempests that ws all afray, Quhilk haithe our nighbours dround
inflected (1) c 1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1.
The landys before sayde the qvylkys the forsayde Alayne bocht fra the forsayde Thomas
1398 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 38.
For als mykil as thair hes ben mony … attemptatz done … the qwhilkis ar vnredressit to this tyme the reformacion of the qwhilkis requer gret laiser … the qwhilkis the said commissairs ne may noght … at this tyme … ger be refourmyd … it is accordit [etc.]
1439 Acts II 54/2.
Scho has … assignit to the said Schir Alexander … iiijm markis … the whilkis war assignit to hir be the said thre estatis and for the same caus
1456 Hay I 41/26.
Voultouris, the quhilkis lyfis bot on dede caryouns of bestis
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 437.
Thir megir bellis … in sound the quhilks excellis
(2) c1460 Regim. Princ. 226 (Maitl.).
Quhen dome is gevin and richtwous iudgement Quhilkis clarkis callis iustice iudicatiue
c1460 Consail Vys Man 234.
Fle langour and ydilnes Quhilkis bringis disspar and hevynes
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 79.
Thy mirth refreschis byrdis in thair nestis Quhilks thé to prise and nature neuer restis
1513 Treas. Acc. IV 489.
To hir, jm corf keling quhilkis was gevin be my lord secretar
1533 Bell. Livy I 256/2.
The residew of the saidis gudis, quhilkis had na iuste awnaris, war sald
1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 243.
Or this gret arttalȝery war had away quhilkis was thar haill hoip … of deffence
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 231.
Thair [at Leith they] maid thair mustouris, quhilkis extendit to iijc men or thairby
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 21/47.
a1605 Montg. Sonn. xi 10.
1641–2 Misc. Spald. C. V 106.
For printing of the thessus of the college … quhilkis are dedicat to the magistrattis
a1650 Row 123.
The bukes of the Assemblie, all quhilkis I had preserved hole

d. With possess. noun or pron. antecedent, as subj. or obj. of a verb.(1) c1450-2 Howlat 393 (A).
Thar armes of ancestry honorable ay, Quhilk oft blythit the Bruse in his distres
1513 Doug. i Prol. 265.
Traste on na wys at this my wark be sich, Quhilk dyd my best, as the wyt mycht atteyn
1560 Rolland Seven S. 2350.
My motheris mayd scho come and fetchit me, Quhilk lyis richt seik
(2) a1500 Henr. Fab. 1638 (Bann.).
Manis saule is lyke ane bakkis ee, Quhilk lurkis still as lang as lycht of day is

As the obj. of a preceding preposition, with e. personal and f. non-personal antecedents.
e. c1420 Wynt. ix 459.
Twa thowsand armyd men, Off quhilk aucht hundyr knychtis war
1570 Leslie 211.
Horsmen of chosin men, of the quhilkis thair wes iij hundreth albernattis [etc.]
f. uninfl. (1) 1456 Hay I 24/34.
The dignitee imperiale in the quhilk was in thai dais Henry the thrid the quhilk at all his power sustenyt the fals pape
1490 Irland Mir. I 6/7.
In the perdicioune of the fif citeis, of the quhilk was Sodome and Gomore
1558 Q. Kennedy Tractive 101.
The heale and universale congregatioun unit togidder in ane faith … to the quhilk Christ is the hede
1581 Hamilton Facile Tr. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 220/19.
Christs halie Catholik kirk, out of the quhilk thair is na saluation
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 2498.
The ioy that lufe can geif, In quhilk we se thir luferis leif
1531 Bell. Boece I 18.
[Fergus' banner] in quhilk wes ane reid lioun rampand
inflected 1488 Red Bk. Grandtully I 171*.
Be thir our present lettres, to the quhilkis we haff appenssyt our sell
1490 Irland Mir. II 62/18.
The werkis of grace be the quhilkis we life spiritually
1531 Bell. Boece II 497.
Sindry riche and precious hingaris, in quhilkis war the history of Hercules, maist curiusly wrocht
1596 Dalr. I 116/9.
Or throuch lettiris, to quhilkes thay haue applyet thair studie
1581 Hamilton Facile Tr. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 230/35.
Be his scriptures, the declaration of the whilks he hes committit to [etc.]

g. As the obj. of a preposition placed after the verb. 1574 Hist. Kinloss A. 96.
— In the Lard of Vdnies handis for his landis of Chapeltoun quhilk no payment is maid of, iiij b.
1596 Dalr. I 12/12.
Ganging about the coste of Anandale, quhilke the hiland seyes flowis till
1650–1 Misc. Spald. C. V 175.
55 lib., for Patrik Leith's man, quhilk he sould have payit for

h. Followed by at, that, with personal and non-personal antecedents.(1) a1400 Leg. S. Prol. 88.
Scho saw hou the Iouys ded Vith hyme that scho of body bare, The quhilk that scho saw pynit thare
c1475 Wall. iv 108.
With trew Scottis quhilk all his freindis war
a1500 Seven S. 2711.
I am your son the quhilk that ye Forsuth kest in to the se
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 673.
O wod blindnes, the quhilk that blind so maid The Iowis ene
1535 Stewart 57466.
The freir, the quhilk that wes ane Inglisman
(2) c1475 Wall. x 625.
Be south Manwell quhilk that thai war betweyn
a1500 Seven S. 2422.
With clething … Quhilk that he brocht with him our se
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 1408.
To the fadiris, quhilk in the lymbe that lay
(3) 1513 Doug. x x 46.
Syne … Antheus and Lycas, Quhilkis that of Turnus first ward ledaris was, Persewys he

9. pron. Introducing a ‘resumptive’ relative clause: Who, whom; which.i.e. a non-restrictive relative clause which follows, or, occas., is parenthetically included in, that which contains the antecedent, relating a subsequent incident, or stating an additional proposition, concerning the antecedent, the clause containing the antecedent being already complete in sense without this subsequent clause; thus serving as a co-ordinating rather than a subordinating conjunction, equivalent to ‘And (for) the latter’, ‘and (for) he, him, that etc.’, initiating a new sentence.

a. With pron. antecedent.uninfl. 1425–6 Aberd. B. Rec. (S.H.S.) cxxxv, n. 3.
The balye sperit how thai fand of the fyrste tenement qwhilk ansuerit we fynd Williame Lame hafand ful rycht
And than the balye sperit of the tother tenement qwhilk ansuerit [etc.]
Brus xviii 225 (C).
Iohne Mawpas till the king had it [Gib Harper's head] Quhilk he resauit [E. And he ressawyt it] in gret dayntee
1601 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 184.
He … saw the forme of it [sc. a spirit], quhilk wes lyke ane litill bodie … cled in quhyt lening
1562-3 Winȝet I 89/26.
inflected Gif ȝe affirm that he did sua, Ȝe failȝe ȝour selfis, quhilkis keipis nocht ane iot of all thre

b. With personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb.uninfl. (1) 1400 Facs. Nat. MSS II liii.
That I am gretly wrangit be the Duc of Rothesay the quhilk spousit my douchter and now [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. i 1430.
Off hym come Reyne that gat Boe, The quhilk wes fadyr tyll Toe
1424 Acts II 8/2.
Gif the juge refusis to do the law evinly … the party plenȝeand sall haf recours to the king the quhilk sall se rygorusly punyst sic jugis
1456 Hay I 26/31.
To geve thame [sc. the worthiest clerics] the maist notable … beneficis … The quhilk [Pope Urban V] gert alssua tak up the hedis of Sanct Petir [etc.]
Ib. 231/4.
He … arrestit him prisoner, the quhilk he askis to be adjugit till him as his prisounar
a1500 Seven S. 575. 1533 Gau 48/21.
Bot thair come ane starker na the dewil …, Iesus Christ, the quhilk … distroyit the kingdome of the dewil
(2) 14.. Burgh Laws c. 60 (A).
The criouris … salbe chosyn comonly of al the burges the quhilk salbe leil and of gude fame and thai sal suer fewte [etc.]
Brus iii 365 (1571).
[The king … That bot [twa hunder] with him had] The quhilk thame weill gouernit ay [E. The-quhethir thaim weill confortyt he ay]
(3) 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 287.
And send us this good with ane honest burges of your awin quhilk sall hawe saif conduyeit
c1460 Consail Vys Man 216.
For thow may tell it till a frend Quhilk eftyr may be vnkend And chang his loue
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2683 (Bann.).
Thair suld no man … His aduersar puneis at his awin hand … Quhilk suld haif leif to mak lawchfull defens
1491 Kennedy Aberd. Ann. II 4.
The haill chaptour sale chois ane writar, quhilk sal be suorne to writ the falts and present thame [etc.]
c1515 Asl. MS I 201/7.
He callit Willam his bastard son, quhilk grantit to gang
1533 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 409.
The Erle of Ergile is Generall Justice quhilk is nocht juge competent
15.. Clar. iv 270.
Ane squyer … saw this lustie sort, Whilke home is went, and of it maid reporte
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 99.
The said Erle Bothwell … quhilk offerit himself reddy to underly the tryall
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I 100.
And quhow sein the woman spak of God, that ewill spreit vaniest away … quhilk scho saw nocht agane
(4) 1517 Fife Sheriff Ct. 68.
The schireffis foirsaid gert cast wp the said inquest quhilk wes chosin & suorne in the schiref court … of the quhilkis the names followis
Gau 104/6. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 2440.
Quhilk alsua thinkkis nay scheyme to cal thayme selff vicars of Christ
c1590 Fowler II 135/11.
To the which rebellings … his auen armye did associat themselfs; whilk …, seing him so far spoyled of al mens favour, put him gallantlye to death
inflected (1) a1400 Leg. S. ii 203.
To thre knychttis thane wes he tawcht … The quhilkis … Praide hym [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. ii 428.
Figuris off men he made alsua, The quhylkis he gart be craftis ga
1456 Hay I 48/17.
With the power of othir thre kingis with thame, the quhilkis he vencust
1503 Aberd. B. Rec. (S.H.S.) lxxxvii.
Thair salbe xxiiij of the best nychtburis of the towne chosing … to soit one acctions belangand the … comoun profit to the towne … the quhilkis the namys ar under writting
1529 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 98.
This inquest … fyndis Valter Scot in Hanyng [etc.] … abyll and laufull to be burges, the quhilkis hes deponit [etc.]
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 370.
He bare first armes, and … With-held the lordis sonnes of the land, Quhilkis seruit him with fute and hand
1425–6 Aberd. B. Rec. (S.H.S.) cxxxv, n. 3.
Alexander Hepburne … sperit at the sayde assyse gife thai war accordyt qwilkis ansuerit ya
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 1064.
Quhow ȝe haif maid a hundreth thousand huris, Quhilkis neuir hade bene, war not ȝour lychorus luris
c1550 Id. Meldrum 70.
[They were] Of nobilnes lineallie discendit, Quhilks thair gude fame hes euer defendit
1570 Sat. P. x 278.
Than did sum lords lyft vp thair hornis on hie Quhilks did withstand ȝour kingis authoritie
1593 St. A. Kirk S. 760.
The ane half removit sall chuis the uther half thairof, quhilkis ar also chosin and dividit
(3) 1489 Acts II 221/1.
That thare be a dekkyn of craft of goldsmythis quhilkis sall exeme the said werk
1586 Misc. Spald. C. IV 235.
On the other pairt … for myself [etc.] … to the said nobill lord [the Earl of Huntly] … quhilkis I promeis of lawtie, etc. to serue

c. With non-personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb.uninfl. (1) 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
The qwhilk skathis our lege lorde the kynge … has … chargit me til aske … redresse tharof the qwhilk my deputis has askyte at dayis of marche & nane has gotyne
c1420 Wynt. viii 3188.
In till Wygtown he gert set A jwstry, the qwhilk he held but let
1451 11th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. vi 26.
Sertan sum of siluer and golde the qhuelk I deliuerit til hyme
1456 Hay I 48/21, 22, 23.
Quhare thare was a dragoun grete and felloun, the quhilk held in lenth sex score of futis, the quhilk … had slayn mony peple …, the quhilk that consul of Rome faucht with and slew it
Ib. 63/36.
Bot held the letter in his hand unred … the quhilk had he red he had savit his lyf
Ib. 257/23.
It is forbodyn … that ony man suld be witnes in his awin cause, the quhilk he ingeris him to be that wagis bataill
1457 Peebles B. Rec. I 125.
1468 Smit Bronnen I ii 1019.
There is now a parlement to be haldyn at Edynburch … the qwhylk wyll be off mony materis
1494 Loutfut MS 109b.
That ȝow has committit sic a tressonable ded … the quhilk gif thow denyis I tak apon me to preif it apon thé
1533 Gau 107/3.
The vangel is the ministratione of liff the quhilk rasis and quiknis ȝour fleyit conscience
1533 Bell. Livy II 180/28.
In the mene time come legatis … desiring peace, the quhilk was grantit be Romanis mare for resting of thare ciete … than [etc.]
1597 Skene Verb. S. s.v. Cro. a1605 Montg. Misc. P. iii 71.
The vhilk
Ib. lii 45.
The quhilk
1635 Glasgow Chart. I ii 356.
The quhilk will be grait chairgis and expenssis to the said college
(2) 1389 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 18.
The foresaid William sall restore [10 oxen etc.] … to the foirsaid abbotis men … the quhilk war wrangusly tane … and ȝit with the foresaid William resettit
c1420 Wynt. iii 833.
Bot he gert all rawe be lewyde The twa handys and the hewide The quhilk he gert the fadyr se
1533 Gau 3/20.
Thay reknit mony foul … sinnis in thayme [certain books] the quhilk mony guyd men … kneu neuer of befor
1535 Stewart 37092.
The landis of Erroll, … The quhilk his airis brukis ȝit this da
1600-1610 Melvill 135.
The wordis of consolation, the quhilk he gaped for as a gorbet
(3) 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 287.
That ye … len us a certain portioun of your propir guidis. … Quhilk we sal gar be allowit to you
1466 Acta Aud. 3/2.
Nochtwithstanding the letter of balȝere … made til him be [etc.] … quhilk thai decern of na vale becaus the gifar tharof is deide
1492 Myll Spect. 287/6.
Federa … was sa lechorus that scho requyrit hir sone in law … of luf, quhilk he denyet saying [etc.]
1513 Doug. i i 51.
For Iupiter … Maid him his butler, quhilk was hir douchteris office
1579 Reg. Privy C. III 215.
Ryding upoun ane meir, quhilk … chancit to de
1584 Cal. Sc. P. VII 57.
Ane letter inclosit from Ester Wemes qwicke I haif noct resavit
1591 Dysart Rec. 41.
He pt. 6 sh. viii to the puir qlk was (given) that sam day to Magie Iak
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 173.
Ye man do a litill thing for me at this tyme, and I sall do als mekill for yow agane, quhilk is this
1602 Davidson Three Reformers 154.
1638 T. Hope Diary v.
And I am effrayit to think of the feirfull consequence of it quhilk can be no les nor the … ruyne of this poor countrey
1651 J. M. Beale Fife Schools 149.
For the said defunct 5 lib. 13 s. 4 d. whilk payes his wholle debtes
1657 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 140.
Another tyme he saw a whyte broddit book in his hand, quhilk he took out his hand and saw it printed at Rome
1693 Answ. Presb. Eloq. 79.
He would read the sixth chapter of St. John to them, whilk, says he, is better than twa of it [his sermon]
(4) c1450-2 Howlat 296 (A). c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 18.
He gaf thir lordis belyve the letteris to luke, Quhilk the riche emprioure … Ressauit with honour
1561–2 Ayr B. Acc. 134.
The dependentis [are] the townes, quhilk he sal do his diligence in ingadryng
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 6 (W).
The merle, the maveis, may be seine [etc.] … Quhilk caussit me to stay
inflected (1) Wynt. iii 893.1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I 7.
Bot thare wes cyteis syndry That [etc.] … The quhilkys in to Cyrus dayis Payid noucht [etc.]
1456 Hay I 25/12.
For all cristyn folk ar callit sternis … the quhilkis in the … scismes beforesaid was all … in obscuritee of scisme
1499 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 101.
Anens the lyneyne betuix him and Margrat Stewart … and the lyneyne stabes set betuix thame and the quhilkis teyne awaye and hes bigit apone his grownd the quhilk sho awcht nocht til adowne
1611 Reg. Panmure I xxviii.
Of the landis of Lukland and Hedderweik … the quhilkis he did ather sel or vodset
(2) 1494 Loutfut MS 12a.
Nyn thingis ar in armorie quhilkis ar nombrit ilkane be ane
1535–6 Perth Guildry 199 (7 Feb.).
Extendin to thretten merkis quhilkis thai fund pait
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus Prol. 10.
The planetis aspectis and complexiounis … Quhilkis ar thir four
1569 Facs. Nat. MSS III lix.
Dyvers gret impedimentis … quhilkis gif thay haid bene knawin to ws wald haif maid lett
1580 Hay in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 37/11.
Skinnars and wther artisans … begouth to teache the people, … some Inglishe buikes, quhilks skairslie thay wnderstude thame selwes
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 10/11.
Fra tyme that onis thy sell The vapouris softlie sowkis … Whilks syne in cloudds are keiped closs
1573-1600 King Cat. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 203/22.
Iulius Cæsar reconed the yere to haiff 10 min. 44 secondis mair thane the iust cowrse of the sone, quhilkis in 134 yeres makis ane day
1668 Dunkeld Presb. I 204.
As alsoe to pey the Provest his expenses deburst be him anent the said Mr. William, whilks sall be allowit to him

d. With the antecedent in the possess. case, as subj. or obj. of a verb. 1450 Smit Bronnen I 880.
As oure singulare confidence is in ȝoure said cosinaige, quhilk the Haly Gast ever kepe

As the obj. of a preposition which precedes the relative, with e. personal and f. non-personal antecedents. Also g. with preposition following, usually after the verb.e. c1420 Wynt. ix 459.
Wyth twa thowsand armyd men, Off quhilk aucht hundyr knychtis war
1493 Dunferm. B. Rec. 43.
And atour the saidis parteis has consentit to ches four personis [etc.] … of the quhilkis thar names folowis
1549 Compl. 124/18.
The lauberaris ar ane notabil membyr of ane realme, vitht out the quhilk the nobillis & clergie can nocht sustene ther stait
1570 Sat. P. x 13.
Than come Dame Dreming … With sweyning nymphis … Amangis the quhilkis befoir me thair appeiris Ane woundit man
1600-1610 Melvill 263.
Young berdles men, … houngered, to the quhilk … keall, pattage, and fische was giffen
f. uninfl. (1) 1391 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 3.
xxxii mark off syluer off the quhilk he has payit hym xi mark in his hand
1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 287.
To the quhilk ye give firme credence in oure name
c1420 Wynt. i 690.
Thare ar monstrys mony sere Off the quhilk are nane sene here
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 21.
The fragrant flouris … Ouirspred the leuis of natures tapestreis; Abone the quhilk … The birdis sat on twystis and on greis
1567–8 Crim. Trials I i 492.
Through force of the quhilk, the said haill lugen wes … blawin in the air
1568 Skeyne Descr. Pest 15.
For inlaik of the quhilk [medical assistance], … the tirane … slayis sonest
1576 Orkney Oppress. 49.
The Duchemenis can [etc.] … for the full of the quhilk thay tak [etc.]
1589-1600 Skipper's Acc. (Morton) 6ab.
Of the quhelk I haue boroet fra Adem Reye to laid ȝour part that ȝe wareit [etc.]
1615 Crim. Trials III 358.
He … drew ane knyfe … with the quhilk he strak [etc.]
1640 Dundonald Par. Rec. 458.
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 2035.
The Bauderane [etc.] … Come in the chalmer, of quhilk the wall Of gold clenely was pantit all
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1184.
Ane certane breid … Thow aw the doig, off quhilk the terme is gone
a1500 Quare Jel. 383.
Of stories olde the quhich I lat oure go … Amongis quhilk we fynd [etc.]
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (O.U.P.) vi 22.
Exercing vicis ever … For quhilk allace I servit to be schent
1531 Bell. Boece I lvi.
Ane gret vessell wrocht full of butter [etc.] … be quhilk thay saiffit thair liffis mony dayis
1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 57.
I resavit Marinus Scotus, of quhylk I thank you greatly
inflected (1) 1447 Rec. Earld. Orkney 189.
Till haff bene at kownt … with … my full brothir, off all my faddir eritage, off the quhilkis he hasse gyffyn me lele kownt
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1734.
Amang the quhilks ane swallow loud couth cry
1494 Treas. Acc. I 245. Doug. xi ii 23.
In the quhilk tyme thar is xxviij wolkis; of the quhilkis thar is to be falkyte twa wolkis of the tyme of ȝowle [etc.]
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 67.
That the sepulturis of nobill men wer haldin in reuerence, on the quhilkis wer engravit ymagerijs
1559 Aberd. B. Rec. I 316. Fowler II 57/37.
The sklayttis, tymmir [etc.] … upoun the quhilks he culd nocht continewally await
(2) 1456 Hay I 112/30.
It is spedefull … to wit the propertee of the foundement of the bataill. Off quhilkis thare is twa [etc.]
1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 77.
Justice and equitie; For laik of quhilks my heid dois wark and ȝaik
1596 Dalr. I 327/25.
With thir conditiounis of peace … for quhilkes all, Henrie sulde pay nathing … bot ane athe
g. (1) 1398 Acts I 211/1.
And thar apon to gif lettres wnder the kyngis grete seel owtakand remissioun the qwhilke he sal write to the kyng fore
?1438 Alex. ii 39.
That he desyred na mair honour Bot Babilon, … The quhilk his ȝarning maist was in
1662 Soc. Ant. XXII 221.
Ye confesst … Sathan … desired you to be his servant, whilk ye willingly condescended unto
(2) 1533 Gau 104/9.
The first is ingnorance of the wangel to the quhilk thay haiff giffine na cuir to … bot to thair awne tradicions the quhilk thay haiff maid to hald wp thair kingdome [etc.]
1562 Inverness Rec. I 80.
And allegit thair was diuerse gudis and jowelis [etc.] … wyth the quhilkis the saidis Margret Waus intromettit wyth and is omittit onput in [etc.]

h. In accounts, introducing a clause which anticipates its antecedent. 1501 Treas. Acc. II 83.
Giffin to Andro Aytoun quhilk wes deliverit to him be Schir Hari Schaw vij li. x s.
Ib. 95, etc. 1565 Edinb. Old Acc. I 51.
Takin in my awin hand, quhilk I awancit and lenth, xxli.

i., j. Where the antecedent is a fact, circumstance or action stated or alluded to, or a question or request posed, in the immediate (chiefly, preceding) context.i. As subject or object of a verb. j. As the obj. of a preceding preposition.i. uninfl. (1) 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58.
[I am] in grete auenture to be heely reprovit the qwilk is wele kennyt to me
Ib. No. 59.
Yhour men of Inglande … has heryde Lawadyr dalle [etc.] … the qwhilke at the makynge of thir letteris was tholyt & nocht don tharfor
1486 Maxwell Mem. I 198.
The quhilk to ȝou to do … I commytte my full power irreuocabylye be thir letters
a1500 Bk. Chess 663.
Baith hous and all suld at his will be led The quhilk he hicht & richt so scho it wrocht
?a1500 Remembr. Passion 331.
The quhilk gif I do is dampnacioun to my saule
1519 Fife Sheriff Ct. 150.
The quhilk he alutraly denyit
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 20.
To desire thi hienes lang on lyve the quhilk mott grant the gracious God
1536 Haddington B. Rec. in Mill Mediæv. Plays 250.
That Ihon Ryklynton [etc.] … wes choissyn to be abbot off wnresson the quhilk thai all thre forsuk
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xcvii 83.
Quhone that the ane the vther wraikis The quhilk will not be done lychtlie
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 133.
The quhilk I did
a1578 Pitsc. I 158/33.
Imedeatlie the quhilk was done at his desyre
1580 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXI 142.
Bot … ȝour serwand vald nocht to me the quhilk had he done I suld haiff gewyn hym ane better counsall
(2) ?1438 Alex. ii 10129.
He had bene deid, na war the brand Turnit ane lytill in his hand, Quhilk sauit him
c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 259.
And quhat profet has he of the remanent [sc. of his possessions] bot at … [they] ar callit his, quhilk is gret vanite and afflixone of spreit, quhilk is an of the werst in the erde?
c1475 Wall. ii 293. 1503–4 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 98.
Quhilk gif thai slip than to pertene to the towne hac vice
a1538 Abell 59a.
Ordinand at nane suld be resaifit in thai religios placis to the abet bot Scottis men quhilk is kepit ȝit in sum of thame
?1544 Corr. M. Lorraine 86.
Quhilk he objeckit and wald nocht do as yit …, quhilk is grit hurt … to me the want therof
c1550 Lynd. Test. Meldrum 3.
Iob … trewlie did report, Quhilk I persaue now be experience, That mennis lyfe in eirth bene wounder short
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1635.
Bot by all this, he purposit, quhilk was wors, My awin lady … to defors
a1578 Pitsc. I 30/14.
And pairtlie quhilk was maist appeirand to be trew was the verie wraith of God
1597 Crim. Trials II 25.
Quhilk was done
1602 Dundonald Par. Rec. 26.
Johne Dickie caist vp his sowrd … and kepit the straik thairon quhilk cutit the staf
1614 Fraserburgh Kirk S. fol. 29a (13 Feb.).
That of his peitis sum ar markit and sum onmarkit quhilk wes thocht to be ane schift
1617 Mar & Kellie MSS Suppl. 78.
The xi of Julie Pitmillie randrit his spreit, quike was no litle greife to us all
1626 Cochran-Patrick Coinage II 74.
To bring this matter to some goode conclusioun whilk lookeing assuredlie your lordshipis will do we committ your lordship to God
1654 Ellon Par. Rec. 143.
Three windows one for Kermuckes window within, another for [etc.] …, quhilk in all maks 38 foote
1677 Glasgow B. Rec. III 229.
Quhilk may be … hazardsoume to old people and bairnes
1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 304.
The tyke … was … interrogat, whither he wold take the Test … whilk was asked again and again
1687 Craven Ch. in Orkney 118.
Quhelk if he doe not
inflected (1) 1456 Hay I 111/24.
Bot he sais nocht … that he bad Sanct Petir put away his suerd, bot bad him put it up in the scheth, the quhilkis signyfyis that he wald it war kepit for the tyme tocum
1459 Peebles B. Rec. I 134.
And sayde thai iiij s. of anwell was the Rudis and nocht Our Ladis … the quhylkys was fundyn of befor be the eldest and of the best [etc.]
?a1500 Remembr. Passion 463.
Grant me tobe party in the keiping of thi commandementis and … ay keip and cherice haill; the quhilkis betaiknis thi coit that wes nocht brokin
1510 Glasgow Dioc. Reg. II 390.
The quhilk wrang the said Alane denyit: The quhilkis wes referrit to the inquest suorne in presens of the partyis
(2) 1456 Hay II 33/23.
Knychthede suld defend all … wrangis, …; quhilkis gif thai do nocht … thai ar contrarius to thair ordre
c 1500 Halyb. xxiii.
I sal nocht corrup or hais not corrupit [etc.] … quhilkis I sweir
1597–8 Misc. Spald. C. I 120.
And this thow did in the Manis of Innes, in the Manis of Caddell, and in dyvers vtheris places, quhilkis thow confessis thy self
j. uninfl. (1) 1391 Acts I 216/2.
To the qwhilk … the kyng answerit saiand [etc.]
1398 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 38.
To the fulfillyng of the qwhilk the erle of the Marche … is oblist [etc.]
1424 Cambuskenneth Let. to Jas. I (Reg. H.).
Of the qwilk we ar richt heli reiosit
1440 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 395.
Yn the vittenes of the quhilk the said Wilyhame has procurit [etc.]
c 1466–80 Letter from Lord Hamilton MS.
For the quhilk I besek ȝour ladischip … at ȝhe walde [etc.]
1542 Reg. Cupar A. II 208.
For the quhilk and his seruice, he sall haue dailie … ane ait laif
a1585 Polwart Flyt. 710 (T). 1588 Aberd. Council Lett. I 25.
Be the quhilk [action] he is adiugeit be the said assysis to haif tint his burgesschip
1625 Justiciary Cases I 30.
And in maner foirsaid thay haif committed manifest falset and for the whilk … thay … aucht … be pwneist as committeris of thift
(2) 1531 Bell. Boece I lv.
Thay disjunit airly … with smal refectioun … throw quhilk thair stomok was nevir surfetly chargit
inflected (1) 1412 Facs. Nat. MSS II lxii.
In witnes of the whilkis this presentis lettres we wrate [etc.]
1436 Coll. Aberd. & B. 394.
The quhilk letter of pouer rede the saide lorde constabil vp stude … and saide that [etc.] … apon the quhilkis he schiev his processe …, apon the quhilkis the forsaide lorde … requirit me … to giff knawlagis [etc.]
1487 Reg. Paisley 272.
Anent the quhylkis we discharge yow of [etc.]
1531–2 Dunferm. Reg. Ct. 52.
Efter the quhilks
1540 Aberd. B. Rec. I 169.
On the queilks they tuk nott
c1590 Fowler II 49/21.
In the quhilkes na vther thing was fund, bot that quhilk did abrogate the hail autority of [etc.]
(2) 1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 127.
Thro quhilk rais a consuetude … to burn the dede bodijs of quhilkis mony signis apperis ȝite in thir dais

k. Where the relative pron. is the subject or object of a present or past participle or participial phrase, the participial clause constituting the equivalent of a finite adverbial clause of time, cause, condition etc., dependent on the following main clause.uninfl. 1433 Raine N. Durham App. 63.
The quilk sworne, etc., determynd the said priour maynis … to be fre … of all men
1533 Boece 431.
The fische, quhilk corrupting apon the sand, be pestilent fleure infekkit the are
1596 Dalr. I 163/29.
She cumis to Epiak … quhilke suddenlie invadeng sche esilie obteines
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I 95.
Alledging scho was awand thé xx schillingis, quhilk being refuisit, thow promeist hir that [etc.]
1622-6 Bisset II 221/12.
Quhilk beand done
16.. Rudiments fol. 14b.
What is ane adverb. P. A pairt of orisone, vndeclinable, quhilk being set or cast to a verb [etc.] … perfects the … sense of it
inflected 1408 Facs. Nat. MSS II lxi.
The quhilkis [heirs] al failland … to the neirest … ayris of the saide Schyr Gilbert quhat evir thai be
1424 Dumbarton B. Rec. App. ii 1.
The quhilks considerande and ȝarnande the fredome of bath the burws to be suppleit
1426 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 202.
1562 Inverness Rec. I 80.
As the said adict mair fullelie proportis quhilkis beand red in jugement comperit Schir James Buchert [etc.]
1691 Nairne Peerage Evidence (1873) 132.
Whilks [heirs] failȝieing

l. Where the relative pron. is followed in the relative clause by a personal or demonstrative or other pron. which pleonastically or in clarification reinforces the relative pron. 1456 Hay I 60/16.
Here spekis the storye of Julius Cesar, the quhilk, for his mekle noblesse, thre worthi princis come till him
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 283.
?a1500 Steel Roy Robert 99.
The ferd conquest approchit fast Off the bastarde of Normandie Quhilk conqueist Ingland halelie Quhilk ȝit amangis ȝow ringis thair blude
1549 Compl. 21/36.
The quhilk passis humaine ingyne to comprehende the grounde … of it
1560 Rolland Seven S. 232.
Seuin wysest men … Quhilkis in learning all vther thay preuaill In all wisdome [etc.]
Ib. 9964.
His twa ȝoung sonnis incontinent he sla The quhilkis his wife at ane burding them bair
1567 G. Ball. 1.
Thay wil soner consaue the trew word, nor quhen thay heir it sung in Latine, the quhilks thay wait not quhat it is
a1578 Pitsc. I 197/23.
That he had ane lous man with him … callit Makgregour quhilk he suspectit gif ony thing war in missing it wald be found of tymes throw his handis
1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 304.
They observed some what … droped out of his mouth, quhilk the advocats on the other side said it was the Test
Followed by at, that.
1375 Barb. ix 661 (E).
Thar him befell Mony fayr poynt … The quhilk that ar nocht writyn her
c1420 Wynt. i 190.
This Jarede gat Mawlaliale, The quhilk that gat Matussaele
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 132.
Schir Gawyne gais furth the gait … The quhilk that held to the hall heyndly to se
1513 Doug. i Prol. 141.
Ane buik of Inglys gros Clepand it Virgill … Quhilk that he says of Franch he dyd translait
Ib. v xii 129.
The chaist virgyn Sibil wil convey thé The rycht way thidder quhilk at thou sal tak By blude offerit [etc.]
1535 Stewart 59525.
James Stewart … Quhilk playand that wes with his peiris all Than at the catche

10. pron. In default of suprasegmental indications in speech or unambiguous indications from punctuation, there are many instances of ambiguity or dubiety between a. senses 7 and 8, b. senses 7 and 9, c. senses 7, 8 and 9.a. uninfl. (1) c1420 Ratis R. 1516.
Se ȝone man the quhilk wald nocht Put Godis help in-to his thocht
c1475 Wall. i 402.
Willȝham was wa he had na wappynis thar Bot the poutstaff the quhilk in hand he bar
Ib. xi 307.
The letter than him gaiff with outyn let The quhilk off lait fra Scotland was him send
1512 Prestwick B. Rec. 44.
Scho … haldys fra him a burdyn of lynt the quhilk the burne tuik away
1535 Stewart 40627.
Thus endit he the quhilk menswoir alhallowis Syne erdit wes
a1540 Freiris Berw. 2 (B).
Vpoun a rever the quhilk is callit Tweid
(2) a1500 Henr. Fab. 51.
Na meruell is ane man be lyke ane beist Quhilk lufis ay carnall … delyte
1525–6 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 227.
For the custome and dewiteis of his guidis quhilk he brocht hame in to Jhone Downyis schip
1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 121.
Seyng … that he quhilk was that day maist prowde … was than destitute of frendis
1537 Ex. Processes (Reg. H.)
Ane lettre of summondis … to oure scheref in that part quhilk execute the samyn ij s.
a1570-86 Maitl. F. lxii 57.
Culross v Crawmond. Sic haland schaikaris quhilk at Cowkelbeis grys Wan meikill pryce
1568 Lyndsay's Works Title in Lynd. IV 45.
Augmentit with sindrie warkis quhilk was not befoir imprentit
1583 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 175.
To the bankores at the est end of the kirk quhilk was lows
1628 Dundonald Par. Rec. 256.
To receaue the inspreth of John Blaks hous quhilk he had boght
inflected (1) 1420 Liber Aberbr. II 53.
[We] stratly oblis our tenementis in the quhilkis we indwel … til the abbot of Abirbrothoc
(2) 1456 Hay I 17/6.
Sanct Augustyne … with mony othir quhilkis warrayd the inymyes of the faith
c1460 Thewis Gud Women 3.
The gud wyf schawis … Quhilkis ar thewis of gud women Quhilkis gar women be haldin deir
1521 Douglas Corr. 80.
That thir thre lordis quhilkis now hes the name of the kepping of the kinge and hes nocht in deid, thai [etc.]
1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 72.
I maid it bot in mowis, To landwart lassis quhilks kepith kye & ȝowis
1560 Rolland Seven S. 928.
As thay of greiter gre Quhilkis ar vplyftit into authoritie
b. uninfl. (1) 1400 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 7.
A tenement in Anderston the qwylk wes Dauid of Cornalis
c1420 Ratis R. 1801.
Now is endyt this matere The quhilk is Ratis Raving cald
1422 Thanes of Cawdor 10.
And forgeff till him fourty poundez the quhilk suld hef bene paiit til us for the relefe of that land
1444 Aberd. B. Rec. I 10.
For the deliuerance of certane Inglisemen, the quhilke ar in yhour warde and keping, as yhe knaw
1456 Hay II 53/11.
Knychtis defendis the clerkis and kirkmen fra wikkit tyrane men, the quhilk, aganis the faith …, schapis thame to derob [etc.]
1482 Acta Aud. 108/1.
To pay … the sovme of [24] markis … efter the forme of ane instrument … producit … in the qk he band him to pay the saide sovme
1560 Knox II 144.
First was made a sermone, in the quhilk thir heids war intreated
(2) a1500 Henr. Fab. 62.
First of ane cok he wrate, Seikand his meit, quhilk fand ane iolie stone
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 178.
Becaus he fillit ane laid of muik quhilk scho suld haiff don
1598 Brechin Test. I 165.
For inlaik of wark and labour quhilk he vas astrictit to pay to thame
1638 Cockburnspath Baron Ct. 22 Sept.
Williame Patersone … hes takin … ane thrie quarter land uhilk wes possest be Williame Donaldsone
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 157.
Seven mark for sex ealls of broune cloth quhilk I delewerit to her to tak the leatster
1680 Sheriffhall Coal Accompt 18 Sept.
Noo work this weik except half a darge quhilk wes wroght be some of the coalȝiers
inflected (1) 1379 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 2.
To fourty markis worth of land in the qwilkes the forsaid Erle of Angous was obligit … to gyve me heritably
1408 Facs. Nat. MSS II lxi.
For him and his ayris the quhilkis sal succede to the forsaid landis be verteu of the said taillie
1510 Reg. Privy S. I 330/2.
The laif to banys the realme, the quhilkis ar fugitiue
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5355.
Mony prelatis ar now ryngand, The quhilkis no more dois vnderstand [etc.]
(2) 1513 Doug. i xi 4.
Berand with hym the kyngly gyftis scheyn Quhilkis suldbe present to the ryall queyn
1638 T. Hope Diary v.
And strenthen your L. to do theis dewties … quhilkis ar proper to your L. as a peer of the land
c. uninfl. (1) 1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 48.
Of the land that was conquest fra Alysunder Tayte … the qhwylk is callit Castelbar [etc.]
c1490 Irland Asl. MS 51/2.
That cherite is luf and dilectioun be the quhilk thow lufis God for him self
(2) 1393 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 28.
To pay … xx libras of sterlingis qwilk he resayvit in payment for his resignacone
?1438 Alex. ii 3781.
I sall have lemmen at lyking, Quhilk sall of body douchty be
c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 106.
Sa was thair ane that spak last of all Quhilk till his name Aristotill thai call
1513 Doug. i Prol. 151.
With sych a wyght, quhilk trewly … Knew neuer thre wordis [etc.]
1548 Treas. Acc. IX 224.
For grathing of my lord governoures sweird quhilk wes gevin to ane Irrische man
15.. Clar. i 1428.
Scho … came in thair presence, Whilke mirrour was of bewtie and clemence
1555 Peebles B. Rec. I 222.
For takyn of ane sark fra James Stewart quhilk he tuk of hir bakquhen scho wes werand it
1640 Aberd. Council Lett. II 230.
[They] tuick away sex great jeystes quhilk war allowet for repairing of the bridge
inflected 1554–5 Edinb. B. Rec. II 298.
For mending of fyve greit loks quhilks wer fylit and brokin with presoneris
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 17/38.
Ryming in tearmes and dyuers others whilkis ar forbidden in my owne treatise

11. pron. a. In instances in which the antecedent is not certainly identifiable. — c 1390 Coldingham Priory 60.
For us thynk it is lytill rewarde till vs till haue a suffysand man … present, for yhe whilk we requer, syn we have [etc.]
c1590 Fowler II 43/21.
We planely deny … that the Kirk of God is decernit by personal successioun, a note conuenient to al Kirks, Grecians, Assyrians, Armenians, and Ethiopians: quhilkis the Pape hes condemnit in mony heads of heresie
1673 Cullen Kirk S. 19 April.
That God may be glorified and learning propagated in young ones whilk is the grand pillar which [etc.]

b. In other irregular constructions. — 1560 Rolland Seven S. 8369.
He send for him message. Chargeing him sone for to cum hame fra hand Quhilk he obeyit his fathers haill command
1586 Edinb. Test. XVI 285b.
The bairne quhik the said Ionet Fyff his dochteris with all his newoyis sall stand in satisfactioun of all guidis and geir
1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 159.
Mair I acclame hime fyftie days work four shillings the day quhilk works peartly for houlding his plought quhene his ploughmen ran away … quhilk he promist payment

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