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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1986 (DOST Vol. VI).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Quhich(e, adj. and pron. Also: qwhich, qhich(e, quhitch(e; quich(e, qwich(e, quwiche, quitch(e, quisch;; which(e, vhich, wuhich, huyche, whitch(e; wich(e, vich; (wisch). [Early ME wic (a 1200), ME and e.m.E. wich(e (c 1200), wycche (1471), wych (1551), ME hwic (a 1200), hwich (c 1200), hwych (c 1380), ME quich(e (c 1375, Cursor M.), qwich(e (a 1400), ME and e.m.E. which(e (c 1300): cf. Quhilk.]Used in place of Quhilk in early anglicized and in later texts. In modern editions no doubt freq. representing the abbreviations qch, wch.

= Quhilk adj. and pron. A. interrog. B. relative adj. C. relative pron. a. Restrictive. b. Descriptive. c. Resumptive. d. = Quhilk 11. D. The maner which, cf. the maner how, Maner n.1 2.A. (1) 1581 Sat. P. xliv 188.
Vatson the monk …, Veymis … , Forguson, Vich halflang suord sould clame to this degrie?
(2) a1500 Quare Jel. 61.
Quich be the cause that I Am turment thus … ?
a1605 Montg. Sonn. lvi 10.
Suppose the solids subtilis ay restrantis, Vhich is the maist, my maister, ye may mene?
B. (1) 1384 Acts I 350/1.
In the witnes of the wische thinges lely to be halden … the forsaid erle of Northumbre … the lord of Galleway has set thair signetz
c1400 Troy-bk. ii 377.
Of that relyk … The which relyk assigned wes Inne the kepyng of Vlixes
a1500 Colk. Sow ii 127.
The quhich famous erldome of Flanderis [etc.]
1644 Wemyss Corr. 90.
For the quhitche cause we haue appointit tuo randvouses … on Woddinsdaye nixt
1681 Orkney Antiq. Soc. VII 47.
Assaulted Mr. James Wallace … for the qch deed he … is to be banished this countray
(2) c 1570 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxii.
Which persouns may have full auctorite during [etc.]
1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 568.
His packmantie, … His blew clock … He causit an talyeour turne and mak it Into wich [v.r. which] maill
c1590 Fowler II 158/13.
Of which consideration dois aryse that which that I sayd alreddie
1638 Dumbarton B. Rec. 55.
For quiche end it is maist urgentlie desyrit [etc.]
1641 Bk. Carlaverock II 140.
Quiche loiss … hes nocht … geven these quho ar so heid sett aganes me full satisfactioune
1667 Edinb. Test. LXXIII 121b.
Quhitch iust & lauchfull [debts] of myne I appoynt … the said Williame … to … pay tymouslie
C. a. (1) a1500 Lanc. 1784.
In thyne allegians Ful many is, the wich haith sufficians [etc.]
a1500 Quare Jel. 64.
For it the quhich is vnto me vnknowe
(2) c1590 Fowler I 144/10.
Quhat hap sal happen me Whiche may requyte my love
1630 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. III 656.
Because he culd dispone no moir nor that quhich wes his awin
1651 Rec. Kirk Scotl. 628.
Some others said that that quhich was lurking, viz. separation, had now appeared
1682 Irvine Nomenclatura 122.
They which inhabite the high hills towards the north
1688 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. XIII 249.
For that quhich was etled for you shall light upon ane uther
(3) a1500 Lanc. 3263.
The clamore … Was … petws for til her Of knychtis wich … Wondit war
a1500 Colk. Sow Prol. 36.
Quhairfoir ȝe men … Quhich eternall wald haif memoriall
c1590 Fowler II 108/32.
That prence which sal want this knauledge
(4) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 131 (D).
Wyth samyn peyn … The which [C. quhilk] to vther procured he
a1500 Quare Jel. 15.
Tho fell it me in to remembraunce A thing the quhich that noyith me full sore
(5) a1500 Colk. Sow iii 137.
Fro xxiiij hen eggis quiche I thé gaif
a1500 Quare Jel. 26.
And namely on the suffrance … Quhich most hath do my carefull hert constreyne; The quhich as now [etc.]
a1578 Pitsc. II 66/27.
All the prophesies quhiche war spokin of him
1604-31 Craig ii 155.
These euer-flowing limphs, From Hyppocrene which diuall
1611-57 Mure Misc. P. ii 41.
Receaue … The bow, the schafts, … Once quhich I bruick'd
1618 Sc. Brigade in Holland I 290.
About that infortunat maleur whitche against my intentione … is fallin out in my hand
1611-57 Mure Sonn. 2 Ser. ii 6.
All lets, my flight which doe empeach, remove
1632 Aberd. Council Lett. I 352.
These thingis quhich impedis trade
1638 Peebles Gleanings 244.
1654 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 142.
All forfettures, escheits simple or of lyfrent, … quhich heirtofoir … fell to the king
1654 Lanark B. Rec. 153.
To pit up … ane round oe … in the leich hous and ane stone quhich wes cutt out round in the nixt hous
1656 Ib. 157.
Farder nor is contenit in the artickles quiche the traidis … consultit upon
Ib. 1667 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 246.
1684–5 Dumfries & Galloway Soc. 3 Ser. XXXVI 167.
That there may be some small thing of rents received be me quhich I have forgott
1689 Acts XII 68/1.
All mener of boats qch might [etc.]
1703 Aberd. Journal N. & Q. VI 121.
Recived from William Watson, … seaven punds Scots qch. I lent him in May 1699, and queitted him tuo bolls and ane half of bear qch. he was resting me
(6) 1674 Lauder Jrnl. 274.
The harne with which she lined hir hangings
1684 Glamis Bk. Record 16.
The infectione quhich the e of Erroll's governour was attact'd with
(7) a1578 Pitsc. I 5/15.
To the glorie of his name quhich in heavin is
(8) a1500 Lanc. 185, 187.
Of thaim the quhich that is discret & wys … Quhich knouyth that [etc.]
Ib. 420.
That he mycht resting fynde Of it, the wich that occupeid his mynde
Ib. 1807, 2313. a1500 Quare Jel. 158.
And quho be wroth or quho be blith here I Am he the quhich that sett no thing thareby
Ib. 413.(9) a1500 Lanc. 1124.
Nor neuer I … saw … O knycht the wich that in to schortar space In armys haith … more grace
a1500 Quare Jel. 410.
Nor ȝit the tong the quhich that can nocht ces
(10) a1500 Lanc. 1087.
Of knychtis wich that haith there lyvis ȝolde
Ib. 1430.
Than Arthur … In to his wit memoratyve can seik Of euery gilt wich that he can pens
Ib. 1585. a1500 Quare Jel. 213.
In helping … Thame quhich that of ȝoure gladnese is the licht
b. (1) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 326 (D).
Anthenor to the prest gan pas The which hath to nome Thoas Of the palladinar kepare
a1500 Lanc. 2799.
The knycht, the wich in to hir keping vas, Sche had commandit to hir cussynece, Wich cherist hyme apone hir best manere
a1500 Quare Jel. 1.
This lusty Maii, the quhich all tender flouris By Nature nurisith with hir hote schouris, The felde oureclad hath [etc.]
(2) a1500 Henr. Orph. 16 (B).
The grit lordis of Grew Quhich [Ch. & M. Quhilk] set thair hairt … Thair faderis steppis iustly to persew
a1500 Lanc. 794.
Ye falowis, wich of the round table ben … , Remembrith now [etc.]
Ib. 1786.
What haith thow more, qwich them al to lede … ?
a1500 Quare Jel. 72.
Pluto that is king Quhich the derk regioun hath in his gouernyng
1513 Doug. Comm. i v 2.
Of the secund Jupiter … , quhich slew Lycaon and was fader to Dardanus of quham cam the Troianys
a1578 Pitsc. I 4/26.
As did the poettis in the auld dayes quhich maid thair prayeris to goddis abusit
(3) a1500 Lanc. 149.
Sum trety … That may hir one to thi remembryng brynge, Qwich soundith not one to no hewynes
a1500 Colk. Sow iii 152.
In this sentence … , Quhich semys most to be a wyfis taill
a1500 Quare Jel. 4.
This lusty Maij … The felde oureclad hath with the tender grene Quhich all depaynt with diuerse hewis bene
1587 Warrender P. (S.H.S.) II 35.
The nixt day quhich wes the 27 of Junij
c1600 Pont Cunningham (1876) 3.
And hamin, vich signifieth some tyme a habitatione
1624 Misc. Maitl. C. III 511.
My yallow pointit diamond rigne cut with faucettis quhiche I was accustomat to weir
1645 Sc. N. & Q. 1 Ser. XII 60.
The fast vas keip whiche vas interrupted the preceding day be respect of the common enimie
1655 Wemyss Chart. 242.
Ane corbie stone, quhich is long lyik ane lint whyt egg, and transparent
(4) 1612 Maxwell Mem. II 56.
I fand tham in heart contentit with our formis qhiche, at the first, seemit vncouthe to tham
(5) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 850, 851 (C).
Thy contre thow bytradit has The which [D. The qulk] thow in borne was Inne the which [D. And in the quhiche] thow … Was gloriouse Troyiens among
1514–15 Adam Williamson in Doug. (Sm.) I xx.
Sen the second day off Nouembre on wiche I presentytt the queneis lettre to the kynggis grace off Ynglond
(6) a1500 Lanc. 1817.
O ȝhe, the wich that kingis ben, sore sham Remembrith yhow
(7) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 341.
Gyf me … the palladinar which that thow Havyth in-to kepyng now
Ib. 1812.
Wharfor ȝhe, wich that princes ben y-knawith, Lat not yhour vrechit hart [etc.]
c. (1) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 847 (C).
To led hys foes hym for to slo, The which [D. The quhiche] thow aught wele … To saue
(2) a1500 Lanc. 2801 (see b (1) above). a1500 Colk. Sow ii 66.
This ȝoung maid … This Colkelby nvreist hir in his hous, Quich grew so fair [etc.]
Ib. 54.
1669 Edinb. B. Rec. X 57.
He hath fyve small sicklie children quhich he is unable to mantein
(3) a1500 Lanc. 72.
Thar was the garding with the flouris ourfret, Quich is in posy fore my lady set
1567 Digest Justiciary Proc. F. 39.
Peter Hammiltoun … lute him sie ane pair of hals beidis qwiche [? he] said pertenit to the Lady Bathcall
c 1613 Haddington Corr. 124.
That I may haif your company … , quisch I esteme mor of nor any vther thing
1617 Aberd. Council Lett. I 151.
1629 Haddington Corr. 157. 1643 Black Bk. Taymouth 97.
Except the lettir quhich is holdine waird
1657 Lanark B. Rec. 159.
The said Michaell Gemmill producit his accompt quiche had been cleiret by the counsall
1662 Red Bk. Menteith II 166.
Take nothing but qhat is your dew, qhich ye know is six hundred pound Scottis
1667 Ib. 169.
My lord, … it's too reall a truth, uhat I have ureatten, uich I am most sorie for
1676 Aberd. Council Lett. VI 45.
We have ane discharge … on sex pund 17 sh. 6 d. … quich give in, and gett allowit
1684 Cupar Trades 8 Oct.
Robert Spenc … his giuen in his acount wich extandis to [£65, 12 s.]
1696 Minnigaff Par. Rec. 15.
(4) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 371.
The which [sc. the Palladinar] he had Of the tempile forout abad
1544 Douglas Corr. 153.
My faithfull mynde the wiche shall indure the tyme that I have to leve
(5) a1500 Lanc. 1800.
Sauf vertew only and worschip wich abidith With them
c1590 Fowler I 193/2.
Loue for my los is changde in fyres and wormes Which doith inflam my spreits and hert dois gnawe
1624 Haddington Corr. 144.
Quhich he can schaw be four or fyve takis wuhich he hes to schaw
1653 Lanark B. Rec. 150.
With the soumes qwhich salbe made up, at leist the annuelrent thairof annatum
(6) 1678 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 257.
I acclame him … [£4, 6 s.] for the quhich he becam absoluit debitor and paymaister to me for the said umquhill Samuell Gordon
(7) c1409-1436 Kingis Q. 3.
A boke … Off quhich the name is clepit … Boece
a1500 Lanc. 46. 1609 McKay Kilmarnock 6.
It hath a pretty church from vich the village, castell and lordschipe takes its name
1611-57 Mure Misc. P. iv 9.
I fell in quenchles fyre, In quhich alace I boyle but mercie [etc.]
a1649 Drummond II 261/132.
Few vords … To vhich vinds [etc.] … did leane their eare
1674 Glasgow B. Rec. III 189.
To mak up ane uther lytt out of quhich they choysed ane Deane of Gild
1684 Wamphray Baron Ct. 26 April.
Thair was due … then 49 lb. 15 s. from quhich deduce the said tuo years rent
1690 Fraser P. 268.
By reasone of ane intack in the easter wall by quhich the raine enters the wall
(8) 1699 Household Bk. Gr. Baillie 265.
To him quhich was the last befor cumpting with his brother, £49, 14, 6
(9) 1627 Fam. Innes 215.
The whitch … I moir desayre then my lyf
1630-1651 Gordon Geneal. Hist. 161.(10) 1569-73 Bann. Memor. 197.
Twa dayis after this, thair come in fra Berwicke 40 barrellis of powlder, which is the begining of the preparatioune for the seige
a1578 Pitsc. II 188/13.
Also they saw the captane and tuo wther in the fire burnand whiche was werie dollarus and feirfull wnto them
1591 Lett. Jas. VI to Eliz. 68.
Wich movis me to thinke that my lettres neuer came to youre hands
1622 Conv. Burghs III 134.
Whitche will tend to the overthrow of the toun
1629 Fam. Innes 217.
I did obey your comanddis in kepping ane cold generall wyssitt huyche was moir as my dew or dewtie
1694 Misc. Spald. C. II lxix.
(11) 1644 Wemyss Corr. 91.
On Setterdaye last Nevecastell wos takin … at the quitche … only … Wachtouns liutennant-collonell … is killit
1656 Lanark B. Rec. 157.
To the quhich it was ansuerit [etc.]
(12) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 3118.
Of quhiche eftir is bot litill thing
c1409-1436 Kingis Q. 2.
For quhich as tho coude I no better wyle, Bot [etc.]
a1500 Lanc. 1801, 1802.
And if he wich shal eftir thé succed By larges spend, of quhich that yhow had dreid, He of the world comendit is … And thow stant furth … dispisit
a1500 Colk. Sow ii 247.
For quich … this worthy Colkelby … Saw two [pennies] thryve weill and the thrid did nocht
a1500 Quare Jel. 11.
Throu quhich he makith euery lusty hert Out of thair sleuth to walkyn
c1500-50 Brevis Cronica 337.
Eftir quhiche the young King David … was sent into Frannce
1613 Maxwell Mem. II 65.
The term of Sir Robert Maxwelis payment … is this Witsontyde, for qhiche he hes remembrit me to speik
(13) 1619 Conv. Burghs III 88.
Except thai first agriet to [etc.] … , quitch being done [etc.]
1632 Aberd. Council Lett. I 354.
Whiche being imported
1650 Dumfr. & Galloway Soc. LI (1975) 49.
Shoe enquyrit if he had any quick geir, whiche being granted, it is fund that [etc.]
(14) 1682 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 302.
And the expenssis of all quhich to be allowit in his accompts
(15) c1590 Fowler II 104/13.
He hyred for his supplye the Orsins and Vitelliens, quhich efterward in the handling of his affairs discovering there subtilityteis and double faith, he destroyed thame
(16) a1500 Lanc. 879.
Thar was the strenth … Of Gawan wich that whill the dirk nyght … faucht [etc.]
a1500 Quare Jel. 36.
Quhare as I saugh among the levis grene A lady, quhich that was rycht wele besene
d. a1500 Quare Jel. 420.
Quhich is to say that jelousy … Commyth of the deuill
1505 Stirlings of Keir 281.
Efter the tenour of myne assedatioune … the quwiche till ȝow … I commit myne ful powir be this myne precep
?1544 Corr. M. Lorraine 108.
I hawe rasavit your gentil letter … quiche promittis to me ane thousant crownis in pension … quiche I hawe nocht dissarvit so gret revarde
1670 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 63.
The said Duncan … stryk … Margaret Neilson … quhich ewer since shee is not in a capacitie to goe about her affaires as formerlie
D. a1500 Lanc. 1435.
He goith and his confessione haith he maad … The maner wich quho lykith for to here He may it fynd in to the holl romans

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"Quhich adj., pron.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 29 Nov 2023 <>



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