A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
Sar(e, Sor(e, adv. Also: sair(e, sayr(e; sear; ser; soir(e, soyr; soar. [Early and north. ME sare (Layamon), sare, sair (Cursor M.), midl. and south. ME and e.m.E. sore (c1200), OE sáre.]
1. a. Of the infliction of physical injury, as by wounding, striking, gripping, etc.: So as to cause great injury and/or pain; severely; painfully; seriously, badly. Also proverb. and fig.
Very common with wound v.
(a) Feyle men dede and woundyt sar; Barb. ii 354.
Ib. xvii 733.
And with scharpe schurgis befte rycht sare; Leg. S. iii 613.
Thane the edryse bate tham sa sare, Til [etc.]; Ib. xi 311.
& resone wald that his throt ware Vith a snar cord hangyt ful sare Fra quham be tresone com that voice That [etc.]; Ib. xii 288.
As the bochoure wes mendand The scho, he hwrte rycht sare his hand; Ib. xiii 82.
The tormentouris … Tuk yrne kamys that bat sare; Ib. xxxvii 256.
Sare woundyt; Wynt. v 4373.
The fader and the moder wald have lerit him thair craft and dang him oft rycht sare thareto; Hay II 151/1.
Throw his hawbrek he woundit him full sare; Id. Alex. 3191.
Buffat and scurgit at ane pillar, With rude knoppis smytand sair, And vthir mony innomarabill pane; Fifteen Ois 43.
Boece 66b, etc.
(b) Sayre; Leg. S. xxii 647.
Fle this suddane schot Quhilk smytis sair [Bann. soir] withoutin resistence; Henr. Fab. 790 (H).
Sayr; Wall. xi 175.
Scho bait him sair so did he hir; Seven S. 438.
Thai band him sair quhill his fingeris wer haw; Kennedy Pass. Christ 1041.
In this battel Chappel is strukne … with a brasen nale, his heid il birst and sair hurt; Dalr. II 328/12.
(c) Tholome also was woundit sore [: befoir]; Hay Alex. 3194.
And to Sir Gawane thei haith o lytter maad, Ful sore ywound; Lanc. 2148.
Na grettar payne mycht be Than thai with in insufferit sor to duell; Wall. vii 443.
Doug. x xiv 12.
He … pullit at the arrow … The knight full sore [ed. sorelie] schrinkit at the stound; Clar. iv 2118.
(d) The breir byndis me soir; Compl. 64/26.
The Inglis men being sa soir handilit thairat [sc. in the battle]; Leslie 96.
compar. Before the houre fare sarare we Ar brynte thane [etc.]; Leg. S. xi 417.
Evir the sarar this ern strenys hys gryp; Doug. xi xiv 72.
Wemen … , the sarare thai war woundit, war mare egir in cruelte; Boece 166b.
The far sarar it sat him; Christis Kirk 164 (M).
superl. The grewhound … The sarest bytar of that menȝie; Rob Stene 11.
proverb. An old hound bytes sair; Ferg. Prov. No. 33.
He is sairest dung when his awn wand dings him; Ib. No. 388.
Its a sair dung bairn that dare not greit; Ib. No. 550.
Kem sindle, kem sair, they are evil eased kemmis ilk day; Carmichael Prov. No. 1007.
The emot bytes sairer nor the clok; Ib. No. 1433.
fig. Thi teris brynis me so sare That in hel leware me ware; Leg. S. xxviii 441.
Sic a tempest sodanly Ourtuke ws and so sore gan smyte That [etc.]; Troy-bk. ii 2525.
The wyndis ar scharp and snell and sare bytand; Hay II 132/7.
Henr. Fab. 535, etc.
Myll Spect. 282/21.
Lord hald thy hand that strikken hes so soir; Dunb. (STS) lxx 33.
Quhen ane man is in penuritie It [sc. avarice] sowis soir without saturitie; Stewart 13862.
And luiffis dart thirlit his hart so soir; Ib. 26197.
The stang of conscience broddit him so soir; Ib. 43394.
Quhair pryde hes credence … he [sc. God] scurges sair; Rolland Seven S. 6325.
G. Ball. 127.
b. Of the effect of disease or other bodily affliction or injurious agent: Severely, grievously; painfully.
Thame hungerit alsua weill sair; Barb. xiv 432 (C).
Leg. S. xxix 521.
Thare-for my-self on wil fare & with feile feuir wond hire sare; Ib. xxxii 284.
Na man wald be content that ony othir lettit him to visyte his childe and he war sare seke; Hay I 225/22.
Now Dede … him handillis full sair in euery part; Kennedy Pass. Christ 776.
Quhiddir is it mereit mair To gif him drink that thristis sair; Dunb. (OUP) 123/7.
Grit pane and wo … thay suffir sair for us; Ib. 196/16.
The gout … fel so sare in his juncturis and lethis of his body; Bell. Boece II 123.
Lucius Anthenous legate, sare with infirmite vexit; Boece 168.
I wes sayr handillit witht ane suddane sairnes on my kne; 1534 St. P. Henry VIII V 14.
This Lucius … With eild and seiknes viseit wes so soir; Stewart 15106.
This king Duffus with greit infirmitie Soir vexit wes; Ib. 35751.
Dalr. I 151/1.
Was he [sc. Job] nocht sair with byles and bruiks and pouertie opprest? Hume 44/108.
Bot Doctour Ross micht not flie, becaus he wes lying sore seik; Spalding I 151.
superl. Thairefter the humoris, puttand sairest at the naturall humiditie of the hart; Skeyne Descr. Pest 4.
c. With verbs of punishing, tormenting, harassing: Severely.
(1) Thai wikit men avysit ware Hou thai wald punyse hym sarare; Leg. S. xxxviii 398.
Sare; Ib. vi 87.
Sar; Ib. xi 214.
And [princis] salbe fer sairar punist of thair faultis; Hay II 146/35.
Irland Mir. II 55/26.
Quhilk fyre … sall saire pvnis baith body & the spreit; Contempl. Sinn. 1227 (Asl.).
Rolland Seven S. 1619.
(2) Thair shot was great and greauit thame sare; Alex. i 1625.
How thai ware Anoyid in tyll Egypt sare; Wynt. ii 398.
The Troian pepill sair trublit hes thow; Doug. xiii i 72.
Nisbet III 317/5.
1567 Sat. P. iv 66.
G. Ball. 41.
Soire; Montg. Ch. & Slae 227 (W).
d. To by (an action) sare, to pay dearly for, in physical suffering.
War it nocht that he war Sic a catyve he suld by sar Hys wordys that war swa angry; Barb. xviii 514.
Cristine gyf I ne ware, Thu suld by that strak [ful] sare; Leg. S. xix 314.
e. (To bleed) to a grievous extent, grievously.
Mony off thaim war bledand wondyr sar; Wall. v 69.
2. a. Of armed conflict, a combatant, etc.: Fiercely, ferociously. Also proverb.
[He] bad thaim … schut hardely Amang thar fayis and sow thaim sar [H. saile them saire]; Barb. xvi 395.
A batell fell Wes dwne bathe sare, and scharpe, and snell; Wynt. vii 1980.
Sadly and sair, Thoght thai war astonait, in that stour stithly thai stude; Gol. & Gaw. 574.
Full feill thai slew that sarest on thaim socht; Wall. xi 98.
Maitland Maitl. F. 311/90.
[Wpoun the] plaice sarest chairgit; Pitsc. I 97/16 (I).
Tha brashte it sa sair that the vtter barnkin wal tha wan; Dalr. II 193/16.
proverb. As sair [MS sor] fights wranes as cranes; Ferg. Prov. No. 77.
b. Of pursuit: Fiercely, closely, hard. Also fig.
Wpon Wallace thai folowed wondyr sayr; Wall. vii 698.
The happy goishalk … With swyft weyngis persewis wonder sair The silly dow; Doug. xi xiii 167.
fig. Bot ȝit the sammyn myschance persewis thame sayr; Doug. i v 25.
3. With expressions of fear, dread, anxiety, doubt, astonishment: Dreadfully, terribly, to an extreme degree; greatly.
For further examples see Drede v. 2 and 3.
Sa dred thai sar the gayne-cummyng Off Schyr Robert; Barb. ii 453.
Bot thai war skownrand wonder sar Sa fer in-to Scotland for to far; Ib. v 201.
Sayr; Ib. i 440.
For thay war thair Stonyit, and that richt wonder sair; Alex. i 2062.
Thai dowtyt sare that he walde wyn Thare landys; Wynt. ii 1101.
The burges, the quhilk is sare disesit of his barne, takis hede to na weris; Hay I 224/17.
I may not eit, sa sair I am agast; Henr. Fab. 319.
Sor; Wall. v 664.
Thir feirfull wonders gart me dreid full soir; Doug. Pal. Hon. 759 (E).
Vlixes … With new crymys begouth affray me sair; Id. Æn. ii ii 68.
Nor ȝit my deid sa sair I not suspekkit; Rolland Seven S. 3338.
Quhairat the said regent and lordis wer sair amazed; Diurn. Occurr. 129.
The Inglischemen was soir agaist at the comming of the Scottis men; Pitsc. I 405/8.
The guid nychtbouris … come verry feirfull sumtymes, and fleit hir verry sair; 1588 Crim. Trials I ii 163.
Thay feired nocht litle, bot verie sair, that … al sulde succeid verie ill; Dalr. I 77/21.
Whairat the toune of Elgin wes sore effrayit; Spalding I 194.
4. With verbs of a. Causing, b. Feeling, and c. Expressing, grief, sorrow, regret, shame or repentance: Sorrowfully, bitterly, greatly, intensely. Also proverb.
a. Alex. ii 4749 (see Greve v. 3 (a)).
Thus throw the body he lay stikit thaire At quhilk Nicolas his hart was grevit sair; Hay Alex. 1606.
b. I trow weill … that him sair repent sall he, That [etc.]; Barb. ix 469 (C).
My hart it wald haue mislykit sare; Alex. ii 3130.
That thai war samyn ourset thairfor I murn sore; Howlat 524 (A).
All helpyt nocht thocht I repentyt full sor; Wall. ix 194.
And of this talk the king schamit richt saire To pvnis hir [etc.]; Bk. Chess 1559.
Grit God is grevit, that me rycht soir forthinkis; Want of Wyse Men 54 (B).
Dunb. (OUP) 18/87.
That ȝe haif gottin my grote full sair I rew; Lynd. Sat. 2254.
Id. Mon. 598.
Baneist is faith now euerie quhair, And sair forthinkis me; G. Ball. 177.
Quhilk [sc. Dumbarton Castle] was givin over be appoyntment; quhilk doing thaj rewit full sair for the governour never keipit ane word of his promessis; Diurn. Occurr. 42.
I begoude to weirie soar of my lyff; Melvill 24.
But his hart bet him thairefter oft and sear, that he sould haiff … usit a piece of dissimulation; Ib. 43.
Bot trewlie quhilk [sc. events] my hart pitied fallon sear; Ib. 313.
Ib. 366 (see Sar(e n.2 3 (3)).
c. He fel one hym, gretande ful sare; Leg. S. i 102.
And with his ene sair coud he weip; Alex. ii 124.
Wynt. ii 1446.
He sobbit and he sighit sare; Hay Alex. 3595.
Quhen scho had said, the king sichit full sore; Henr. Orph. 127.
So soir the silly pig quhrynit; Colk. Sow ii 117.
The ȝyng childring … Stude al on raw … Abowt the tresour quhymperand wondir sayr; Doug. ii xii 15.
Tha crabit on euerie syde so soir, Accusand vther; Stewart 39858.
Ane bony boy was soir makand his mone; 1567 Sat. P. iii 3.
That they may sare lament his dead; 1574 Davidson Three Reformers 117.
A woman … complainting sair, that the erle … had slayne her housband; Dalr. I 323/29.
I harde two kealwyffes sore complaine; 1639 Bk. Pasquils 80.
These conceats … made him soar sighe; Herries Mem. 74.
proverb. Gute, gravel [etc.] … garris manie person grone ful sore; Carmichael Prov. No. 578.
5. With verbs of a. Aggrieving, angering, vexing or annoying: Severely, greatly.
For it anoyis me wondyr sar [: ar] [etc.]; Barb. v 230.
Tharfor anoyit sair [E. swa] he wes; Ib. vi 6 (C).
And the knychtis war wraithit sare; Alex. ii 4222.
Gyf ony debate be amang the schypmen … and thai be sare grevit the maystyr aw to … ger it be amendyt; Ship Laws c. 27 (B).
He belevit That he the goddis rycht sair haid agrevit And maid his testament and his devise; Hay Alex. 2206.
Ib. 1959 (see 7 a (a)).
Scho than als hait as fyre, Aggrevit sor, inflambit in felloun ire; Doug. xi xiii 136.
Lynd. Meldrum 584.
The King of Scotland being sare movit in his minde for that his nobilyte wald not consent to invade Ingland [etc.]; Leslie 164.
The Duke of Somersate sair offendet that his horsmen had gottin sik a brashe; Dalr. II 313/9.
b. Accusation, condemnation, reproach or threat: Severely, harshly.
Bot schortly thei sall be sar accusit; Lanc. 1659.
[They] Accusyt hir sar of resset in that cas; Wall. iv 715.
A wyf repruffit him richt sor That he was borne bot of a bastardis blud; Bk. Chess 1269.
This Wortigerne thairof soir blamit he; Stewart 24899.
Auerrois … Repreuvit sair Aristotell and sour; Rolland Ct. Venus Prol. 300.
Wa worth thy wit, thy banis he may sair ban; Id. Seven S. 2062.
Maitl. F. 240/3.
Sair boistit thay my husband commoun-weill; 1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 45.
c. Disapproval, displeasure, envy, etc.: Strongly, greatly.
Thair huredome haitit He rycht sair; G. Ball. 181.
For gif thow do thow sall be sair invyit; Maitland Maitl. F. 22/50.
And pauchtie pryide richt sair I doe detest; Arbuthnot Maitl. Q. 122/107.
My poor boy as sor enuied as euuer I was; c1580 Q. Mary in 12th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. viii 9.
Quhilke quhen the queine harde [she] was sair displeiset; Dalr. I 258/17.
The Inglismen, sair discontent, … prouokis him to battell; Ib. 283/2.
Quhome wicked personis inviet sa sair; Ib. 308/21.
6. With verbs of working or expending effort: Hard, diligently; with great effort or strength, strongly.
Sore laubouryng tyll thy browis sweit; Lynd. Mon. 1089.
He is ane pover young man laubourand and travelland sair for his leving; 1567 Reg. Privy C. I 517.
He that wrings sair, thirsts out blude; Carmichael Prov. No. 765.
His wyff … vrought it [sc. clay] werie sore, lyk rye-bowt; 1662 Crim. Trials III 605.
7. a. With other verbs, more or less as a simple intensifier: Severely, strongly, greatly.
(a) The baudrik brak … Than was King Alexander rycht sair agrevit That he his armour haid sa sair apprevit; Hay Alex. 1960.
I wonder sair and fast in mind did stair; Doug. Pal. Hon. 472.
Ful sayr constrenyt am I Art magyk to excers or sossary; Id. Æn. iv ix 41.
I faillit ser to ȝow and ȝour wiff calling you ane cukcald; 1547–9 Liber Offic. S. Andree 139.
Dum Wyf 27.
Ane vther quair … Anents wemen, not tuitching thame sa sair; Rolland Seven S. Prol. 112.
It did abound sa sair in deidly sin; Ib. 34.
Why art thou thus with thought ou'r-set sa saire? Hume 34/4.
Of quhais burning thay ar nocht sair solist; Dalr. I 98/10.
In releiving of his mikle and sear occupied mynd; Melvill 147.
(b) Sor mowit in his entent His fadris dede to wenge him giff he mocht; Wall. iv 536.
Nocht to paye and to be craiffit sor Mor schame it is than [etc.]; Bk. Chess 1612.
Off all sic wirdis he wes full dum, So soir he wes agast; Dunb. (OUP) 155/153.
I knaw that I haif sinnit soir; G. Ball. 37.
I grant that I haif faultit sore To stok and stane geuand his glore; Ib. 61.
That sycht Quhair I haif set my hairt so foley soir; Bann. MS 221b/9.
Bot euer moir Tormentit soir In hellis fyire; Maitland Maitl. Q. 164/34.
[If I get no relief [sc. of debts] at this Whit Sunday I am] soir wrakkit; 1595 Cal. Sc. P. XI 596.
The fyre with heitt … Dois sor consume and burne; Montg. Suppl. xxxiv 98.
We ar sore bwssiett with executiounis; 1616 Haddington Corr. 132.
proverb. A gentil horse sould not be over sair spurred; Carmichael Prov. No. 119.
c. (Placed) in, or (thrown) into, severe straits or difficulty; (to press) hard (upon).
To think On the king that wes sa sar stad That bot [twa hunder] with him had; Barb. iii 363.
Quhat kin thing wes lufe, Quhilk now settis thé so sair; Scott xx 20.
How sair saevir the weiris had ouirthrawin thame; Dalr. I 84/15.
8. Greatly, much (aganis one's will).
Suppois it was richt soir aganis thair will; Stewart 23245.
1567 Sat. P. iii 232.
I am troubled, and that soir aganis the desyre of my inward man; 1572 Knox VI 483.
This deliuerance [sc. the surrender of Edinburgh castle] wes maid sair aganes the will of the inhabitantis; Diurn. Occurr. 107.
Lithgow Trav. x 449.
1644 Sc. Eccles. Soc. 306.
9. a. (Burdened or encumbered) grievously, greatly. Also fig.
In hevy wayt frog stad and chargyt soyr [L. gravatum]; Doug. vi v 132.
Sum [sc. bees] sueitlie hes the hony socht Quhill thay war claggit soir; Montg. Ch. & Slae 64 (L).
fig. With sinnis I am laidnit soir; G. Ball. 220.
b. Of mental oppression or the like: Grievously, heavily.
Sone, thir tythings sytts me sor; Wall. i 439.
Tha saw appeir sa grit perrell thairin, Be ane exempill quhilk sat thame richt soir; Stewart 32051.
Thair deid so soir it lay into his thocht; Ib. 42021.
[He] never despyseth the sobbis of the soir afflictit; 1554 Knox III 155.
The trouble of the spirit wil oftimes … trouble the whole estate of man: as though he were takin with sum agonie or sharp fevar. … every man whom the Lord so visits, will not bee alike sore troubled … but … according to the modificatioun of the Lord; Hume 107/31.
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"Sar(e adv.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 16 Feb 2019 <http://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/sare_adv>
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