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Scottish National Dictionary (1700–)

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First published 1974 (SND Vol. IX). Includes material from the 2005 supplement.
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

UPHAUD, v., n. Also upha(a)d, uphadd, upphad, uphud, upaud; uphauld, up(p)hald; and in sense I. 7. uphal, up(p)al(l), uppell, -il, -le, uphol. The form ¶sepad (Ags. 1889 Barrie W. in Thrums x., xiv.) is from I'se uphaud. Sc. forms and usages of Eng. uphold. Deriv. uphauder, -hadder, upholder (Sc. 1871 P. H. Waddell Psalms cxliv. 2; Bnff. 1923 Banffshire Jnl. (25 Sept.); Abd. 1955 W. P. Milne Eppie Elrick vii.). [v. ʌp′hɑd, -′hǫd; n. ′ʌphɑd, -hǫd; in senses I. 7., II. 3.′ʌpəl. See etym. note.]

I. v. A. Forms. Pr.t. as above (Rxb. 1748 Jnl. Agric. (1876) 7; Ayr. 1790 J. Fisher Poems 155: Rnf. 1829 Wilson Noctes Amb. (1855) II. 273; m.Lth. 1894 P. H. Hunter J. Inwick 61; Sh. 1908 Jak. (1928), uppha(l)d; Wgt. 1912 A.O.W.B. Fables 103; Abd. 1914 J. Cranna Fraserburgh 135, uphud; Bnff. 1924 Swatches o' Hamespun 12, uphaad); pa.t. upheld, uphel (Rnf. 1806 R. Tannahill Poems (1900) 136); upheeld (‡ne.Sc. 1973); pa.p. uphauden (Abd. 1826 D. Anderson Poems 104, 1916 G. Abel Wylins 96; ne.Sc. 1972); upheld, -heeld (Abd. 1973). In sense 7. the form upple came to be treated as a separate v. and is conjugated with weak pa.t., pa.p. upp(a)led, uppalt, uppelt and double form uppeltit.

B. Usages: 1. To keep in a state of good repair, to maintain, to look after (Sh., Ags., Fif., Lth., Dmb. 1973). Also in Eng. dial. Vbl.n. uphaudin, upholding, maintenance.Mry. 1702 W. Cramond Elgin Session Rec. (1897) 320:
James Forsyth, glasier, agrees to uphold the glass windows of both churches for £20 Sc. per annum.
Bte. 1728 Rothesay T. C. Rec. (1935) II. 717:
A piece of ground which was formerly dispossed upon to the deceast Neal Bannatyn for upholding the Bridg.
Sc. 1756 M. Calderwood Journal (M.C.) 158:
All the land they had was dear of the upholding.
Sc. 1816 Scott Antiquary i.:
It's Jamie Martingale that furnishes the naigs on contract, and uphauds them.
Sc. 1833 Chambers's Jnl. (Dec.) 364:
The upholding of their nets is a very expensive matter.

2. tr. with direct obj. or n. clause, or absol. To affirm, maintain in argument, warrant, guarantee, vouch for (a fact) (Sc. 1808 Jam.; Cai. 1905 E.D.D.; Sh., n., em.Sc. (a), wm.Sc. 1973). Also in Eng. dial.s.Sc. 1793 T. Scott Poems 357:
Ay, I'se uphaud ye Owr the lugs i' love to be.
Sc. 1817 Scott Rob Roy vi.:
I'se uphaud her for the bitterest Jacobite in the haill shire.
Slk. 1822 Hogg Perils of Man (1972) iv.:
Twa wanton glaikit gillies, I'll uphaud.
Lnk. 1830 Perth Adv. (22 July):
A few [milch cows], however, warranted to be ‘rare eaters,' and upheld to milk freely.
Abd. 1875 W. Alexander My Ain Folk 102:
He upheeld it at ony rate.
Ags. 1888 Brechin Advert. (21 Aug.) 3:
I have heard Dr Scott uphaud wi' Sir John that the Indians were o' the same race as oorsels.
Abd. 1922 Swatches o' Hamespun 21:
“Weel I ken gweed fare”, he uphald.
Slg. 1932 W. D. Cocker Poems 63:
I'se ne'er uphaud I was a saint.

3. With wi: to believe in, hold with. Also in n.Eng. dial.wm.Sc. 1902 J. Wood Farden Ha' i.:
I'm no ane that uphauds wi' a' the tales I hear.

4. To raise or lift up (Sh., Slg., Fif., wm., sm.Sc., Slk. 1973). Sc. deriv. uphauder, a harvest hand who lifts the sheaves of corn with his fork from the cart to the rick-builder.Abd. 1950 Buchan Observer (12 Sept.):
In the old days when the ricks were built in straight rows, or in a true square, and all the tops when finished were in true alignment, there was invariably the farmer himself, the grieve, or another spare hand, to act as “up-hauder.”

5. In ppl.adj. uphadden, erron. for behauden, Behaud, 2., beholden or indebted to.Ags. 1887 Brechin Advert (11 Oct.) 3:
I think the hale story's fell sair uphadden to the upmaker.

6. = Eng. hold up, to delay, retard delivery of something. Vbl.n. upholding.Arg. 1954 Bulletin (9 Aug.) 4:
A far worse unwarranted inconvenience is the up-holding of postcards, which do bear the full postal charge.

7. In forms upple, etc. (see A.). of rain or snow: to cease falling, to lay off, to clear (n.Sc. 1808 Jam.; ne.Sc. 1939), freq. in conjunction with Deval. Also fig.Gall. 1824 MacTaggart Gallov. Encycl. 454:
When the weather at any time has been wet and ceases to be so, we say it is uppled.
Abd. 1837 J. Leslie Willie & Meggie 59:
It wis dingin' on snaw. I bids 'im come in a twa-three minutes, 'till we wid see gaen't wid uppil ony.
Bnff. 1866 Gregor D. Bnff. 37:
It dang on sax ooks delaverly on iver uppalt or dewalt.
s.Sc. 1897 E. Hamilton Outlaws xvii.:
See, it's uppling already.
Mry. 1913 Kenilworth Mag. I. 55:
To say of a wet day that it neither “uppaled nor devauled.”
Bnff. 1924 Swatches o' Hamespun 83:
It uppelt it [sic] neen.
Abd. 1933 Abd. Book-Lover (May) 101:
Sax weeks her tongue has kent nae halt An' neither uppellt nor devallt.
Abd. 1993:
E rain dang doon for days, nivver upplin or divallin.

II. n. 1. One who upholds or keeps another going, a support, mainstay (Sc. 1808 Jam.; Cai. 1904 E.D.D.); sustenance (Sh. 1904 Jak. (1928), uppha(l)d, 1914 Angus Gl., Sh. 1973).Cai. 1776 Weekly Mag. (25 Jan.) 145:
Whar's Robbie now, our uphol an' our joy?
Edb. 1791 J. Learmont Poems 142:
Train'd i' the path o' dissipation, An' deckit wi' French flutteration, Stap forth the uphads o' the Nation.
Abd. 1808 Jam.:
The death o' wives, and the luck o' sheep, are a puir man's uppal.
Ags. 1894 A. Reid Songs 16:
Wha'll cast the end gin aince ye try To pu' oor uphauds doon?
Abd. 1921 T.S.D.C.:
His wife was jist the upple o' 'im.

2. The care and maintenance of property (Sc. 1825 Jam.), upkeep (I.Sc., Cai. 1973).Ayr. 1848 Maybole Free Ch. Deacons' Ct. Minutes MS. I. 301:
Uphold and Improvement of Church & Grounds.

3. In ne.Sc. in form uppil: a “let-up” in bad weather, a clearing-up or stopping of rain, etc. Cf. I. 7.Abd. 1867 A. Allardyce Goodwife 12:
It's nearhan uppil noo.
Abd. 1955 W. P. Milne Eppie Elrick xxii.:
It's dingin on noo withoot upple ur divall.

[The form upple is due to shift of stress to the first syllable as in the n., suggesting that in sense I. 7., the v. derived from the n. in sense II. 3. For this meaning cf. also Norw. ophold, dial. upphald, opholdsvaer, an interval of fine weather, Sw. upphallsväder, id. O.Sc. uphald, to keep in repair, a.1350, to lift, 1427, maintenance of property, 1399, uphald, ceasing to rain, 1629.]

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"Uphaud v., n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 12 Jul 2024 <>



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