Scottish National Dictionary (1700–)
STAND, v., n.1 Also staun(d), staan(d), stan, stawn; stin(n) (Ayr. 1789 D. Sillar Poems 166; Rnf. 1791 A. Wilson Poems (1876) I.24). Sc. forms and usages. [stɑnd, ne.Sc. stɑn; wm.Sc. stn]
I. v. A. Forms. Pres.t. stand, etc., as above. Pa.t. strong stude (Ayr. 1789 Burns Laddies by Banks o' Nith ii.; Sc. 1819 Scott Bride of Lamm. vii.; Bwk. 1879 W. Chisholm Poems 20; Slk. 1885 J. B. Selkirk Poems (1905) 58; Ags. 1921 V. Jacob Bonnie Joann 9; Per., Fif., Lth., Ayr. 1915–26 Wilson; Bwk. 1942 Wettstein; Rxb. 1942 Zai), stud (Abd. 1865 G. MacDonald Alec Forbes xxi.; Uls. 1879 W. G. Lyttle Readings 5), stuid (s.Sc. 1809 T. Donaldson Poems 150: Sc. 1928 J. G. Horne Lan'wart Loon 18), steud (Ork. 1880 Dennison Sketch-Bk. 26), stuud (Sh. 1949 J. Gray Lowrie 104), stød (I.Sc.), stod (Sh. 1898 “Junda” Klingrahool 52); steed (ne.Sc. 1802 King Henry in Child Ballads No. 32. iv.; Cai. 1909 D. Houston 'E Silkie Man 3; Abd. 1934 D. Scott Stories 40; ne.Sc. 1971), steid (Abd. 1922 G. P. Dunbar Whiff o' Doric 14) [I., m. and s.Sc. stød, stɪd; Cai., ne.Sc. stid]; weak stan't (Sc. a.1796 Merry Muses (1965) 108; Mry. 1908 J. Mackinnon Braefoot Sk. 150). Pa.p. stude, steid, etc. from pa.t. The orig. strong form standen was reduced to stand (Sh. 1718 Old-Lore Misc. (1913) VI. i. 31), staun, stawn (Ork. 1904 Dennison Orcadian Sk. 4, 10) or, by conflation with the pa.t., produced mixed forms stuiden (s.Sc. 1876 D.S.C.S. 207; Per., Fif., Lth., Ayr. 1915–26 Wilson; Bwk. 1942 Wettstein; Rxb. 1942 Zai), studen (Slg. 1896 W. Harvey Kennethcrook 210; Sc. c.1925 R. Thomas Sandie McWhustler's Waddin' 12), studden (Sc. 1816 Scott Antiquary xliv.; s.Sc. 1829 Quarterly Jnl. Agric. II. 704; Lnk. 1923 G. Rae Lowland Hills 50), stooden (Peb. 1702 C. B. Gunn Linton Ch. (1912) 82; Bwk. 1823 A. Hewit Poems 86; Slk. 1830 Hogg Tales (1874) 212; Dmb. 1844 W. Cross Disruption iv.; Ags. 1882 Brechin Advert. (26 Sept.) 3) [m. and s.Sc. stødn, stɪdn]; weak standed (Sc. 1747 Lyon in Mourning (S.H.S.) II. 214), stan't (Abd. 1876 R. Dinnie Songs 105, 1961 Huntly Express (12 May); ne.Sc. 1971).
B. Usages. 1. Ppl.adj. standin, of long-standing; overdue, in arrears; stant, of tea: that has stood too long in the making, rank (Abd. 1971).
Abd. 1924 Swatches o' Hamespun 45:
An' ye hae been ma stannin freen For mony a 'ear. Lnk. 1929 Scots Observer (31 Oct.) 14:
High art'll no pey back staunin' rents.
In n. combs. with stand(in) as the first element: (1) standin-band, standi-, the rope or tether by which a cow is tied to her stall in the byre (Sh. 1866 Edm. Gl., 1908 Jak. (1928), Sh. 1971); (2) stand(in) bed, a bed free-standing on posts as opposed to a box-bed or folding-bed; (3) stan(d) but(t), -bit, a game played by throwing a ball against a wall and calling out the name of another player who has then to catch or retrieve it while the others run away, and to strike any of these with it (Sth. 1897 E. W. B. Nicholson Golspie 123); (4) stannin dibbie, a ring game of marbles in which the players have to fire into the centre while standing erect on the circumference (Ags. 1971). See Dabbie; (5) standin drink, a drink taken standing, a Deochandorus. Cf. Scott Waverley Note K.; (6) standing graith, the fixed or stationary parts of a mill (Fif. 1825 Jam.). See Graith, n., 4. Also fig. in an indecent sense, of the male genitals; (7) standin kirn, a churn worked by pushing a plunger up and down, a plop-churn (Ayr. 1928; Cai., Slg. 1971); (8) stanin lick, in children's game: a blow given without any attempt by the recipient to ward it off (Mry. 1921 T.S.D.C.); (9) stand net, a fixed salmon-net set up on poles in the river or sea; (10) stand-soldier, a sentry; (11) standin-stane, a monolith or menhir (Sc. 1825 Jam.). Gen.Sc. The expression standing-stone is rare and obs. in St. Eng.; (12) stanin stroke, = (8) (Lnk. 1921 T.S.D.C.).
(1) Sh. 1897 Shetland News (4 Sept.):
I caa'd dem i' da wa' an' dan knottit da staandin baands apo' dem. (2) Abd. 1705 Abd. Jnl. N. & Q. II. 309:
Two sheetes, on bolster, on stand bed. Rs. 1724 Pitcalnie MSS. (6 June):
A standing bed and an box bed in the Chamber. Abd. 1781 Session Papers, Davidson v. Sharp (22 June) 8:
A stand bed; six fir tedders. (5) Sc. 1824 Scott Redgauntlet Let. ii.:
Doch an dorroch, which is a standing drink, for which no reckoning is paid. Abd. 1898 J. M. Cobban Angel of Covenant xxxviii.:
We're for but a standing drink. (6) Sc. a.1796 Merry Muses (1965) 139:
She fand a staun o' staunin' graith, Comin' thro' the rye. m.Lth. 1894 P. H. Hunter J. Inwick xvii.:
Stanes, hopper, an' wheel, stan'in graith an' gangin graith. (9) Mry. 1732 W. Cramond Ch. Speymouth (1890) 48:
To appear before the congregation for fishing on Sabbath with a stand net. (10) Sc. 1700 Seasonable Precautions in Electing the Magistrates 19:
The Hue and Cry is raised for a Guard of stand-Souldiers. (11) Cai. 1726 W. Macfarlane Geog. Coll. (S.H.S.) I. 185:
There are in the parish of Reay standing stones of considerable height. Ork. 1820 Scott Pirate xxxviii. note:
The Standing Stones, arranged in the form of a half circle, or rather a horse-shoe, the height of the pillars being fifteen feet and upwards [at Stenness]. Gall. 1824 MacTaggart Gallov. Encycl. 346:
Since I cam to the stanning stane. e.Lth. 1892 J. Lumsden Sheep Head 34:
The sacred spot the hero fell Tells to this day his standing-stane. Kcd. 1932 L. G. Gibbon Sunset Song 283:
There was the old circle of the Standing Stones.
2. In imper. in calls to a horse: stop!, stand quiet! (Ags. 1849 H. Stephens Bk. Farm I. 160; Cai. 1904 E.D.D.; n., em.S.(a), wm., s.Sc. 1971). Also stand at peace, id. (Abd., Per. 1971) stan(d) ower, move to the other side of the stall (Sc. 1904 E.D.D.; Abd., Per. 1971), stand still, stand motionless (Ags. 1849 H. Stephens Bk. Farm I. 160; Abd. 1971), stand up, id. (ne.Sc., Dmf. 1971). Also in Eng. dial.
Sc. 1810 Scott Lady of Lake v. xviii.:
“Stand, Bayard, stand!” — the steed obeyed.
3. Of a clock or watch: to have stopped, not to be going (Sc. 1799 W. Mitchell Scotticisms 74; Sh., n., em., s.Sc. 1971). Now rare or obs. in Eng.
Ags. 1892 A. Reid Howetoon 68:
Wad ye tell me whether that clock's stannin? Sc. 1896 R. Masson Elements Eng. 36:
I had no idea it was so late, for my watch is standing. m.Sc. 1937 Oor Mither Tongue (McWhannell) 88:
A black-oot fire an' a stanin' knock.
4. In neg. or quasi-neg. sentences followed by about or the inf. with to: to hesitate, scruple, be reluctant.
Sc. 1712 Caldwell Papers (M.C.) I. 229:
He would not stand to help him to purchase a place. Sc. 1816 Scott O. Mortality x.:
Though it had been to cost his hanging, he wadna hae stude twice about it. Sc. 1823 Lockhart Reg. Dalton III. 176:
What signifies standing about trifles, when we ken that the thing is to be? Sc. 1826 Duke of Athole's Nurse in Child Ballads (1956) IV. 152:
The curtains they neer stood to tear them.
5. Absol. To take place, be celebrated, esp. of a wedding; tr. to last (a specified time).
Ags. 1776 C. Keith Farmer's Ha' 20:
On Friday next a bridal stands At the Kirk-town. Sc. 1828 P. Buchan Ballads I. 78:
Her kirking and her fair wedding Shall baith stand on ae day. Sh. 1899 J. Spence Folk-Lore 188:
In connection with a marriage there were the Sporin', the Contract, and the Bridal, which commonly “stood” three days.
6. Fig. To be solvent, pay one's way.
m.Lth. 1786 G. Robertson Har'st Rig (1801) xlviii.:
The back-ga'en tenant fell a-hint, And coudnae stand.
7. In combs. with advs. and preps. and phrs.: (1) stand about, to stand farther off, to keep one's distance, to get out of the way; (2) stand afore the Kirk, to appear publicly in church or privately before the Session to be rebuked for lapse of conduct (Sc. 1904 E.D.D.); (3) stand a market or tryst, to appear at a market or cattle sale with articles, animals, etc. to sell. Also in Eng. dial.; (4) stand at, to be nauseated by (food), averse or sickened from eating; (5) stand by, to afford (a loss); (6) stand captain, to pay for drinks for a company; (7) stand for, to hesitate or refuse on account of. Cf. 4. above; (8) stand good for, to stand surety for, be bound for, guarantee (I., n., em., wm.Sc. 1971); (9) stand (one) hard, to vex, grieve, be painful to; (10) stand in for, = (8) (Sh., Abd., Ags. 1971); (11) stand on, (i) of the wind: to blow head on, also fig. of adversity (Sh. 1971); (ii) to keep on bidding at an auction; to offer the same price for a following lot as was obtained for its predecessor (Kcb. 1971); (12) stand one's ben, to keep one's place in a queue (Fif., Lnk., Ayr. 1971). See Ben, n.2 and Suppl.; (13) stand (someone's) part, to stand up for, to come to the support or help of, champion; (14) stand out, to remain solvent (Bnff., Abd. 1971). Cf. 6.; (15) stan-tae, -tee, n., a set-to, tussle (Sh., n.Sc., Fif., Wgt. 1971). Used attrib. in quot.; (16) stand the Session, = (2); (17) stand throu, = (14); (18) stand Tom Callendar, to pay expenses, foot the bill. Cf. Eng. stand Sam, id. The orig. of the expression is unknown; (19) stand to the wa, of a door: to be wide open (I., ne.Sc., Ags., Per. 1971). See Wa; (20) stand up, to hesitate, be irresolute (Rxb. 1825 Jam.); to trifle, dawdle, idle (Id.; Abd. 1971); (21) stand up for, to be groomsman or bridesmaid to, at a wedding (Ags. 1971). Also stand up wi, id. (Dmf. 1971), as in Eng. dial.; (22) stand wi, = (4) (Sh. 1866 Edm. Gl., 1914 Angus Gl.); (23) stand yon(t), = (1) (Sc. 1825 Jam.; ne., em.Sc.(a), Rxb. 1971). Also used as adj., of persons: distant, aloof, unapproachable, repellent in manner (ne.Sc. 1971).
(1) Fif. 1791 Session Papers, Heriot v. Heriot (22 March) 58:
The claimant happening to come in there, Miss Heriot said, “Stand about, Geordy, a little.” Sc. 1823 C. K. Sharpe Ballad Bk. (1880) 11:
Stand about, ye fisher jads, And gie my goun room. Lth. 1853 W. Wilson Ailieford II. iv.:
A crouse crawer in his ain barnyard, garring his neighbors stand about. (2) Abd. 1790 A. Shirrefs Poems 67:
The poor lad maun stand Afore the Kirk, to get a reprimand. (3) Dmf. 1788 Dmf. Weekly Jnl. (6 May):
Every Shoemaker who shall stand the market with shoes to sell. Sc. 1964 Scots Mag. (Jan.) 333:
The great Lochaber drover Corriechoillie, used to say he had “stood” fifty Falkirk trysts. (4) Sc. 1825 Jam.:
I ne'er saw sic a soss; my stammak stude at it. (5) Sc. 1817 Scott Rob Roy xxvi.:
If he thought the buyer was a puir man, and couldna stand by a loss. (6) wm.Sc. 1837 Laird of Logan 201:
I'm going to stand captain tonight. (7) Sc. 1816 Scott O. Mortality x.:
I wadna stand for the walk — I can walk ten miles by moonlight weel eneugh. (8) Slg. 1792 G. Galloway Poems 52:
For standin' good for Willie Baird. (9) s.Sc. 1897 E. Hamilton Outlaws xvi.:
It stands me hard to think of what you gone through. (10) Sc. 1887 Jam.:
He has taen the farm, and his brother stan's in for him. (11) (i) Sh.12 1952:
He'll be a day whan he stands on, i.e. it will be a hard, arduous time. (13) Sc. 1827 C. I. Johnstone Eliz. de Bruce II. ix.:
Many is the day, little as he is, he stood my part, the kind creature. (14) Abd. 1928 Weekly Jnl. (20 Sept.) 6:
It's a strange thing 'at naething seems tae be deein' weel wi' the fairmer aye noo' an' fat wye he stan's oot. (15) Abd. 1954 Huntly Express (6 Aug.):
Sometimes there wis a gweed stan'-teefecht over the boundary of lairs. (16) Abd. 1873 P. Buchan Inglismill 38:
Bogie wi' his quean maun stan' the Session. (17) Sc. 1728 R. Wodrow Analecta (M.C.) IV. 1:
Their losses, amount to twenty-eight thousand pound sterling; and, indeed, it's a wonder to me how they stand throu. (18) Sc. 1829 Scott Letters (Cent. Ed.) XI. 207:
I shall be able to stand Tom Callendar as formerly. (19) ne.Sc. 1847 R. Chambers Pop. Rhymes 240:
A castle wi' the door standing wide to the wa'. Bnff. 1923 Banffshire Jnl. (18 Sept.) 8:
The kirk grows close, fock's like to plot, tho' doors stan' t' the wa'. (23) Sc. a.1758 Ramsay Poems (S.T.S.) III. 296:
“Young miss, ye'r servant,” quoth Mess Jon, “There is nae testment; pray, stand yon.” Edb. 1777 Weekly Mag. (30 Oct.) 112:
In learned phrase, and words sae braw, That gar us a' stand yon. Sc. 1827 Wilson Noctes Amb. (1855) I. 274:
Staun yont, . . . till wi' this twa-haunded poker I smash the centre lump. Kcd. 1856 W. Jamie Jacobite's Son 133:
He makes the vera wildest of the Russians stan' yont. Abd. 1920 A. Robb MS. i.:
He wis a gey stan'yont kin' o' a carle. Abd. 1958 Bon-Accord (13 March) 7:
He garr't a' an' sin'ry stan' yont at wrestlin'.
8. tr. To bring to a standstill, to halt completely. Also in Eng. dial.
Slk. 1956 Southern Reporter (4 Oct.) 5:
Completely standed among muff and coarse wool.
9. To cost, followed as object by the person who has to pay or the amount to be paid (Sc. 1808 Jam.). In Eng. now obs. or dial., and usu. followed by in.
Sc. 1702 Foulis Acct. Bk. (S.H.S.) 301:
I gave her a ring stood me 25 lib. sterling. Mry. 1716 A. & H. Tayler 1715 (1936) 286:
Each chapine bottle of ealle stands a groat. Sc. 1736 Session Papers, Petition P. Moffat (2 March) 8:
The common Weiks stand the Candle-makers at the Rate of Six Pence per Pound. Inv. 1773 I. F. Grant Old Highl. Farm (1924) 200:
The Brae Morray victuall stands me carriage and servants meat encluded. . . . ¥6. 14s. Kcb. 1795 Stat. Acc.1 XI. 72:
The cwt. of coals, that could be had for 4d. at farthest, stands the consumer above a shilling. m.Lth. 1894 W. Stevenson Puddin' 49:
That maun stand ye twa shillin's or half a croon. Arg. 1936 L. McInnes S. Kintyre 15:
Hoot wad the lake o' that stan ye noo?
10. To afford, keep up.
Arg. 1884 Crofters' Comm. Evid. IV. 3037:
Were it not for the long credit we get from merchants at home and in Glasgow, we could not stand our holdings so long.
II. n. 1. (1) As in Eng., the act of standing. In dim. form stannie (-hard-bargie), in the game of pinner (see Pin, v.1, 4.): a call by a player when hard pressed by an opponent, which involves the latter in having to stand and throw his pin hard from above head instead of dropping it with careful aim which is much easier (Ags. 1955); (2) a pause, halt, hesitation: a stoppage (of work).
(2) Per. 1878 R. Ford Hame-Spun Lays 62:
Jamie began, wi' a “hic” an' a stan', Like ony wha's heart's ower fou. Gsw. 1898 Gsw. Ballad Club II. 272:
But bairns cam' hame and stauns cam' roun', A trade depressed brang wages doun.
†2. A place in gen., a place to stay in, a stopping-place.
Lnk. a.1779 D. Graham Writings (1883) I. 113:
They prudently pitch'd out a stand At a Quaker's house. Rnf. 1857 W. Love Autobiography 36:
Whenever I enter a house and see all in confusion, I spend very little time in such a “staun'.”
3. A stall or booth at a market or fair, a pitch, freq. including whatever is exposed for sale (Sc. 1802 J. Sibbald Chron. Sc. Poetry Gl.). Orig. and still chiefly Sc. Comb. stand-maill, -meal, the rent paid for a pitch at a market (Fif. 1902 F. Drake-Carnell Old Sc. Custom (1929) 99). Now hist. See Mail, n.1
Lnk. 1713 Burgh Rec. Lnk. (B.R.S.) 287:
The baillies rouped the stand maill of the meall mercat. Cai. 1730 D. Grant Old Thurso (1966) 31:
No Merchant or Padler shall have in his or their custodies or stands any goods of any other merchant. Dmf. 1808 J. Mayne Siller Gun 38:
Craems, ginge-bread-stawns, legerdemain, And raree-shows. Dmf. 1823 J. Kennedy Poems 76:
Ye wha at fairs set out your stan' To gain your bread. Abd. 1860 Banffshire Jnl. (31 Jan.) 6:
I saw him on the market day Aside a sweetie stan. Ags. 1886 A. Willock Rosetty Ends 82:
They screwed thegither the bits o' sticks that formed their standies, an' in the afternoon displayed their fairlies. Fif. 1895 G. Setoun Sunshine & Haar 15:
The whole street is a stretch of ‘stands,' shaded with canvas awnings. m.Lth. 1911 J. Dickson Crichtoun 112:
“Stands” erected at the top of the village by petty confectioners. Sc. 1936 Trans. Highl. Soc. 304:
One of the most pleasing features of the Show was that provided by the exhibits on the Horticultural stands.
4. A complete set or outfit: (1) of various kinds of equipment, e.g. weights, ropes, knitting-needles (I., n., em., sm.Sc., Rxb. 1971), drawers, etc. In Eng. only of weapons. Also used in coll. sing.
Fif. 1703 E. Henderson Dunfermline (1879) 374:
To send to holland for 12 stand of trone yetling weights, consisting of a Stone, a half-pound, a quarter, 2 pound, and 1 pound each stand. Ayr. 1705 Mun. Irvine (1891) II. 127:
Fourtein stand of ropes. Twelve stand of leid weights. Lnk. 1733 Session Papers, Neilson v. Weir (25 June) 6:
A Stand of old Shop Shuttles, fixed in the Wall of the said Shop. Sc. 1776 D. Herd Sc. Songs II. 163:
Jenny Jimp and Jenny Jeus Bought a pair of jimp deus Wi' nineteen stand of feet. Uls. 1880 Patterson Gl.:
Four knitting needles are a stand. Abd. 1887 Bon-Accord (7 May) 17:
Lat's see a stan' o' wivin' weeres. Kcb. 1901 R. Trotter Gall. Gossip 320:
Peggy borrow't a stan o' raips. Sh. 1949 J. Gray Lowrie 93:
Wan staand o' swara waers.
(2) specif. of bagpipes: the whole instrument, bag, drones and chanter (Bnff. 1866 Gregor D. Bnff. 180). Gen.Sc.
Rnf. 1812 Paisley Annual Misc. 88:
There was a man who lived in the town who made bagpipes and sold them at four pounds Scots, and Habbie having got so much for herding, he went down to the town and bought a stand of them. Sc. 1831 J. Logan Sc. Gael. (1876) II. 305:
A stand or set of Highland pipes sometimes cost a considerable sum. Abd. 1889 Bon-Accord (2 Nov.) 18:
Why in the name of goodness is a further subscription asked? Is it to provide a “stan o' bagpipes,” or what? Sc. 1954 Scotsman (19 March) 6:
A stand of pipes is now a very expensive thing to buy.
(3) a set or suit of clothes (ne.Sc., Ags., Fif. 1971).
Rnf. 1707 W. Hector Judicial Rec. (1876) 203:
Ane whole stand or suit of womans Cloaths. m.Lth. 1795 G. Robertson Agric. M. Lth. 49:
There is hardly a man amongst them that is not provided in six or seven stand of cloaths at least, all home made. Sc. 1820 Scott Monastery Intro.:
A sad-coloured stand of claithes. Sc. 1859 C. S. Graham Mystifications 67:
King George the Third, whom she described as being “like ony ither husbandman wi' a stand o' blue claes.” Cld. 1866 G. Mills Beggar's Benison I. 103:
Adorned in his best “stand of blacks,” that is, dressed in his Sunday suit. Abd. 1877 W. Alexander Rural Life 157:
A “stan' o' shapit claes” could not be had without the tailor. Per. 1897 C. Stuart Sandy Scott's Bible Class 61:
A new stand o' claes that nane has seen the marrow o'. s.Sc. 1904 W. G. Stevenson Glen Sloken i.:
Donald, ye wad maybe notice, had a new staund o' kilts on. Sc. 1914 R. B. Cunninghame-Graham Sc. Stories 22:
He used to come dressed as I have described, . . . in what we call in Scotland “a stan' o' black,” with frilled white shirt and collar. Mry. 1952 I. Cameron Heather Mixture iii.:
God be thanked Sir Herbert hasna on the kilt but a decent stan' o' blacks.
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