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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 2000 (DOST Vol. VIII).
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S(c)hake, S(c)haik, S(c)ha(c)k, v. Also: schaike, schayke, chaik, sheake, shecke. P.t. s(c)huk(e; s(c)huik(e; s(c)heuk; schouk, schowk; schuck; s(c)hoke, shook(e, schoak; schake; schakit, shaiked. P.p. s(c)hakin, -ine, -yn, -en; s(c)haikin(g, -en, -ne; schakkin, shauken, shoken, shooken; schake, schaik. [ME and e.m.E. scæken (Layamon), saken (a1220), scak (Cursor M.), schake(n (c1320). P.t. scok (Cursor M.), schoke (Manning), etc., shakide (Wyclif). P.p. i-shake (a1300), shake (Chaucer), shaken (a1534), etc. OE scacan, p.t. scók, p.p. scacen.]

I. 1. intr. A poetical word for: To go, pass, move. ?1438 Alex. ii 9754.
Quhare the assembleis togidder schuke [F. La ou il s'entr'aprochent] The play vox wery for mony man But lauching losit thare lyues than

II. To vibrate, tremble.

2. Of things normally stable or still: To vibrate irregularly; to tremble, as a result of impact. Hence, to totter, lose stability, become weakened.pres. c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 9.
The erd sould trymbill, the firmament sould schaik
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1414. a1585 Maitl. Q. 201/14.
The thundring doun of cannounis … maid hevin and erthe to schaik
1600-1610 Melvill 525.p.t. a1400 Leg. S. xlii 261.
The erde steryt sa felloun[l]y, That al the cyte in til hy Schuke & to-giddire strake
1513 Doug. ix xii 61.
The erd dyndlyt, and all the cite schuke
1535 Stewart 7194.(b) 1460 Hay Alex. 153.
The erd trimblit and all the housis schoke [: quuke]
(c) c1500 Makc. MS iv 58.
Hillis trimlit, erd schowk, rochis claif
c1590 J. Stewart 51/108.
(d) 15.. Clar. v 2017.
Schuike [ed. schoke]
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 148.
The parpan wall of the hous schuik and trymblit

b. With a complement expressing a resultant situation or condition. 1528 Lynd. Dreme 446.
His bost & brag … Maid all the heuin most lyk to schaik in schonder
c1550 Id. Meldrum 156.
Ay till his sword did shaik in sunder
1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Eclogues iii 102.
Thair bains ar lyke to schaik sindrie

3. Of persons or beasts, or their limbs: To quake or tremble with infirmity; to quiver with emotion, shiver with cold, quake with fear. a1400 Leg. S. xvi 846.
Thane begane his kneis to quake, & al his body for to schake
1513 Doug. i iii 1.
Belive Eneas membris schuk for cald
Ib. v viii 21. 1535 Stewart 22764.
Tha trymlit and tha shuke
Ib. 14916. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 7401. 1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 78. 1591-2 Rob Stene 3.
The lyoun, with ane awfull brow, Maid every beist to chaik and bow
a1599 Rollock Wks. I 335.
Thou sall schaik and trimbill at his countenance
1603 E. Melville Godlie Dreame 316.
My hands did shaik, that I him held withall

b. To stagger or reel in consequence of a blow or violent impact. With and without complement. 1375 Barb. ii 383.
And in the stour sa hardyly He ruschyt that all the semble schuk
c1475 Wall. i 404.
Wallas with it fast on the cheik him tuk Wyth so gud will, quhill of his feit he schuk

4. Of things having some freedom of movement: To move irregularly and quickly to and fro, etc.; to quiver, quake, vibrate, waver; also, to be brandished or shaken. 1513 Doug. i vi 16.
In athiris hand yfeir The braid steil heid schuke on the huntyng speir
Ib. ii iii 59.
Down on the grond scho fell, Hyr targe trymlyng, and schakyng fast hir speir
Ib. iii x 33.
Quharthrou the sey and al the fludis schuke
Ib. ii x 120, x ix 39. 1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 552.
The ledder schuke, he lape, and gat one fall
1535 Stewart 57051.
The schawis trymlit all and schuke
a1605 Montg. Misc. P. liv 4.
Ȝeill fart fast in Baquhidder or the corne schaik
1622-6 Bisset II 244/30.
And evill wedder tak theme in sic maner that the taikling schaik

b. To tremble or fall in a shivering manner. Also with doune. c1500-c1512 Dunb. G. Targe 14.
The perly droppis schake in [M. schuk in to] silvir schouris Quhill all in balme did branch and levis flete
Id. Tua Mar. W. 515 (Ch. & M.).
Siluer schouris doune schuke as the schene cristall

III. To cause to vibrate, agitate.

5. tr. To brandish or flourish threateningly (a weapon). Also, to flourish, wave (something) in ostentation or triumph. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2958.
The dart he tuke And felly at Vlixes schuke
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 26/36.
Scorne … oft on me his babill schuke
1513 Doug. xii vii 117.
He schuke and branglit fast his speir that tyde
1560 Rolland Seven S. 6194. 1673 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 188.
When I so did he threatned and abused me with his tungu and shaiked his staffe at me

6. To cause to move irregularly to and fro; to agitate; to toss about. Also with adv. complement.pres. 1456 Hay II 101/2.
[The wind] drownis schippis, schakis cornis … and brekis treis
(b) 1513 Doug. iii Prol. 43.
Thocht storm of temptatioun my schip oft schaik, Fra swelth of Sylla [etc.]
1566-70 Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. vi 100.
To schaik the brydle to encourage the horse
a1570-86 Maitl. F. 288/34.
Thai be bot leavis that wind dois schaik
1688 E. Fife Admir. Depute Ct. Bk. 28 July.
That the person shakeing or treaming other mens netts shall satisfie the pairtie his wholl skaith
(c) 1650 Inverurie 306.
Be reason whereof she did gnaw her finger and shack the kist and the crook
p.t. a1500 Henr. Test. Cress. 492.
Thay gaif ane cry, and schuik coppis gude speid
1596 Dalr. I 203/26.
Throuch the tempest of a terrible storme, that sa vehementlie schuke thame
1662 Soc. Ant. XXII 221.
Ȝe said to Isobel Wilson … that the said Henry shuik the sheet well enough yesterday
1696 T. Davidson Rowan Tree (1949) 266.
It [sc. an evil spirit] … shoke men back and forward
p.p. c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2394.
His schippis thare That with the tempest schaken war
(b) 1513 Doug. i iii heading.
Quhou that Ene was with the tempest schaik And quhou Neptune his navy salvyt fra wraik

b. fig. ? To throw (troops) into disorder or confusion. c1650 P. Gordon Brit. Dist. 126.
Cut them in peices … so great was the execution which they made efter the horse had shauken [pr. shanken] and quyt astonished them by perseing rudly throw them

c. To schake (one's) lap, to display scorn or the like. c1665 Anal. Scot. II 91.
And Hamiltowne was but a knave, When he his lap did shake
c1679 Ib. 91 n.
At the Lord's Supper he used to shak his lap against them who would break the Covenant

7. To move to and fro irregularly or tremulously; to agitate (some part of the body). a1500 Henr. Age & Yowth 26.
This senȝeour … Schakand his berd, he said, ‘My bairne [etc.]’
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 113/10.
[The fox] Syne schuk his taill with quhinge and ȝelp
1513 Doug. xiii iv 80.
The snaill Schakand hir coppit schell

b. To schake (one's) head (on or apoun a person), to express disapproval, dissent or doubt.(1) ?1438 Alex. i 2272.
The duke Betys the king hes sene And shuke his heid for proper tene
a1500 Henr. Fab. 1388.
Schaikand his heid, he said, ‘My sone, lat be’
Ib. 2112 (Ch.).
Bot quhat wes ȝone the carll cryit on hie And schuke his heid quhen that he saw thow fell?
1513 Doug. xii xiv 21. 1576 Crim. Trials I ii 57.
And becaus sche refusit, he schuke his heid, and said that he suld caus hir forthink it
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 927 (W). 1591 Crim. Trials I ii 245.
Rychard … declairit thair … that scho [and two others] … sould be thre of the doaris of itt; quhilk quhen scho hard, scho schuik hir heid
(2) a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 857.
Thir folk for scorne apoun him schuk thair heid
1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 648 (L).
Than all the court on me thayr hedis schuke [: ruke, bruke, quuke; E. schuik]

c. reflex. To move one's body or limbs briskly in order to dispel stiffness after sleeping; to arouse or bestir oneself. 15.. Sym & Bruder 69.
Than Symme rais and schuk him [: luk him, bruk him]

d. To schake (one's) eares. (Cf. OED shake v. 6 c.) 1657 Balfour Ann. IV 114.
Didope … wold haue had the king vpe to the hills [etc.] … bot erre he was awarre, Rob. Montgomeries 2 regiments of horsse appeirs … quherat Buchan, Didope, [etc.] … begane to shecke ther eares, and speake more calmley and in a lower strain

e. To schake (one's) breeches, ? to prepare to depart. a1689 Cleland 32.
Her nain-sell shooke her naked breeches, For she was tyred with his speeches

f. Schayke leg, Schaik a trot, titles of dances.Compl. 66/23, 26.

8. In the phr. to schake handis (togidder or with another person). 1513 Doug. i viii 37.
Thai … langit sair to schaik handys [L. coniungere dextras]
Ib. vi xi 39.
Fader, now grant me by and by, We athir may with other handis schaik [Ruddim. schaike]
Ib. iii ii 28. 1567 Sat. P. iii 231.
[We] tuik gude nycht and shuik our handis twa
1575 Edinb. Test. III 346.
The said Robert askit him forgevynis and sa jonit & schakit handis togidder
1596 Dalr. II 440/28.
With al the rest scho schaikis handes, this way with thame scho … bad adew
1598 St. A. Baxter Bks. 63.
Ordanit … to confes his offence, chaik handis with the said George
a1605 Birrel Diary 24. Hist. Kennedy 42.
After they had shoken hands togidder
1642 A Second Discovery by the Northern Scout 14.
If he once shakes hands with any, they had need say their prayers
c1650 Spalding I 329.
Where it is to be observit that the puritanes of England and we both had schakkin handis befoir the begining of this wark
fig. 1635 Dickson Hebrews 293.
As long as they are yet in the way, and haue not shaken hands with an evill course

9. a. To move (a person) roughly to and fro, with complement, etc. expressing the resultant situation. c1420 Wynt. viii 6980.
Barnys in creddill … on thare speris thai wald … tak, And to thare newys down wald thaim schak
a1599 Rollock Wks. I 371 (see 11b below). c1615 Chron. Kings 165.
Francis Mwbray being warditt for allegit tressoune … brak waird and being aschaipit [= espied] be the watsche of the castell thay schaikis him out of the claithis quhilk he wes gangand doune into, quhairby he fallis and slayis him selff be the same

b. Of an animal: To seize (another animal, or some part of one) in its mouth and move it violently to and fro. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1732.
This grewhound … Into his mouth his [sc. the knight's] hors taill wald he tak, About his luggis oft times he wald it schaik. Syne ȝoull and cry
1591-2 Rob Stene 15.
With that he [sc. the wolf] hynt him [sc. the ram] be the throt, And schuke him in his greidy gammis

10. With adv. or phrase: To reduce by shaking to a specified condition. Also fig.(1) ?1438 Alex. i 1580.
Emynedus in the scheild him straik Quhill all in schunders he couth it schaik
Ib. 3206. a1500 Henr. Fab. 2587. Id. Bludy Serk 31. 1560 Rolland Seven S. 1776.
Scho [sc. the falcon] russillit & rang hir bellis Almaist scho had al schakin thame in schellis
1572 Sat. P. xxxii 120.
Ha! tressoun vntrew ane tow will schaik in schunder
(2) c1520-c1535 Nisbet Luke vi 38.
Thai sal geue into youre bosum a gude mesure and wele fillit and schakin to giddire and ouerflowing
(3) fig. 1598 James VI Basil. Doron 186/3.
But the cheif comendation of a poeme is that quhen the uerse sall be shaikin sindrie in prose it sall be founde sa riche … as it sall retaine the lustre of a poeme althoch in prose
1639 Fugitive Poetry II xv 2/4.
He sall … schaik to schivers like a schard The Covenant

b. To schake lows, loose: In senses 7(2), 9 (2) and 10 b (2) of Lows adj.(1) 1633 Orkney Bp. Ct. in Dalyell Darker Superst. 451.
Ye sat doun and taking of your curtch sheuk [v.r. scheuk] your hair lous, and … shoe … hes nevir bein weill since ye curst hir or sheuk your hair lous
(2) 1596 Aberd. Council Lett. I 5.
The bulwarks, peir [etc.] … is now … becum ruynus and decayit and the small remanent bulwark schakin lows
1603 Moysie 80.
The schipis lyand all in Leith read wer schakin lovse
(3) 1618 Elphinstone Mun. 199/1.
Gif … blood flow … it will sheake the countreys loose agane

c. reflex. To schake (oneself) loos(e, louse, to free oneself (of (= from) some restraint). c1650 Spalding I 54.
He sould seim to rax him self and schak him self looss of his arme. … Ballindallach … schuke him self looss and wyns the killogie dur
1678 Lauder Notices Affairs I 211.
All their branling is not able to shake themselfes louse of the Act of Sederunt

d. intr. Of a thing: To loosen itself from a fixed position by shaking. 1600-1610 Melvill 253.
And thairwith, be hir tumbling and yeawing, the mast schouk sa louse, that Mr. Robert (the auld man being dammist and machles) haid mikle ado to fasten the sam

11. a. tr. To cause to splinter; to shatter to pieces. ?1438 Alex. i 2444.
The heuy dintis to gif and taik, Scheildis to frushe and shaftis to shaik

b. To cause (a structure, etc.) to vibrate, hence, to impair its stability. Also const. adverbial complement. Also in fig. context. 1513 Doug. ii viii 95.
Oft wyth the ram the port is schaik and duschit
1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 23.
The noyes of the fall of the hous quhilk schuik the haill towne
1596 Dalr. II 295/18.
This force shortlie laid to, and … finalie with the gret gunis, al daschet, dung and shaikne
a1599 Rollock Wks. I 371.
And thairfoir seing this doctrine is set on sa solide ane foundatioun, quha will schaik it? Schaik it let see off hir foundatioun, and put at it, I will schaik thee and ding thee to hell
Ib. 431.
Sa lang as the Lord hes ado with onie man, he will schaik hevin and eirth or he perische
1600-1610 Melvill 421. 1608 Chron. Perth 12.
Ane earth quak … that schoak the tolboth the battell end, that thair fell many stonis aff it
1618 Glasgow Chart. I ii 300.
The pilleris [sc. of the bridge] … being so schaikin and brugille by the invndatioun … of the watter of Clyde
16.. Dunferm. Ann. 265.
The hail houses in Dunfermling were shooken and furniture thrown doon

c. fig. To weaken (a person with regard to his beliefs, social structure, etc.). Also const. adverbial complement. a1400 Leg. S. xxxi 159.
He … fel in disputacion With ane erretike, that richt wise Wes in clergy at dewyse, That sa wele schoke the abbot, til [etc.]
1562-3 Winȝet II 21/22.
For nocht onlie affinitie [etc.] … bot also … prouinces, nationis and breuelie the haill Romane Empyre fra the ground wes schaikin and moueit out of the place
Ib. 53/30.
Be sindry tempestuous stormis of thochtis and cuiris ar thai schaiking, strukin, and almaist slane
c1590 Fowler I 233/6. 1596 Dalr. I 155/19.
That the effairis of Britannie perise nocht alluterlie, shaikin with sa mony battelis
1596–7 in Melvill 390.
When the Papists ar readie bent to schak and overthrow the kirk and gospell
1669 Laing MSS I 375.
Lord if it be thy will to shaik and dissolve this church government louse wee pray the pins of it softly

12. To dislodge or eject (a thing) by agitating its container or support. a. Const. from, etc., or with adv. down, off, out (of), etc. Also fig. 15.. Dunb. App. vii 3.
The levys are doun schakyn with the schouris
1513 Doug. ii vii 75.
Cassandra Was from the tempill … Drawyn forsabilly bairhed, with hayr down schake
Ib. iv x 99.
Schaik down the salys sone and lat ws wend
Ib. iii i 123, vii vi 142. 1528 Lynd. Dreme 1024.
All hir cannounis sche leit craik of at onis Down schuke the stremaris frome the topcastell
15.. Clar. iii 446.
Ane messinger … in his drukinnes … Out of his bulgit schuik his letters all
1622 Falkirk Par. Rec. I 35.
Davad Levingstoun … tuk her purs and schuck the money out of it and brunt the said purs
c1650 Spalding I 34.
Ane bassein all of gold … quhairin wes schakin out of ane imbroderit purs ane thousand golden double angellis
fig. 1564 in Knox VI 540.
For our quene thynkis to have hym [sc. Bothwell] at all tymes redye to schaik out of hir pushet agaynst us Protestantis
1581 Hamilton Cath. Tr. in 1573-1600 Cath. Tr. (STS) 85/31.
Thir men … vants thame selfs to haue the Haly Spreit quhome they schaik out of thair sleue at thair plaisure

b. Without complement: To cause (fruit) to fall by shaking the tree. 1603 Dundonald Par. Rec. 41, 42.
John Thomsoun … to haif schaikin fruit … in the Achanis yardis. … denyit he schuk ony bot grantit he pulit sum
1679 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 348.
The said Edward Edȝer did by the wholl fruit in Butill ȝeard … and did shak the said fruit and put them in secks

13. To distribute with a shake. 1616 Orkney Bp. Ct. in Dalyell Darker Superst. 451.
[She] shuik hir hair about hir luidgis, ran to the Ladie Chappell hard by [etc.]

b. To toss up (in the wind). lit. and fig. 1562-3 Winȝet II 27/20.
And because also that thai schaik vp in the wound with thare cursit handis the memory of euery haly man, as it war the muildis of thame now laid on sleip
Ib. 81/4.
As thai wald schaik wp (that I may vse his wordis) the muildis of thame deceisit wnto the wind

14. fig. To cast off (from (fra) oneself), to reject, repudiate (a person). 1562-3 Winȝet II 49/22.
For quha is he quha wald hef schaikin fra him a man of sa grete ingine, of sa greit leirnyng

15. To schake off. a. lit. To cast off or get rid of, to divest oneself of (equipment, garments, etc.) b. fig. To renounce (a duty or obligation). c. fig. To free oneself of (something harmful). d. To cast off or desert (a person). Also to schake of hand.a. a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 119 (L).
That god of all his geir he schowk [W. schuik, Wr. shook] And layit it on the ground
b. 1565 Aberd. B. Rec. in Mill Mediæv. Plays 154.
Certane seditious personis … hes in thair maner schakine of all debtfull obedience … to … our maiestratis
1565 Reg. Privy C. I 388. 1579 Ib. 208.
Haveing schaikin af the feir of God
1592 Wemyss Corr. 30.
As hes schaiken of thair dewitie and allegeance
1606 in Melvill 721.
1610 Edinb. B. Rec. VI 342.
Haveing schaiking off all feir of God
1616 Reg. Privy C. X 575.
Haveing schaikin af his dewtie and alledgeance to his majestie
1630 Justiciary Cases I 144.
The said Alexander Hammiltoun schaiking af all feir of the almychtie and omnipotent God reuerence or regaird of his devyne lawis
1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 376.
He having undertaken the charge upon him can not now shack it aff agane
c. 1590-1 R. Bruce Serm. 22.
To shake off your lustis and affections, peece and peece, and sa peece and peece renounce thy self
Ib. 69. c1590 J. Stewart 114 §4.
Schaik aff despair
d. (1) 1571 Sat. P. xxix 34.
Quhen he listis, he schaks hir of be diuorce or hir wirreis
(2) a1585 Arbuthnot Maitl. Q. 88/38.
Thay luif maist leill thocht men doe feill And schaikis oft of hand

16. To schake out, to unfurl (a flag, sail) with a shake. Also in fig. context. 1549 Compl. 41/23.
The master cryit, boy to the top. Schaik out the flag on the top mast
1562-3 Winȝet II 53/32.
That thai mot lat doun the sailis of thair proud consait, schaikin out to heicht, quhilkis vickitlie thai had dilatit to the windis of noueltie

17. To schake up, to berate. 1572 Buch. Detect. (1727) 42.
And maid him be schakin up with wemenis scalding

IV. 18. comb.In the surname or nickname Schaklok, and the ? contemptuous invented name Schakmaschitache.Shakeloose. (Cf. 10 b above.)(1) c1328 Liber Aberbr. I 339.
Walterus Shakloc
1382 Rot. Sc. II 44/1.
Adam Shaklok mercator de Scotia
1433–8 Misc. Spald. C. V 44.
Andree Johnsoun dict. Schaklok
(2) 1631 Elgin Rec. II 220.
Let hir neuer die till scho yeid about lyk Schakmaschitache and Claschmabandoche
(3) 1661 Wodrow Hist. I (1828) 122.
That this land shall make the fruit of their loosing from ten years' bondage, a shakeloose of the government of Christ

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