A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
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First published 1986 (DOST Vol. VI).
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Possessio(u)n(e,, n. posess-, poscesc-, pocess-, possis-, posis-, and -iounn, -iown(e, -youn(e, -yown(e; -o(u)n; posshion. [ME and e.m.E. possessioun (Manning), -ion(e, -yon, AF possession (1308–9), OF possessiun, -on (12th c. in Hatz.-Darm.), L. possessiōn- seizing, occupation, n. of action f. possidēre Possed(e v.] (A) possession, in various senses and applications.
1. The action or fact of possessing or holding (de facto or de iure) heritable or other property, a right or an office; the taking or having something as one's own or in one's control; occupany, enjoyment, with or without ownership.See also, for examples, Charter n. 1 b, Kindnes n. 2, Petitory adj. (1) and Petito(u)r adj. (n.) a.(1) 1379 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 2.
Sa that nowthir I no myn ayres … may chalenge … outhir to possessioun or proprete to the forsaid thingis be ws excludit … be thir lettres c1420 Wynt. ii 300.
The Ile off Rodys than tuke thai And it inhabytyt fra that day, Be thame and thare successyown For trayst and fre possessyown 1443 Reg. Episc. Brechin. I 96.
The kirk off Cortaqwi, off the quhilk the king pretendis patronage … and the said colege unioun full richt and possessioun 1472 Lennox Mun. 91.
Bot sene he hais be way of deide and nocht of law maid hym to taik possessioun of the said landys be ane new gyft by all forme and ordour, … it may nocht be callit possessioun, syng na vmber of possessioun, bot [etc.,] 1495 Liber Aberb. II 289.
Fornente the clame of possessione of the south syd of Balnamonismyr clamyt be the abbot and conuent of Abirbrothoc occupeit be pettis castin be Symon Banerman 1506 Ib. 370.
Quhilk vse sal induce na possessione to the saide Lorde of Innermeith nothir grunde rycht nor seruitute 1528 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 276.
[A] balye gaif hym stait and possessione of the said ground witht ane inpenne … in verray reall actuall and corporall possessioune 1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 260.
Saying his liberte was mair to him with small rentis than possessioun of ony landis in Ingland vnder seruitude 1564 Liber Scon 208.
With all rycht [etc.] … propirte possessioun heretable petatour and possessour that I [etc.] c1575 Balfour Pract. 148 f. 1578–9 Reg. Privy C. III 87.
Quhais possessioun ane yeir will be comptit a kyndnes gif it be sufferit 1587 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 242.
Nor yit ony heretable title … is tane away be quhatsumeuir lenth of tyme or laik of possessioun 1592 Prot. Bk. T. Auchinlek 25.
The bailȝie … past to the hous … and sloknit the fyre … being thairin and kendlit the vtheris in … taikin of thair possessioun 1593 in Montg. Suppl. p. 330.
That bischope James Boyde his predecessour was prowydit to the said benefice be oure souerane lord … quha, be vertew of his prowisioun was in peaceable possessioun to the tyme of his deceis … be vplifting of the dewteis etc … .and sua hawand ane title with ane triennal and pacifick possessioun, vnquarrellit in his tyme Ib. p. 331.
Myne and myne predecessouris prowisiounis cled with possessioun standand vnreducit 1606 Edinb. Test. XLI 273.
I leif the kyndnes & possessioun of my hous and kailȝaird … to … my guidsone 1607 Reg. Privy C. VII 515. 1622-6 Bisset I 177/33.
Quhairas the possessouris and thair authouris ar nocht habill to schaw charteris and seasingis witht heretabill possessioun following thairupoun … the space of fourtie ȝeiris 1627 Rep. Parishes 16 (see *Inveterat adj.). a1633 Hope Major Pract. II 100.
That a wairneing … is not sufficient interuptione of possessione Ib. I 238 f. 1674 Justiciary Rec. II 216.
As to John Ross being tenant and so interverting the possession, … interversion of possession by a tenant is no crime 1683 Decis. Lords F. 31.
Base infeftments, without being clead with possession, is a sufficient ground of recognition(2) 1611 Scrymgeour Invent. 13.
Ane instrument of possessioun gevin be Thomas Mortymer … to Henrie Carnegie … of twa pece of land Ib. 43.
Letteres of possessioun at the Erle of Crawfurdis instance aganis the tennentis of Canna 1622-6 Bisset II 145/7, 8.
And is sufficient to prove possession thereof [of a chaplainry] be his institutioun [v.r. instrument] of possessioun takin at the … altarage(3) 1410 Reg. Episc. Brechin. I 30.
We a borch findis that we aw nocht to be distroblit in our possessioun 1518 Peebles Chart. 46.
Johne Gledstanis of Coklaw trubillit thame in thair possessioune of thair saidis landis 1549 Stirling B. Rec. I 55.
Gif thay be hurt in thair rycht or possessioun(4) 1429 Reg. Episc. Brechin. I 42.
In witnes heireof I offyr, in name of possessioun, a certane sowme of syluir and this byl 1454 Liber Coll. Glasg. 177.
Exceppand at the saidis priour [etc.] … sall haff yherly … sex penyis … of the said ten schyllyng of annuell in name of possessiowne(5) plur. 1456 Hay I 215/5.
Quha walde do … service to the emperour, na manetene his fredomes na possessiouns 1664 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 211.
In ther heretable legall rights and possessiones of the said croves
b. Rule or dominion of a country or province. c1590 Fowler II 76/33.
[The residence of the prince] is the onlye moyen that may mak the possessioun of that cuntrye … mair assured Ib. 85/19.
In the conquest of these provinces quharoff they wer desyrous to reteane longar possessioun
c. To have, ta(k etc. possessioun (once possessionis).(1) 1400 Maxwell Mem. 139.
Sua at the forsayd Schyr Jon the sone sal haf tharof [certain lands] … heryta[b]yl state & possessyoun c1420 Wynt. ix 2962.
He held all tym possessioune [of the bishopric] 1434 Facs. Deed in Gunn Peebles Colleg. Ch.
And ger the said Wilȝame … haue sessyng possessyoun and heritabil state of al the forsaid landis 1490 Irland Mir. I 45/11.
Thus the riche man … deit that sammyne nycht and the innemeis of hell had possessioune of his saule 1495 Liber Aberbr. II 289.
That the said … convent has vse and possessione of catale gyrs … of Balnamonis myre 1496 Acta Conc. II 33. 1565–6 Reg. Privy C. I 428. 1597 Skene Verb. S. s.v. Breve.
In that case the defender dois bruike and joyis the possession of the saide landes(2) c1420 Wynt. vi 1529.
In this meyne tyme Athelred … Off Ingland tuk possessyowne Ib. vii 826.
Dawy … Succedyd nest, and tuk the crown, Sceptyr, and full possessyowne c1460 Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2476.
Than sat the king doun in his maiestie And tuk possessioun of soueranetie c1520-c1535 Nisbet II 59 marg.
Christ be his death had preparit ws … to tak the possessiounn of the dwelling in his fatheris hous 1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 216.
Becaus certane bischoppriis … war nocht obeysand to him, he tuke possessionis of all thair landis Ib. 311.
Possessioun 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 239.
And in this myn tym my pwre leyffyng wes possest with my compeditour … that now am I onhabill to obtyn possession without greitt inconwenience c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus i 22.
Quhen Pisces takis in his spheir possessioun [etc.] 1622-6 Bisset I 39/10 (see Injoyance n.). 1632 Cullen B. Rec. 6 June.
The said noble lord … suld get actuall reall & heretable stat seasing & possessione of the saidis land 1641-8 Skipper's Acc. (Smettone) 2.
Peyet for ther wetteles befor they gott posision
d. To give, or deliver (to a person, or dat. pron.) possessioun (also ane (actuall) possessioun) (of land, office, etc.), to give possession, freq. formally, by the performance of some symbolic action.For further instances, see erd and stane, Erd(e n. 3 c, Eritabil(l adj. 1, Heritabil(l adj. 2, Inpenny n., Institutio(u)n (of a benefice) n. 1, saising, state, etc.(1) 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 34.
At ovre lord the kyng … sall gif chartyr & possessyovne erytabyll to the sayde Jorge [etc.] 1400 Ib. No. 48. c1420 Wynt. v 4380.
And set apon hys hevyd the crowne, And gave hym full possessyowne 1462 Peebles B. Rec. I 145.
With the said gluf [they] yaf possessioun and ful power of that sayd seruis to maister Thomas of Cokburn quhill he lefis 1464 Ib. 153.
Poscescioun 1481 Ib. 187.
Possession 1498 Acta Conc. II 269.
And thare apone the ground of the sadis landis we gaif and deliveryt stat saising heretable and possessione corporale of … our saidis landis 1532 Wigtownshire Chart. 29. 1559 Rec. Kinloss Mon. 151. 1566 Prot. Bk. Thomas Johnsoun 98.
The arbiters gave possession to the said Charles by putting him in the housis and stekin the dorris one him and be puttin the said Charles cattell … on the ground of the saidis landis in signe and tokin of peceable possessioun 1573 Prot. Bk. W. Cumming 8.
I charge ȝe … gyf sesing state and possession … of the said landis … be hesp and stapell 1576 Prot. Bk. G. Fyiff 10 b.
That … ȝe pas and gif reall seasing and possessoun of … the lithous and ȝeard … be traditioun of eard and stane to the said Johne 1579 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 3 April.
And thar gaif reall actuall & corporall possessione of the said take be telling, ering & sawing of certand seid aittis vpone the ground of the said rowme 1664 Decis. Lords G. 71.
Having given to her acturney tradition and possession by earth and stane 1682 Elgin Rec. II 313.
They gave him possession of the said church by delivering him the key of the church door [etc.](2) 1587 (1600) Reg. Great S. 360/2.
To give ane actuall possessioun to the said David W. or his actornay … be delyverance of ane penny [etc.]
e. In prep. phrases, chiefly complementing various verbs.To have (jose, bruke) (something) in (in till) possessioun, also one's possessioun, to possess.To be in (peceabil etc.) possessioun (of something), to have possession. Also to byde, continue, remain etc. in (the) possessioun.To enter in possessioun or to the possessioun (of something), to take possession.To put, introduce, etc. (see quot. 1552, 2 (1) below), also intruse (oneself, also another) in … possessioun (of something), to enter, restore etc. (someone) to or till his possessioun (of something).Of what is possessed: To be in (in till) a person's possession, also absol. in possession; in the possessioun of (a person).To draw till one's possessioun, to ta(k) or get in possessioun or one's possessioun, to become or be possessed of, to get or have possession of.To put, eject etc. (a person) fra, furth of, out of his possessioun, to remove from possession.Into (= as) fre possession = freely possessed.(1) c1420 Wynt. ii 237.
Thai had in tyll possessyowne The land off repromyssyowne Ib. vi 340.
In all this tyme Schyr Hilderyk Had in possessyowne the kynryk Off Frans Ib. 2360.
Thretty yhere he wes … Off all Ingland kyng wyth crowne, And joysyd in possessyowne Ib. viii 196 (W).
To beire the crovne, And bruke it in possessioun 1608 Melrose Reg. Rec. I 63.
The saids persones hes in possessioun the infeild land of ane aiker of land 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. ii 14.
All husband men, quha hes in possession lesse nor foure kye 1624 Orkney & Shetl. Test. I 129 b.
Hir … gudis and gear … that sho haid in possessioun or conquest fra the day that sho was mariet 1660 Lamont Diary 126. — 1535 Stewart 43093.
Northumberland, That … Malcome Canmoir In his possessione brukit of befoir 1597 Breadalbane Ct. Bk. 158.
To … beir gunnis within the saidis boundis nor ȝit to haue the same in his possession outwith or inwith his hous 1649 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. III 49.
For allegit haveing in ther possessione of the guids undir writtin(2) 1417 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I 215.
The bischop and the kyrk of Aberden the quhilk wes of alde tyme and is in possession of the tend penny of all wardis [etc.] 14.. Burgh Laws c. 113 b (B) (see (4) below). 1474 Acta Aud. 34/1. 1488–9 Liber Melros II 618.
The abbot and convent … hes ben in paceabill possessione of browking and josyng of the samyne 1498 Acta Conc. II 183.
That he … had bene in peceable possessione of the pasturing of the sade oxin [etc.] 1516 Fife Sheriff Ct. 33.
[They] war in lachfull possessioune of commounte of the saidis landis 1522–3 Edinb. B. Rec. I 212.
Quhar thai haue bene in continuall vse and possessione of bying and selling … with men of weir that cummis in thair Firth and to by fra thame sic prises and gudis in thame as [etc.] 1540 Edinb. Chart. 212.
In continewale possessioun of ankerage and small custume in … the said hevin of Leith 1547 Ex. Processes (Reg. H.) No. ii (Martyne v. Halliburton & Lawson).
Scho than being in possessioun of hir said maling closit within termes 1550 Grey Friars II 10. 1575 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. I 267.
The said Williame … wes in reall actuall and peciabill possessioun … of … the toune and landis of Dipstoun … as malar thairoff 1575 Glasgow Chart. I ii 166.
Thay haif bene in possessioun of vptaking of ane ladill full of all cornis [etc.] a1578 Pitsc. I 164/19.
The rowmes and rentis quhilk they war in wse and possessioun affoir of wptaking thairof 1583 Reg. Privy C. III 593.
Being in possessioun thairof be sawing of caill and lynt thairon 1591 Lennox Mun. 335.
Ȝour lordschipis predecessouris hes beine continewalie in pocession of this lordschipe 1620 Banff Ann. II 168.
When ever it sall hapin the said Mr. George to be in peacible possessione of the said secund teindis — 14.. Acts I 359/1.
Ony landis that he is in possessioune of conquest or of heretage Ib. 359/2.
Ony maner of landis in the quhilkis he is in possessioune in burgh heretage or conquest — c1420 Wynt. vii 438.
Mawnys … the Owt Ylys wan, And ekyd thame till his crowne To byd ay in possessyown a1578 Pitsc. I 164/18.
To keip them selffis in possessioun of the rowmes and rentis quhilk they war in wse and possessioun affoir 1582 Reg. Privy C. III 491.
To continew in the possessioun … of the said office of coronelschip 1592 Acts III 574/2.
That the said rebell … remanis in possessioun of his takkis and guidis 1597 Rec. Earld. Orkney 321.
[That he] may have entres and consequentlie be sure in possessioun [of the said lands](3) c1420 Wynt. vii 14.
Swa entryd he in possessyowne 1592 Edinb. Test. XXIV 166.
His will is that … his brether enter to the intromissioun, fruitioun, & possessioun of his takis 1661 Decis. Lords G. 11.(4) 1434–5 Reg. St. A. 419.]
[Et Jacobum antedictum in corporalem et realem possessionem predictarum terrarum … induceret 1495 Acta Conc. I 419/1.
To put him in possessioun of the kirk of Vchiltre 1548 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. 118.
The … officiaris … pat than instantlie the said Katrine … in possessioun 1566 Inverness Rec. I 145.
That he put the said Thomas in peceable possessioun of the foirsaidis landis 1569 Bk. Univ. Kirk I 147. 1606 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. II 118.
[The sheriff depute] enterit the said lord to the actuell and real possessioun of the said tua pleuchis lands be casting out of ane cheir and [etc.] — 1567 Reg. Privy C. I 528.
The landis of Orknay and Ȝeitland, of the quhilkis he intendis to intruse him self in possessioun 1587 Aberd. Council Lett. I 8.
Thinking … to have putt himselff in possessioun of the said teind 1587 Orkney Oppress. 95.
[He] hes intrusit himselff maist iniustlie in posessioun of the samyn [lands] 1600 Bk. Arran II 101. — 14.. Burgh Laws c. 113 b (B).
Restoryng of possession. Gyf ony be in possession of land … in burgh and ane vthir cum [etc.] … he that fryst was in possession sal be restoryt agayne til his possession … qwhedir he be in rychtwys possession or [etc.] 1548 Lanark Sheriff Ct. MS 8.
The said Robert … to be enterit agane to his possessioun 1682 Sc. Ant. XVI 8.
[The] lordis … repone and restore the said lord archbishope … to his possessione of preceiding in the meetingis of the facultie(5) 1375 Barb. i 186.
Schir Edward … all the land gan occupy, Sa hale, that bath castell and toune War in-till his possessioune Ib. xvi 216.
[They] varnyst bath castell and townys That war in thair possessiownis 14.. Reg. Episc. Aberd. I 249.
The land of Lurgyndaspoc has bene always in the bischapis possession and the kirk of Aberdene … has been sesit tharof evir sen [etc.] 1566–7 Inverness Rec. I 146.
Quhilkis staiffis and gerstingis was in hyr possessioun 1596 Dalr. I 58/2.
Thair clanis, in quhais possessiones ar baith thir iles 1605 Reg. Privy C. VII 68.
That the haill limfaddis [etc.] … be in the power and possessioun of the said Robert 1645 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. III 42.
The … airship undirwrittin … quhilks pertenit to the said umquhill Sir Thomas and wer in his possessioun the tyme of his deceise — 1663 Decis. Lords G. 44.
Whereas the charger was infeft, and in possession — 1567 Digest Justiciary Proc. G. 5.
The sem key wes fund … in the possessioun of the said Margaret hingand among the leaue of the keyes at hir belt 1572–3 Bann. Memor. 308 (see Posses(s v. 1 (1)).(6) c1420 Wynt. ii 1156.
To ta thare gudys, and thare towne Hale in thare possessioune Ib. viii 2674.
Castell bath and wallyd town He drew till hys possessyown [W. He tuke all in possessioune] 1531 Bell. Boece (M) II 215.
And … homage to be maid to him [the King of England] for the samyn [territories] be all Scottis quhilkis gat the samyn in possessioun(7) 14.. Acts I 40/2.
Of ane burges eiectet furth of his possession 1456 Hay I 263/30.
And that the tothir had … falsly put him furth of his possessioun 1471–2 Acta Aud. 18/1.
Thare is bot a symple inquest past vppone the said landis to put the said Donald fra his possessioun c1500-c1512 Dunb. xiii 33.
Sum is put owt of his possessioun, Sum herreit(8) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 94.
He gaf of heretable rycht To Godis seruice al that ton In-to fre possessione
2. The, or a, giving of possession to another; also passing into: a property given by one to another to possess.(1) 1485 Breadalbane Coll. (Reg. H.) No. 22.
I haue gevin … be charter sesing and possessioun in blanchferme to [etc.] … al … my landis of Drumlayne 1552 Reg. Cupar A. II 108.
To pas in our nayme, gif entres, saising and possessioun off the saidis landis to the saidis Dauid [etc.] … conforme to this our letter off tak … and to introduce thame in actuall and reall possessioun thairoff be traditioun of erd, tre and stane, as wis is … , and will that the said intres, sasing and possessioun tane be ony ane off thame be als sufficient as it were tane be ilkane off thame speciallie(2) 1412 Buccleuch Mun. II 22.
Of all the landis that he is possessit and chartrit of [etc.] … the whilkis chartris and poss[ess]iouns be this lettre we conferme c1420 Ratis R. 1198.
[God] That honor, es or possessione, … In-til his hand has hyngand ay To gyf ore len or tak away c1500 Harl. MS. 4700 fol. 281 b.
For quhy the commoun law sais that a possessioun but saising is bot ane intension 1528 Lynd. Dreme 234.
Religious men … cryit lowde: O Empriour Constantyne, We may wyit thy possessioun poysonabyll Off all our gret punysioun and pyne
3. concr. A property enjoyed or occupied, whether or not owned, by one; a property which one is lawfully entitled to enjoy or occupy as possessor though not necessarily as owner; also applied to such property when usurped or seized wrongfully by another; things possessed, belongings, collectively.Freq. plur.(1) 1375 Barb. iv 540.
That thai our possessioune Haldis with strinth agane resoune a 1380 Rep. Hist. MSS. Var. Coll. v 77.
He aucht nocht to ga owte of his possession forowte the kyngis brefe a1400 Leg. S. xvi 61.
The possessione, That fel thame be sucessione, Ewinly thai delte amaung tham al ?1438 Alex. ii 3479.
For winning salbe hastelly All hale Clarus possessioun c1420 Wynt. v 2907.
That the teyndys off all feys Landys and regalyteis And off alkyn possessyown Suld [etc.] Ib. viii 707.
Sum possessiowne gyve ws tharfore c1420 Ratis R. 584.
Hop nocht to have … Ane vthir manis possessioune 1472 Lennox Mun. 91.
Gyff John of Haldane wyff had enterit ordourly be breffis as ane ayr it mycht haiff bene said of resoune that the respet had bene hurt gyff I had enterit vpone her enterys or possessioun … for quhi the ordour had maid hyr ane forme of possessioun a1500 Henr. Fab. 372 (A).
Thai quhilk clymmis wp most hie, And nocht content of small possessioun c1500 Makc. MS. xiv 48.
The grace … Thé to incres and thi possisione c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxi 61.
Quha sall weild the wrang possessioun … Quhen the angell blawis his bugill sture 1530 Lynd. Test. Pap. 824.
Androw and Ihone did leif thare possessioun, Thar schippis & nettis, lyinnes and all the laue 1563 Acts II 540/1.
That na kyndlie lauchfull … occupyar … be remouit fra thair kyndelie rowme, steiding or possessioun be the allegeit fewaris 1581 Reg. Privy C. III 391.
The saidis fischingis [of Innerspey] ar kyndlie rowme and possessioun to the said James 1595 Brechin Test. I 142 b.
John being ane ȝoung man haveing na possessioun nor labouring bot being in houshald with … his father 1672 Kirkintilloch B. Ct. 44.
That he be not wrongit of his old possessione and middingsted 1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Deeds I 358.
[And reserving] Jannett Maxwells posessioune [with the Preists croft etc.](2) plur. (a) 1386 Rot. Sc. II 85/2.
The possessions that the Kyng of Ingland and his leges had in the shiravedam of Berewyk 1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 12.
We sal manteyn hir hir men hir landys and al hir possessons 1397 Ib. No. 34.
He sall nocht resayve na resignasyovnys made be that ilke Dame Izabell of na landys rentys na possessyovnys to na mannys profyte c1420 Wynt. viii 894.
Yhoure marchys, and yhowre walyt townys, Yhoure castellis, and yhoure possessyownys c1420 Bute MS. fol. 141.
His landis his men thair possessionys & al thair gudys 1456 Hay I 132/34 (see Precare adj.). Ib. II 84/27.
And outrageus dispens … that excedis the quantitee of thair rentis and possessiounis 1456–7 Reg. Dunferm. 340.
And all my gudis … landis rentis and possessionis had and to be had c1460 Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 74.
I had in howsis … seruandis … to do my verkis of my possessions 1472 Edinb. Chart. 134.
Al and sindry the … induellaris the said toune, and alsa thaim that has landis annuellis or possessionis wythin it c1515 Asl. MS. I 214/16.
All possessionis that Henry the tyrand had gottin in Fraunce 1490 Irland Mir. MS fol. 293.
That the infidelis … has just title to realmes and empiris or possessiounis 1516–17 Reg. Privy S. I 447/1.
With command … to all and sindry the tennentis inhabitantis the landis and possessiounis 1533 Boece 310.
The sonnys of thame quhilk douchtelie deit in the feild … resauit large possessiouns and landis a1538 Abell 123 a.
Sum for corporall dreid sum for tynyng of possessionis 1545–6 Reg. Privy C. I 22.
In thair personis, landes, rowmes, possessionis, and gudis 1555 Acts (1597) i 142 b. 1615 Denmylne MSS. in Highland P. III 246.
That none of there [certain Highlanders and Islesmen] kyndlie possessionis shal be sett ouer there heades 1626 Dundee Chart. 157.
To take within their houses or possessions either wheat [etc.] 1641 Acts V 637/2.
That thair aires … shall bruik the benefit of thair possessiones, taks & lyfrent [etc.] c1650 Spalding I 3.
James Erll of Moray thair maister had cassin them out of thair kyndlie possessions 1662 Reg. Privy C. 3 Ser. I 237. 1666 Rothesay B. Rec. 128.(b) 1581 Mar & Kellie MSS. 34.
To be untroublit in bodyis, landis, posshionis, hous or gudis
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"Possession n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 11 Dec 2023 <http://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/possessioune>