A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
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First published 2001 (DOST Vol. IX).
This entry has not been updated but may contain minor corrections and revisions.
Stat(e, Stait, n. Also: staite, staitt, stayt(e, staet(t, steat, stet(t, (stathe). [ME and e.m.E. stat (Ancr. R.), state (Cursor M.), f. or f. as Estate n. (OF estat), perhaps with direct influence f. L. status, f. stāre to stand.]
I. = Estate n. 3.
1. A set of circumstances or conditions affecting a person or persons, a time, place, state of affairs, etc.; the situation created by such circumstances; also, rarely, conditions laid down or arranged. Also pl.(a) 1375 Barb. i 526.
Wes nocht all Troy with tresoune tane … Then slayn wes mony thowsand … As Dares in his buk he wrate … that knew all thar state 1375 Barb. ii 155.
Dowglas … tauld him haly all his state & quhat he was & als how-gat The Clyffurd held his heritage 1375 Barb. vi 308. a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 22.
Are in this land, at wat His birth, his lif, & syne his stat c1420 Wynt. i 1593.
Wndir this Saturne … all state was innocent c1420 Wynt. i 1629.
All the warlde he made of bras … That wes all state of mare dowrnes Than ony tyme before it wes a1500 Bernardus 20.
Stat 1513 Doug. vii Prol. 168 (Ruddim.).
Thou drery preambil with ane bludy text Of sabill bene thyne letteres illumynate According to thy proces and thy state [C. estait] 1565 7th Rep. Hist. MSS App. 724/2.
He desyrit … his eldest sone, that he swld nocht alter the state of his lewynge and land and the infeftmentis maid to his haris 1568 Campbell Love-Lett. Mary (1824) App. 54.
They were now made participant of the whole state of the cause 1568 Hosack Mary Q. of Scots I 528.
Quhilk … solitar state joynit with his povertie … [was] a … miserable ward 1568 Hosack Mary Q. of Scots I 545.
Diuers meanes wer maid to draw the noblemen (that she and he fearit myslikit that state) to the court 1569 Reg. Privy C. II 69.
Reporting the state of the saidis debettabill materis c1575 Balfour Pract. 517.
Assythment … sould be modifyit be the judge, … efter the state of the crime 1580-92 James VI Lusus Reg. 37.
My state can neuer change my greifis are but begunne Thus castin is my lukelesse lotte 1596 Dalr. I 202/23.
To explore the myndes, state and conditione of the Scottis lyueng in thae partes(b) ?1438 Alex. ii 130.
Tell me hale Thy name, thy stait, thy blis, thy bale [F. tout ton errement]! c1450-2 Howlat 266 (A).
Thai … awysit … The maner, the mater and how it remanyt The circumstance and the stait all couth thai argewe a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 424 (Asl.).
So in thair kynd gois manly successioun … Now seike now hale now glad now in grevans Neuer in a stait to stand be condicioun a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 742 (Asl.).
This iugement is … sa fell … The proces is sa inly penetratif Of all synnaris in to that stait extreme 1513 Doug. vi Prol. 34.
In all his warkis Virgil doith discrive The stait of man … Baith lif and ded 1531 Bell. Boece I vi.
Of erdlie stait bewaling thus the chance Of fortoun gud I had na esperance 1531 Bell. Boece (M) I 87.
For the stait of erdlie creaturis has this condicioun, eftir moist prosperite cumis hiest aduersite a1538 Abell 57a.
Kirk men plurall in benifice & makis nocht residence wil the schaw to thame the perell of thare saule in that stait 1549 Compl. 8/22.
To testife the stait of ther vacatione, ande the maneir of ther lyuing 1561 Q. Kennedy Compendious Ressonyng (ed.) 177/11.
Dwm beistis … without the quhilkis the conditioun and stait of man is nocht sustenit 1565 Reg. Privy C. I 384.
To evert … the haill stait of this commoun weill 1583 Reg. Episc. Brechin. II 345.
It is … statute … that euerie paroche kirk … sall haif thair awin pastor with ane sufficient … stipend according to the stait and habilitie of the place c1590 J. Stewart 76/102.
The hiche triumphe quhilk did thair stait decoir Is disapoynt(c) 1650 Buccleuch Mun. II 359.
I send this to yow … to bring yow the … newis of the king's agreiment with our commissioners. A great wachter come wp this morning with letters to the staett of it(d) 1583 Melvill 160.
And steat of publict prayer, with the simplicitie of ryttes in ministration of the sacraments … is filthelie adulteratpl. 1375 Barb. i 337.
Till swylk thowlesnes he ȝeid … And wmquhill in-to rybbaldaill And that may mony tyme awaill For knawlage off mony statis May quhile awailȝe full mony gatis c1420 Wynt. iii Prol. 15.
The sentence off this autoryte Suld move men to besy be, Thare statis to kene orygynalle c1500 Fyve Bestes 77.
Sanct [Thomas] … The staitis of this warld … Desyrit to se … Sa come ane angell … And schew him baith hevin & hell 1669 Jus Populi 28.
Tending to the destruction of the covenanted libertyes, privileges and religion of the whole body of the people; and also unto the actual destruction of the libertyes, states, lives and livlihoods of a great part there of by hostile furious actions 1669 Jus Populi 318.
They tyrannize over the consciences, states and bodyes of their subjects
b. With qualification of the conditions or circumstances. 14.. Burgh Laws c. 94 (B).
That he resayvit it in als gude state as it was qwhen he resayvit it or ellys the valw of it gyf it be peryst or spylt in his kepyng a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 1526 (Asl.).
Quhilk & we do we sall kepe temperans In prosper stait & eike aduersite 1494 Loutfut MS 8a.
The renoun of armes … suld be … kepit and the office put agane to the first stait 1496–7 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 71.
[The mills] to be delyuerit in sic stait and kynde as thay ressauit thame c1500-c1512 Dunb. (STS) lxxii 130.
Grace become gyd and governour, To keip the house in sicker stait Ay reddy till our Salvatour 1533 Boece 251.
God … having of ws myseracioun sall change oure cais to bettir state a1540 Freiris Berw. 454 (B).
Him to translait or ellis dissagyis Fra his awin kynd in to ane vder stait 1544 Corr. M. Lorraine 99.
Mi last wrayten … qwhelkis mayd menschown in qwat stayt I was in … twechen mi mareages a1605 Montg. Misc. P. iii 75.
Judge of ȝour self by Julius … Quhais fenȝeid freinds wer worse then open foes, If that ȝe stand not in a stagring stait 1611-57 Mure Early Misc. P. iv 3. 1624 Kinghorn Kirk S. 26.
The pitifull stait of Dumfermling 1622-6 Bisset I 16/11.
Thus into sic vofull stait, they stand, They ar continewed, vnto the justice air 1630 Misc. Hist. Soc. II 255.
God knowis quhat stet I was in with them to [etc.] 1646 Inverness Rec. II 190.
To represent thair meane stait and conditioune to the estaites of the kingdome
c. As regards the Church: The conditions or circumstances obtaining in the Pre- or Post-Reformation Church; also, the conditions, etc. laid down for the conduct of religion or the Church. c1420 Wynt. v 4614.
This pape Hormysda till hym [sc. the emperor] wrate For to releve the Crystyne state, That he wald the byschopys all Agayne to thare kyrkys call That befor hym exylyd was a1538 Abell 33b.
Baith the stait of the commone gude & the stait of halie kirk wes gretumlie triblit a1538 Abell 83a.
Heir we religios men & wemen ma tak ane document in this halie man to keip the stait of religion at we haif tane ws to quhat rewll at evir it be 1542–3 Hamilton P. I 383.
We ar myndit … to put sum reformatioun in the stait of Kirk of this realme 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 39.
To uphald the stait of haly kirk and the common weill 1568 Lyndesay Pref. (STS) 399.
Nouther ceissit thay … to inwey on the stait of the Kirk 1558-66 Knox II 273.
That nane of thame tack upoun hand … to mack alteratioun or innovatioun of the staite of religioun 1570-3 Bann. Trans. 150.
Mr. Craig teiched the 130 Psalme; and, in his sermond, he compared the steat of the kirk of God in this tovne vnto the steat of the Maccabeis 1573 Reg. Privy C. II 271.
And sall do nor attempt na thing … aganis the stait of the Christiane religioun publictlie precheit and establishit within this realme 1605-6 Welsh Forty-eight Serm. 47.
He tells him what shall be the state of the Kirk unto the end of the world c1630 Scot Narr. 66.
[To prevent] all dangers which in all likelyhood might fall to the state of religion 1649 Sc. N. & Q. XII 74.
That ministers doe forbear sett forms of prayer and be carfull to stirr up in themselfes the gift of prayer and exercise the same according to the different stats and conditions of the Kirk of God and ther owne particular congregations
d. To stand or remain in (some) stait, to remain in the condition, etc. obtaining (at some previous time) or appropriate in some fashion. a1450 Fifteen Ois 76.
O Jesu, … Quhen Thou on croce vpliftit wes, That of Thi tender membris ilkane In Thair awne stait remanit nane c1475 Wall. v 340.
He … bade thaim pas … To the Gask-hall tithingis for to sper … He bad thaim se giff that place stud in stait: Tharoff … he had full gret desyr Be caus he thocht that it was all in fyr
e. As regards health, physical condition or well-being. a1400 Leg. S. xxi 96.
Scho … dang hyre body & face bare, … That rewth was to se hyre stat a1400 Leg. S. xli 71.
His fadir send … Medicinaris his stat to se & to deme quhat seknes had he c1420 Wynt. v 5345.
Saynct Serffe … be hys state quhen that he knewe, That till hys endyng nere he drewe, The wrechyd warld he forsuke 1460 Hay Alex. 446.
Keip thi men, and be tender of thair staite, Gar provay thame of victuall [etc.] a1500 Henr. Age & Yowth 59.
Thy stait thi strenth thocht it be stark and sterne The feviris fell and eild sall gar thé fald a1500 Sir Eger 970.
Ye are pale and ye want blood For by your hew it may be seen, Into such state as ye have been, Ye will not be this many day 14… Edinb. Univ. MS La.ii.318.
Gif sche knew first how that sche faris And quhat state sche is of body c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus Prol. 108.
How thay [sc. the signs of the Zodiac] … puttis the corps oft in ane mouand stait [pr. stairt] Vnstable ay of maneris alterait 1567 Inv. Q. Mary cxxvi n.
Sche cam … in sa miserable a stait, her hairs hingand about her loggs 1570 Sat. P. x 20.
In sic ane stait I neuer saw him ?1570–1 Corr. M. Lorraine 443.
The quhilk gifis me evill harting considdering sick stait as I stand in at this present [She is pregnant]
f. The formulation of a question. Also, the state of a vote, the framing of a question to be voted on. 1637 Rutherford Lett. (1894) 419.
Let no man doubt that the state of our question … is, If Jesus should reign over His kirk, or not? 1651 Rutherford Lett. (1894) 660.
The question will be drawn to a more narrow state 1660 Rutherford Lett. (1894) 696. 1668 Edinb. Surgeons II 26.
Thar wes ane questioun stated efter this maner quhider or no ane frieman chyugane … to be menteaned as ane chyugane conforme to Quene Marie gift or not. The calling having voted this to be the state of the questioun approved of the said stated questioun & votis to menteane the previlidge 1669 Jus Populi 7.
Al these expressions which he hath raked together … will not bottome his assertions, or the state of the question as he proposeth it 1669 Jus Populi 17.
It is … intolerable to draw the state of a question out of a mans expressions here and there uttered in the prosecution of his arguments: Whereas the state of the controversy is that which all his arguments prove and conclude 1701 D. Hume Diary Parl. Scot. 44.
After a long debate about these two states, moved it might be put to the vote, which of these two should be the vote 1703 D. Hume Diary Parl. Scot. 101.
Then Salton proposed the state of a vote, whether to give the act for the cess a first reading or to proceed to make the acts for the security of our religion, libertie, and some added, trade
g. In regard to a controversy: The situation as concluded from the arguments.1669 Jus Populi 17 (see f above).
2. A mental or emotional condition; a person's attitude or mood, evidenced in his or her demeanour or behaviour; freq., a person's spiritual circumstances or condition. Also pl.There is some overlap with sense 1.(a) 1375 Barb. vii 128.
Thai persawyt be his speking That he wes the selwyn Robert King & chaungyt contenance & late And held nocht in the fyrst state For thai war fayis to the king c1420 Wynt. viii 3117.
Hys lattyr day He closyd in gratyows state and pure a1500 Sir Eger 1294.
First she was both right mild and meek Kind and courteous … Then waxt she angry … And all into another state 1490 Irland Mir. III 1/26.
To deliuer the synnaris fra thar syn … and bring thame to thar perfit state in spirituale lif c1590 Fowler I 186/10.
This humeur her, that humeur me doth move, This is her state, and that is myne … Now louting lowe, now monting high 1685-8 Renwick Serm. 120.
Though a man, as to his state, be a godly man, yet [etc.](b) c1490 Irland Asl. MS 19/32.
The prest … may mak interrogacionis to knaw … the stait of the synnere c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 178/9.
The stait of man dois change and vary, Now sound, now seik, now blith, now sary. Now dansand mery, now like to dee 1551 Hamilton Cat. 7.
How necessare it is to al Christin men and wemen to ken thair awin miserabil stait quhairin thai leif 1564 St. A. Kirk S. 204.
At the day appoynted for execucion of the horribyll sentence of excommunicacion agans hym we thocht gud … to have the danger of his stayt declared c1568 Lauder Minor P. i 211.
And to considder in to quhat stait tha stand, Quhidder with God, or contrair his command a1585 Maitl. Q. 205/113.
Quhat sall I murne my nauchtie frivoll stait?(c) 1585–6 Waus Corr. 350.
Your L[ordship] man apardoun me of my hammelie stett and chargeing, for I man vse your L[ordship] as ane greit frind 1644 Dunbar Social Life II 44.
God make him sensible of the steat of his soulepl. 1490 Irland Mir. I 158/4, 8.
In oure humanite and mannis nature are foure diuers staitis and maneris, first, befor the syn of Adam [etc.] … Of the first stat he tuk that he synnit neuir, of the secund [etc.] a1570-86 Maitl. F. 204/90.
Then quhat ar we to trust … Our wisdome wit or staittis variabill Quhilk tyme will chainge
b. Const. of the condition concerned; chiefly, of grace or innocence. c1420 Wynt. iv 1952.
Thou sall hym … in till state off honure prewe c1420 Ratis R. 848.
Stat c1409-1436 Kingis Q. § 22.
Noght fer passit the state of innocence, Bot nere about the nowmer of ȝeris thre 1460 Hay Alex. 2501.
Quhat merit may his gudnes do to me Gif that I de out of the stait of grace a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 21.
Sa now all staitis of grace lakkis the licht … Throw syn ar blyndit & warldlie abusioun a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 252 (Asl.).
Heir begynnis … of the sure stait of innocent lyf. This leif schawis a plesand portrature For till ostend the stait of innocens the quhilk … is the stait of excellens Quhilk men suld kepe with deulie deligens 1490 Irland Mir. I 62/19.
That knawlage in the state of innocence was mekile brychtare and clerare na is now the gift of grace 1490 Irland Mir. III 50/2.
This … cheptur … comperis the stat of innocens … to this pur state c1490 Irland Asl. MS 61/5.
To draw men and women fra thair syn and to bring thame to the waye and stait of grace 1492 Myll Spect. 277/7.
Quhen thow art our haly & wald be out of the stait of grace a1538 Abell 87a.
Thai at entris be symony ar ewir in the feyndis harmes and stait of dampnatioun c1552 Lynd. Mon. 987.
Bot in the stait of innocence Thay [sc. Adam and Eve] had none sic experience 1551 Hamilton Cat. 186.
We war borne in the stait of damnatioun
II. = Estate n. 1.
3. A person's position in the community; (chiefly, high) social status or rank; honour, reputation or standing. 1375 Barb. x 266.
For to hey his state [sc. the king] him gave Murreff & erle tharoff him maid 1375 Barb. x 779.
The king … to manteym his stat, him gaff Rentis and landis a1400 Leg. S. Prol. 16.
Quhene thai hafe thare thing done, That afferis thare stat … Thai suld dresse thare deuocione c1420 Wynt. iv 874.
Me thynk yhe ar to blame, That negligent ar off yhoure fame, Set yhe wyll wyth yhoure conscience, Ay for yhoure statis ma defence c1420 Wynt. iv 1934.
Threll serwandys … Thow sall relew … to na hycht, Na put thame to na stat off mycht c1420 Wynt. v 2440.
Decyus … Was noucht callyt August bot Cesare … For nowthir be rycht off lynage Na be laucht off herytage Off Rome he wes empryoure Tharfor his state and his honoure Wes the les bath in his fame And in the titill off hys nam a1487 Gud Wyf & D. 34.
A woman suld … covat nocht clething mair deir Na be resone hir stat suld feir a1500 Henr. Fab. 369 (Bann.).
No stait is fre Without truble or sum vexatioun c1475 Wall. vi 588.
The erle off Kent … full stoutly couth he stand Befor the king makand full gret debait: Quha best did than, he had the heast stait 1494 Loutfut MS 2a.
And the listes suld be maid eftir the state of the fechtaris … til a prince of ane hundreth passes till ane erll of iiiixx [etc.] 1542 Acts II 422/1.
My said Lord Gouernour … restoris … the said Jhone … in his first state, anentis his life fame honouris landis digniteis [etc.] 1551 Hamilton Cat. 10.
Ilk man suld leive ane chast lyfe according to his stait 1560 Rolland Seven S. 631.
Heraldis of Armes into thair coit armour Past on befoir as it was maist semelie In thair awin stait, conforme to thair degre 1561–2 Reg. Privy S. V i 245/2.
Reponis the said Jonet Kennedie to the samin stait and place that scho wes in of before or scho wes put to the horne 1567 Sat. P. iii 95.
To him Dauy was na perigall: Dauy and his thair state was wont shone clout: Our cumly king was of the blude royall 1558-66 Knox I 49.
No man of onye degree or staite 1588 Lett. Jas. VI to Eliz. 62.
To settle my stait and person in suche respectis as may be requiyred of one of my age and calling 1638 Bk. Pasquils (1868) 85.
For countrey few … takes caire, Bot most pairt seikes ther awen stait to securepl. c1420 Wynt. i Prol. 59.
Schyr Jhone of the Wemys … Ane honest knycht and of gude fame, Suppos hys lordschype lyk noucht be Tyll gret statys in eqwalyte c1420 Wynt. i 478.
Sem, Cam, and Japhet … off thir come men of mekyll mycht, Tyll statys growande and tyll hycht c1420 Wynt. vi 982.
He desyryd oure mesoure Hey statis [c. esstatis, W. estatis] wytht honowre c1420 Wynt. viii 640.
Gret men, presydentis And lordis of the parleamentis … all thai ware gret men, And famows in he statis
b. A person's status as regards age. c1420 Ratis R. 1618.
Thir men of eldar state a1500 Henr. Praise of Age 17 (Bann.).
The stait of ȝowth I reput for na gude, For in that stait sic perrell now I se 1490 Irland Mir. I 130/7.
Nouthire in the figure of ane auld man, nore of a barne, for baithe thai eldis and statis betakynnis imperfeccioune
c. Of a person's matrimonial or sexual status. a1400 Leg. S. xxiv 3.
Thre statis are sere In quhilkis almen sal apere a1400 Leg. S. xxiv 7.
Of matrimone othyre in the stat, Or contenens … Or ellis of virginite 14… Edinb. Univ. MS La.ii.318.
The state of spousale 1551 Hamilton Cat. 89.
Maryit men and wemen that leivis ane chast lyfe in the stait of matrimonie 1567 Hosack Mary Q. of Scots I 556.
Hir Majestie is now destute of ane husband, leving solitarie in the stait of wedowheid
d. transf. An individual of great standing or rank. 1535 Stewart 2343.
The grittest stait that wes in all that stound In his bodie buir mony deidlie wound
4. specif. (High) office or position, the office of king, bishop, etc.; also the king's stait royal, riall stat.There is some overlap with sense 3.(1) c1420 Wynt. v 5043.
The gud knycht Schyr Narses … wes deprywyd off hys offys … the … empryowre Than put that knycht fra hys honoure [etc.] … Thus quhen he wes fra hys state Removyd [etc.] c1420 Wynt. v 5397.
Stayte c1420 Wynt. vi Prol. 19.
Oure kyng to halde hys state Off God hym-selff immedyate c1420 Wynt. vi 1346, 1349.
How the byschapys governyd ware And led thare state and thare poware; … That a byschape … Gat that state wyth symony c1420 Wynt. vi 1474.
Ywill arayid than fand it [sc. the papacy] he, … litill or noucht that tyme he fand, That till hys state wes suffycyand; For mony papis befor his dayis Ware rekles c1420 Wynt. vi 1591.
The Inglis men than Ethelred Fechyd owte off Normandy, And hym restoryd honestly Till hys state c1420 Wynt. vii 536.
Byschapys, prestys, and prelatys In hawtayne pryd ay led thare statys c1420 Ratis R. 1022.
Tyll hyme [sc. a king] fallis mekle thinge That may nocht les his stat to gyfe a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 66 (Asl.).
Now to ȝow kingis I cry with compassioun That of ȝour stait ȝe tak intelligens Think on ȝour band and hie professioun How ȝe suld kepe … Pece … throw iustice [etc.] 1494 Loutfut MS 27b.
Thai leiff the execucioune of dedis of armes to tak the stat to be herrauldis 1524 Q. Margaret in St. P. Henry VIII IV 112.
To schawe his grace how and in quhat maner we haf downe in this Parliament and that the kyng my sone is put to his stayt and gouernans be all his lordis and barrowns wyth his prelattis and commouns 1630 Misc. Hist. Soc. II 255.
I am a chamerlen … in a gret pairt of my stet c1650 P. Gordon Brit. Dist. 217.
O warious and changable fortoune; he [sc. Charles I as a prisoner in Whitehall] who befor in that place had bein sett so often onder a steat, had not now so much as a fyre to expell the foggie mists(2) 1490 Irland Mir. I 12/35.
Quhethire thi manere of lyfing in thi state riall plesis to God ore nocht 1490 Irland Mir. III 104/12.
Doctrine twichand the mater of polecye for the gouernaunce … of thi riall stat persoune and realme. And will for this mater proffitable to thé and all the statis of thi realme [etc.] 1577 Inverness Rec. I 259.
To the heych contemptioun and rebellioun of our Soverane Lordis autorite and stait royall
b. To tak (apon, til one), hald the (a, etc.) state (of the empyre, England, etc.); to win, rise, be chosyn til, to a state.(1) 1375 Barb. i 498.
Ȝe sall ger mak [ȝow] tharoff king … And gyff that ȝe will nocht do sua, Na swylk a state apon ȝou ta … And lat me ta the state on me a1400 Leg. S. vii 728.
Twa ȝere fra Vaspasyane Of the empyre the state had tane a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii 356.
That tyme were emperouris twa. Dyoclyciane … & … Maxymyane, That sic stat had til hym tane [etc.] a1400 Leg. S. xlii 10 (see (2) below). c1420 Wynt. v 1254 (C).
Schir Adryane Off the impyre al state had tan c1420 Wynt. vi 2470.
Harald … tuk off Ingland The state thare to be rengnand That fell hym noucht be lele lynage Na be na rycht off herytage(2) a1400 Leg. S. xlii 10.
Quincyane … cumyne ves of carlis kine, Tho he til sic a stat can vine. … & for the stat that than held he [etc.] c1420 Wynt. vi 997.
Fra state to state thus ras he … Pape qwhill he wes at the last c1420 Wynt. ix 2981.
Thus agane the lauch expres … chosyn wes This knychtis son than to that state
5. The display, pomp, ceremonial associated with kingship or other high office; specif. (the king's) state riall.The Stewart quot. may belong in sense 4. 1460 Hay Alex. 886.
Quhan Alexander baith gold and clething delt Till his awin corps small clething he helt, Bot anerlie his hors and his arming, With all statis that ferit for ane king a1500 Sir Eger 2703.
The earl was served in his state, With cup and piece of golden plate, … The emperor or pope of Rome Might have rung in such royalte 1494 Loutfut MS 1b.
All solempnit festis and othir dais quhar the king haldis his state riall 1535 Stewart 32066.
Befoir the king at none into the hall Quhair that he sat into his stait royall
6. transf. a. A degree of importance as applied to an inanimate object or place. b. Status, as applied to a country.a. c1420 Wynt. v 3876.
The byschape … Askyd quhy he bad thar … Haldand wyth in the qwere that plas, That newyr to that state ordanyd was a1540 Freiris Berw. 363 (M).
Sche saw him gif the almerie sic ane staitb. 1565 Facs. Nat. MSS III xlix.
All men … that ar zealous to haif thair native cuntre remane still in the stait of a kingdome
7. Rank, (high or noble) position in society, also const. to give (one) state; to make (one) state, to grant (a person) rank; to acknowledge (a person's) rank, to address (another) as a person of rank; also, state ryall. c1420 Wynt. iii 555.
Till this Jak Bon-howme he maid a crown Off a brandreth all red hate; Wyth that takyn he gave hym state Off his fell presumptyown c1420 Wynt. iv Prol. 12.
A garland as a crowne sulde be Wndyrstandyn … A takyn off wyrschype, state or hycht c1420 Wynt. viii 7008.
Wyth that takyn he gave hym state Off his fell presumptyown 1460 Hay Alex. 726.
Than spak King Nicolas as man aggrevit Oure litill state him maid as he belevit 1460 Hay Alex. 989.
Lord, sen my father bare a croun, And kingis state hes haldin in his dayis 1461 Aberd. B. Rec. MS V ii 824 (22 Dec.).
Ony man quhat euer he be stateheyar or lawar duelland within this burch … at that man of quhatsumeuer degre [etc.] a1487 Gud Wyf & D. 56.
Lawar stat, lakar clething c1475 Wall. ix 421.
The king has maid him knycht. Eftir he gaiff stayt to his nerrest ayr a1500 Sir Eger 1219.
Reverently she made him state, But quantance none other they wate 1513 Doug. xii Prol. 309 (Sm.).
In syng of stayt ryall
b. To be brocht, cum, draw, grow, pretend to, (till) state, to be brought, etc. to rank or position. To put (a person) to state, to elevate to rank. To stryve for state, to seek rank, position or power; to attempt to achieve supremacy; in Wall., to try to get the upper hand, to argue, quarrel.(1) 1375 Barb. i 297 (c).
He had a sone, … That wes than bot a litill page … wondirly hard thing fell Till him, or he till state wes brocht c1420 Wynt. i 860.
Zorastas, … that Nynus slwe, To state of lordschype quhen he drewe c1420 Wynt. v 4418.
May this chyld lyve, he sall, … Cum till gret state c1420 Wynt. vi 1644.
This woman he wald hawe put … Till gret state, and till mekill mycht a1500 Henr. Fab. 711.
I eschame to thig, … Ȝit wald I fane pretend to gentill stait 1549 Compl. 128/10.
Sen thai ar cum to stait and digniteis … thai ar becum ingrat 1560 Rolland Seven S. 5551.
The doctour tuik in his consait, That Galiene suld grow to greiter stait(2) c1475 Wall. x 274.
Amang ws now thar nedis no debayt Ȝon men ar dede we will nocht stryff for stayt. Thai consent haill to wyrk rycht as he will 1529 Lynd. Complaynt 352.
Euerilk lord did stryue for stait … And feildit vther, in land and burgh c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4210.
Thir two did stryue for stait, Quhare throw thre hundreth M. men wer slane, But Pompeyus … murdreist wes … Than Julyus wes prince and soverane 1567 G. Ball. 104.
Thay now conspyre … Quhilk neuer befoir culd gre amang thame sell Stryuand for stait and hicht a1578 Pitsc. I 413/28.
With wisdome mak debait Aganis the pryd that stryvis evir for stait 1584 Melvill 204.
Ever stryving for steat, wha might be hiest and graittest
c. (To be) of (in) (gret, law, etc.) state, (to be) of a particular rank, etc.Of stait in Alex. appears to be merely a tag.(1) a1400 Leg. S. xxix 734.
My fadir, that was of gret stat, … to name had Sir Placydas a1400 Leg. S. xxxviii 399.
This Adryane wes of gret state ?1438 Alex. ii 1510.
Thay brocht him to the king of stait And said, ‘lo! heir is Cassamus’ a1500 Sir Eger 1778.
The burges … to them spake The maiden answerd ‘Who is that?’ Because he was no man of state, She sayes [etc.] 1494 Loutfut MS 7a.
Folkis of diuers condicionnys and state 1494 Loutfut MS 10a.
And gif he be of lawar stait ȝit for honour of the office he suld be salust as ane erll 1513 Doug. v vi 33.
Quhais namys onknaw is For that thai war of law stait and degre 1541 Reg. Cupar A. II 15.
Powar … to mak subtenentis ane or may, sway thai be of na gretar degre nor stait na thame self(2) c1420 Wynt. vii Prol. 42.
Throwch thare wertws medfull dedys In state and honowre yhit thare sed is 1460 Hay Alex. 1124.
King Alexander … hes me dycht In stait of prince, and hes me dubbit knycht a1500 Bk. Chess 1086.
The sext law was how euer in stait thai stand That euery man suld haue in lyk of land
d. Clath of state, a richly decorated ceremonial cloth, perhaps bearing the royal coat of arms or appropriate insignia, usu. hung, in the presence of the monarch, behind the throne. = Estate n. 1 c. 1498 Treas. Acc. I 387.
To the kingis clath of stait in the hall 1503 Treas. Acc. II 213.
For xviij elne i quartar of claith of gold, to be ane claith of stait for the king 1503 Treas. Acc. II 215.
Tua clathes of stait for the king and quene, the caprison and othir graith 1503 Treas. Acc. II 396.
To Lioun, tailȝour tua dayis wage cumand to Edinburgh to fech ane clath of state and arres werk … for carying of this gere to Linlithqw 1504 Treas. Acc. II 470.
To Jame Dog for cordis to the claith of stait in the hale at Ȝule 1506 Treas. Acc. III 351.
For j elne cammes to mend the kingis clath of stait 1507 Treas. Acc. III 263. 1527 Treas. Acc. V 301.
viij ellis ane quarter blak veluot to be the kingis claith of stait 1542 Treas. Acc. VIII 142.
Expensis … fra the tyme of the kingis grace deces … deliverit to the tapischer to be ane claytht of stait, xxx elnis blak velvet … to be the croce thairof, x elnis quhite sating … to be ane cover to the beir for saifti of the claitht of stait vj elnis Frenche blak 1561 Inv. Wardrobe 124.
Inventaire of the Queene Regentis movables … 3. Item ane claith of stait of blak velvos furnist with ruif and taill … 4. Item ane claith of estait … 5. Item ane claith of stait of blak satine maid of bandis of brodery furnisit with ruif taill and pandis the quhilk claith of estait is not yet garnissit [marg. Sensyne stuffit and garnissit]
e. Bed, cradil, etc. of state, a bed, cradle, etc. belonging to or appropriate for one of high rank, sometimes, though not exclusively the monarch; splendid or ceremonial accoutrements; such objects used on ceremonial occasions. 1503 Treas. Acc. II 213.
The quenis gret bed of stait 1506–7 Treas. Acc. III 273.
For iiij elne … clath of gold to cover the gret cradil of stait c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 115/32.
Quia in cellario … I had lever lye … Na in my lordis bed of stait 1603 Philotus 213.
Ȝe sall weir … ȝour ueluote hat, ȝour hude of stait, Ȝour myssell quhen ȝe gang to gait 1622 Sc. Ant. XIII 162.
Then followed the master hous-hold … carying the gumpheon of state which was a morthead painted in black tefety poudered with tears on a speirs poynt 1637 Bk. Carlaverock II 500.
[Funeral ceremony of Lady Elizabeth Douglas] The horsse of stait, led by a grooume in the defunct's liuery
f. With reference to a thing: In stait, in a fashion appropriate to matters of great importance, splendidly. c1650 Spalding I 86.
Vpone the morne … , the cross of Edinburgh wes coverit in stait, where the foirsaid proclamatioun wes also proclamed
g. With reference to a place: To rise to state, to come to greatness, importance. c1420 Wynt. vi 744.
Quhare before that tyme it wes Bot a land off gret sympilnes: The grettest befor lyvand thare The king off Frawncis forsteris ware. The dwche off Normawndy Than fyrst to state ras
h. Only in Nisbet after Purvey: To have state, tr. L. habente statum, to exist, to be in existence. c1520-c1535 Nisbet Heb. ix 8.
That nocht yit the way of sanctis was opnit, quhile the formaire tabernacile had state [AV standing]
III. = Estate n. 2.
8. A rank, order or class of persons in society or the community; specif., al(kyn) state, everyone, the whole community. Also pl. 1375 Barb. xv 183.
Gib Harpar … That wes the douchteast in deid That than wes liuand off his state c1420 Wynt. viii 1821.
Off allkyn state, off allkyn age, [Thai] sparyd nothir carl na page 1490 Irland Mir. I 28/2.
We all, hie and law, riche and pure, ȝonge and auld, haill & seik, kingis, empriouris, men and women of quhatsumeuir state, are sonnis and dochteris of … God 1494 Loutfut MS 10a.
He suld first knaw quhat stat he war of & he be duk he suld be salust as a duk … and gif he be of lawar stait ȝit for honour of the office [sc. of herald] he suld be salust as ane erll 1513 Doug. viii Prol. 113.
Thar is na stait of thar stile that standis content; Knycht, clerk nor common, Burges nor barroun All wald haue vp that is dovn 1528 Lynd. Dreme 315.
Merchandis … men of law … Theiffis … Craftsmen … Off ilke stait to declare it wer ane cummer 1533 Bell. Livy I 94/1.
That the posterite … mycht vnderstand … in quhat sorte, in quhat digniteis and greis of fortoun, ilk state was different fra utheris 1534–5 Linlithgow B. Ct. 22 Jan.
All & singular wthir aris quhatsumeuer degre or stait 1540 Lynd. Sat. 506.
Till everie stait I am so greabill, That few or nane refuses me at all 1544 Reg. Cupar A. II 38.
To our louittis Willeme Hetoun, Janat Fynlasoun, his spous, and to ane thair assignay of na gretar degre nor stait na thame self c1552 Lynd. Mon. 379.
Quhat miserabyll calamiteis … Seis thow in euere mortall stait. Begyn at pure lawe creaturis, Ascending syne to … Princis 1560 Rolland Seven S. 35.
That na stait to clergie was compairs 1560 Rolland Seven S. 5894.
Euerie kinde of stait, Abhorrit sa, his vgsum foull visage a1568 Scott i 170.
Caus everye stait to thair vocatioun go, Scolastik men the scriptouris to descrywe, And maiestratis to vse the swerd also 1596 Dalr. I 1/7.
Of our nobilitie, and of the lai people, in quhatsaeuir state or degrie 1611-57 Mure Early Misc. P. xiv 16.pl. 1375 Barb. xx 166.
And to religioun of ser statis For hele of his saule gaf he Siluer c1420 Wynt. vii 1220.
Hys awyn oys till lyffe wertuale May … ensawmpill be Till alkyn statis gre be gre c1450-2 Howlat 133 (A).
All statis of kirk that wnder Crist standis To semble to his summondis 1456 Hay I 159/29. c1500 Fyve Bestes 376. 1490 Irland Mir. III 104/12 (see 4 (2) above). a1500 K. Hart 121.
This war the staitis worthyest and ding With mony mo that servit to this quene 1549 Compl. 103/28.
Our croniklis rehersis of diuerse Scottis men of al staittis that hes past in Ingland 1596 Dalr. II 1/4.
He was declaret king, assisting him the special nobilitie and hail states of the realme 1597 James VI Dæmonol. (STS) 70/32.
Before any parliaments were holden or lawes made: and by them [sc. kings] was the lande distributed … states erected and decerned & formes of gouernment deuised & established 1597 James VI Dæmonol. (STS) 77/35.
If a prince cannot … bring back againe to himself the priviledges once bestowed by him … vpon any state or ranck of his subjects how much lesse may [etc.]
b. The spiritual (ecclesiasticall, etc. Church) state, and the seculair or temporal state, seen, freq. in contradistinction, as the major division of society. c1420 Wynt. v Prol. 51.
Off this dowbyll governale The grettast is the spyrytuale The temporalle is the les … Thir twa statis [etc.] c1450-2 Howlat 283 (A).
Thai couth nocht trete but entent of the temporale, Tharfor thai counsall the pape to writ in this wys To the athile empriour … To adres to the dyet … With dukis [etc.] … So that the spirituale staite And the secular consait Mycht all gang in a gait c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 120/37.
The temporale stait to gryp and gather The sone disheris wald the father 1528 Lynd. Dreme 976.
For I haue socht throw all the spirituall stait, Quhilkis tuke na compt for to heir me complene … Lordis of religioun, thay go lyke seculeris a1538 Abell 120 (bis) a.
Bot part of thame [sc. religious] … fled in Scotland & graciuslie eftir the rewll wes resaifit be our bredir & als be the seculair stait 1540 Lynd. Sat. 1390.
Tell me … With the temporall and spirituall stait Quha did ȝow maist kyndnes? 1562-3 Winȝet I 5/29.
Ignorantis and wikit persones … of the quhilk nummer we confesse the maist part of vs of the Eclesiasticall Stait to haue bene 1596 Dalr. I 106/4.
Of the ecclesiastike state I wil first speik 1598 James VI Basil. Doron 80/18.
And to end my aduice anent the Church state, cherish no man more than a good pastor
c. The divisions of society as represented in Parliament. 1689 Acts XII 71/1.
The vote then stated whither ane or more of every state should be sent with the offer of the crown and carried for one of every state 1700 D. Hume Diary Parl. Scot. 3.
Proceeded to chuse 9 of every state for the committee of security
9. pl. a. The classes going, collectively, to make up a country, hence, the country itself; esp. applied to the Low Countries. Also attrib. or possess. b. The governing classes or body of a country. Also staitis generall, the government of the Low Countries.a., b. (1) c1420 Wynt. vi 2455.
The statys off Ingland Wes all in dolowre hard murnand c1420 Wynt. vii 115.
Off Ingland … Willame Bastard … Wyth fawoure off the statis hale, Thare help, thare will and thare counsale, The state tuk and the reawte c1420 Wynt. vii 966.
Dawy, than Kyng off Scotland, And hale the statys off Ingland At Lundyn all assemblid ware c1420 Wynt. viii 255.
Fra that the statis off Scotland, … Had made thare compromyssyown Hale in the dyscretyown Off Edward a1500 Seven S. 1870.
I bynd me … Before the statis of ȝour empyre [etc.](2) 1540 Lynd. Sat. 4498 (B).
And specialy for the thre staitis [Ch. estaits] Quhair I haif mony tendir maitis 1574 Reg. Privy C. II 420.
The Conventioun of the Nobilitie and States appointit to have convenit for the effairis of the commoun weill upon the xxv day of November 1653–4 Aberd. Shore Wk. Acc. 367.
A Dondie bark that cam with tents and chis to the staits 1653–7 Irvine Mun. II 256.
When I went to give in supplication to the steats 1667 Rothesay B. Rec. 134.
We acknoledge our said souerane onlie supreame governour of this kingdome … and that no foiraine prince power statis or persone civill or ecclesiasticall hathe any jurisdictioune … ower the same 1669 M. P. Brown Suppl. Decis. II 456.
The defender … deponed … that he got no money from the States to pay the foresaid quartersattrib. or possess. 1628 Soc. Ant. XXVIII 444.
Ane staitis man of warr 1628 Soc. Ant. XXVIII 444.
The captain of the staitis schip 1652–3 Aberd. Shore Wk. Acc. 357.
Ther cam ane veshell with stats beskit and payit to ankarag(3) c1650 Spalding I 239 (see Thanksgeving n. b).
10. A body of people, chiefly as occupying a particular territory, and living under a sovereign government and law. c1420 Wynt. i 888.
The lawe … Quhare wytht was rewlyt the Jowys state c1420 Wynt. iv 21.
Ane hundyr men he chesyde … To tha he lypnyd the governale Off the comoune state, and he Tha senatowyrs gert callyt be 1571 Cal. Sc. P. IV 687.
To the repressing of this rebellioune and setting the stait to his hienes obedience 1571 Fam. Rose 256.
This unhappy accident [sc. the murder of Moray] casting the state lowis and the … thre estatis considdering … the hurt of the commoun weill 1586 Cal. Sc. P. VIII 346.
The Secretayr … had sett down certayn plattis onto the King how he mycht preserve his stayt in obedience 1600-1610 Melvill 457.
Gif these men serve for the prince and steat 1680 Dunferm. Ann. 350.
For wholl empyers steats wold go to wreack If hammermen their skill and art draw back
b. ? A further example of 10 above or ? aphetic for estate, landed property. 1696 Donaldson Husbandry 122.
Me thinks I hear some thick scul'd peasant, that sees as farr in states affairs, as a mear doth in a mill-stone saying … From whence came you Sir that offers to teach us how to labour our ground?
11. The body politic as organised for government; the supreme civil power; the government (of a country). Also attrib. b. Counsell of Stait, Officer of Steat (see Officer(e n. 2 d (2) for further examples. c. Appar. the governing body of a town or locality. c1420 Wynt. v 3644.
Tessaly … had conspyryde … Agayne the state off the empyre 1657 Aberd. Council Lett. III 290.
And the parliament 1649 acknowledgit the estate to be addebtit to the toune of Aberdein the sowme of 927120 merks … for peyment wherof they have grantit ane act of parliament and ingadgit the state for the samen And the comonwealth having come in place of the estats of Scotland they will be lyable to … pey the said debtattrib. 1491 Cart. S. Nich. Aberd. I 255.
That ale chaplannis … absent the haill oulk … salbe secludit fra ale commonys … bot gife thai be … occupiet in stet erandisb. 1660 Dumbarton B. Rec. 79.
Right of collecting the dues in Clyd, taken from them by the lait usurped authorities of the English Counsell of Stait 1689 Old Ross-shire I 73.
The nomination of the officers of steatc. 1582 Burgh Rec. in Campbell Kirk & Par. Kirkcaldy (1904) 63.
That the kirkyard dykes be putt upe and keepit at the syt of the steat and the assemblie
12. Kirk and stait, in sense 10 or 11 above. 1650 Balfour Ann. IV 146.
At last, quhen nather kirke nor staite did giue ther concurrence therin, he deserted the counsailles of the kingdome 1651 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 124.
General Leslie and sindrie wther considerable persones, both of kirk and stait 1651 Rec. Kirk Scotl. 646.
The guilte of much blood shed in the lait warre may be justly layed to the charge bothe of kirke and stait ?1655 Fugitive Poetry II xxviii 3/68.
Who goes about From house to house, both laite and aire, Pussling the Kirk and Staite with care
b. attrib. Relating to secular government or political considerations in contradistinction to religion or religious considerations. a1650 Row 399.
It seemeth to be als well aganis state-wisdome as it is evidentlie aganis religion and perjurie in relation to our oath to change any thing either in the matter or forme of the said doctrine
IV. 13. a. An order, class or rank of Creation, esp. that of angels; also a class within the order of angels. b. The condition of being an angel.a. a1500 Henr. Fab. 1897 (Bann.).
The feind, quhilk fra the angellis state Exylit is 1490 Irland Mir. I 57/2.
In the hiest … state of all creature was maid the nature angelik, and in the secund the nature humane 1490 Irland Mir. I 120/2.
And to this applaudit the thre gerocheis, and all haill the nyne ordouris, and humylly on kne befor the hevinly fader the thre nobile staitis of His hevinly realme … fell all to prayereb. 1490 Irland Mir. I 80/33.
Ane nobile curand medycyne … that … liftit ws to the state and glore of angellis
V. 14. Possession (of property).Chiefly to gif, tak, etc. (heritabil) state (and possessioun or sesing) (of (lands, etc.)). Also (to be) in (heritabile) state of (property); to hold (property) be (heritable state (and sesing); also attrib. with geving. Also, state ryalle, possession received directly from the monarch.(1) 14.. Acts I 110/2.
Gif … the principal disseysour de befor that he that is disseysyt hes recoveryt his stayt forthi [etc.] c1490 Dunferm. B. Rec. I a (fly-leaf).
Thir ar the witnesis of W. Stewartis stat of vs of annuel of Dunlopis land 1515 Prot. Bk. J. Foular II 6.
Thairfor the said Thomas brak the said sesing … James Bassinden protestit that the breking of the said stait be Thomas the Bard [etc.](2) 1400 Maxwell Mem. 139.
Sua at the forsayd Schyr Jon sal haf thairof herytabyl state and possessyoun c1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 50.
Stat c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2631.
Of this kynryke … I … giffis him heire state heretabile 1431 Buccleuch Mun. II 29. 1435 Ayr B. Ct. 23 May.
The qwilk bailȝe the said resingnacion ressawet gaf stat & inefeftment of the said landis & tenement … to Ellisbeth of Dunduf 1443 (1450) Reg. Great S. 86/2. 1452 Ayr B. Ct. 11 April.
Stathe 1454 Glasgow Chart. I ii 43.
Of the qwhylk landis and annuell rentis the said Johne Steuart gafe … herytabyll stait as of the fee 1462 Peebles B. Rec. I 147. 1463 Newburgh B. Ct. 11b.
Reyȝchart … towk stat of a roid of land 1478 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 339. 1483 15th Rep. Hist. MSS App. ix 13.
John Durand … gaif and deliverit be the gift of erd, tre and stane as maner is, heritable stait, possessioun and seising till … Jonet Adamsone 1488 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 2.
Johne of Wallod balye … deliuerit heritabil state and possession to the said Nichol Meldrum of the estmest butht of the said land 1491 Acta Conc. I 194/2.
Within xx dais efter that it be noterly knawin the state be gevin or tane be the said Cristiane 1491 Acta Aud. 149/2.
George … has promittit to sele and subscriue the state and possessioune of the landis of the barony 1498 Acta Conc. II 197.
His fader is infeft in al and haile the sadis landis and has state and peceable possessione thareof 1501 Acta Conc. III 100.
Staite 1508 Reg. Privy S. I 270/1.
Ay and quhil the richtwis ayre or ayris … recover heretable state and sesing of the samyn 1509 Thanes of Cawdor 121.
He send Sande Nicol … befoyr ȝoule that last vas til ane bruym hil betuix [etc.] … to tak stat in my name 1511–12 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 15. 1526 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 280.
To gyf hyme stait and possessione … be ane breif of inquest 1531 Prot. Bk. M. Fleming 25.
Staet 1542–3 Linlithgow B. Ct. 9 March. 1557 Reg. Cupar A. II 142. 1586 Perth B. Ct. 15 Nov. 1588 Burntisland B. Ct. 31 May. 1596 Paisley B. Rec. 178. 1632 Cullen B. Ct. 6 June. 1654 Glasgow Chart. II 32.pl. 1520 Perth Hammermen 13.
Till Constantine Arthur for the staits giffin of the annuelsattrib. 1530–1 Glasgow Prot. IV 29.
Jhon Wan, balȝae to the stait gewyng, be hesp and stapyll, as the wse is 1563 Edinb. B. Deeds 99b.
At the infefting of the said Elizabeth in the foirsaidis houssis at the stait geving(3) 1470 Prestwick B. Rec. 2.
Of the stat of the rodis and landis: quha is in stat of thaim withtin the burghe 1470 Prestwick B. Rec. 4.
Johne Syncleir in stat of a kill, a barn, & a certane land 1473–4 Treas. Acc. I 4.
Componit wytht George Hvme … to put his sone and ayre in state of his landis 1487 Fraser P. 106.
The said lord [Errol] sale … put him [sc. William] in heretebile state … of the hale lordschipe of Ury 1530–1 Glasgow Prot. IV 28.
George Elquhistoune beand in stait of the said land(4) 1476 Acta Aud. 49/2.
George of Lothresk allegeit that he wes in the said landis be state and sesing 1495 Acta Conc. I 427/1.
Archibalde … sall gif to the said George Roule be heretable stet charter and sesing tene merkis worthe of his landis 1532–3 Selkirk B. Ct. MS 167.
Elesabecht Leychman … efter the tenor of thair infeftment be bailȝeis, seriand, stait, and sessing, gaif our all clayme … of … the tenment of land(5) 1434 Facs. Deed in Gunn Peebles Colleg. Ch.
He gave to the said Wilȝame … state ryalle of the said landis 1464–5 Charter (Reg. H.) C.O. No. 60.
Thare eftir we gife sesine be state ryal to the said William of Douglas of the said landis
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