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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1963 (DOST Vol. III).
This entry has not been updated since then but may contain minor corrections and revisions.

Ken, v. Also: kene, kenn(e, keyne, (kend). P.t. and p.p. kend(e, (kynd,) (ken'd;) kennyd, -it(t, ken(n)yt, (kendit;) kent; kenned. [ME. kenne(n, ken, also kyn (15th c.), p.t. kend(e, kenned(e, p.p. kend, kennit (15th c.), kent (15th c.), OE. cęnnan (p.t. cęnde, p.p. cęnned) to make known, declare, ON. kenna to know, recognise, acknowledge, perceive, name; and, to teach, tell; etc.]In branch II, practically synonymons with Knaw v.

I. To make known.

1. tr. To impart the knowledge of; to inform of, teach, tell or reveal, by words; also, to render, give (an account). Const. dative of the person or to.(a) a1400 Leg. S. xxvii. 383.
Angelis of[t] tyme sen haf I … kene hyme al That he wald lere
Ib. xxx. 154.
Consele kane I kene thé gud & leile
?1438 Alex. ii. 1496.
Thus as that ald was sermonand And hardiment to thame kennand
Ib. 3010.
Sik ane lessoun I sall him ken That he agane in Inde wald be
c1420 Ratis R. 732.
That buk can tech thé and ken Alsua the commandmentis ten
1497 Reg. Cupar A. I. 310.
And athour the said Thomas sal ken and informe the prentys … al craft in masonry or ony wther he can
a1500 Seven S. 2110.
He said ȝis, sa may ȝe conclude That ȝour ensample may ken ws gnd … ; Than said scho it was wele kend
1567 G. Ball. 89.
Thow saif vs from sic sort of men, And fra the doctrine that they ken
(b) c1420 Wynt. II. 159. Ib. 171, 422.
Ahraham … kend the Caldeys perfytly, The scyens off astronomy
Ib. vii. Prol. 31.
At thare instans that me kend Thaire awyne impossybylyte
a1500 Colk. Sow II. 257.
Thus Gurgunnald, my grit grandame, me kend
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 946.
It is gude to folk to ken their self, or they be kend to their self
1608 Dunferm. B. Rec. II. 51.
He delyverit the said horse … with all the faultis now found to him and tuentie maa nor evir he kend to him
(c) a1500 Prestis of Peblis 1060.
To me the King his officer hes send, For he wil that my count to him he kend
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3270.
Now wald I, it war to thé kend, Of that impyre, the fatall end
1622 Pope's New-Year Gift.
They will not marrie honest wyves, The reason may bee kende: Adulterie is their delight
(b) 1535 Stewart 3147.
In till Athenis … Quhair all science war kennit craftiuslie

b. With dependent clause expressing what is imparted. a1400 Leg. S. Prol. 26.
Storysse … That as merroure ar vs to, To kene ws how we suld do
Ib. iii. 437.
Quhill I thé kene, How the tynt sawlis [etc.]
c1420 Wynt. v. 683.
For tyll ken hym werraly Quhilk wes off Petyr the body
c1475 Wall. viii. 1315.
Thus wysmen has ws kend, Ay efftir wer pees is the finall end
a1500 Bernardus 258.
How sal thow byg castel, towne or toure This clerk he kennys
1604 Elgin Rec. II. 124.]
[Burnet, a woman of Aberdeen, to be warnit againe Fryday nixt to ken quhairfra scho cam

c. intr., const. with or of (the thing taught).(1) c1420 Wynt. vi. 264.
Gret curtasy he kend thame wyth
?1438 Alex. ii. 3588.
Bot wit … kend him with ane souerane slycht For to knaw the points all That euer may to that mister fall
(2) c1420 Ratis R. 2631.
For-thi trow to the wisest men Of sciens that couth tech and ken

d. In the passive, With the person informed as subject : To be informed of (const. with) what is imparted or known. a1500 K. Hart 742.
Ȝouthheid and Fresche delyte mycht thai be brocht, For with thair seruice I am richt weill kend
1560 St. A. Kirk S. I. 36.
It wer gude that Knox war kend the gayt quhare fra he come

2. tr. With infin. complement : To teach or instruct (a person) to do something. a. To show or teach how to. b. To enjoin upon, charge or direct, to. c. absol., with the infin. understood : To instruct or tell to do (so).a. 1375 Barb. iv. 748.
Nigramansy … That kennys men … To ger spiritis to thame apeir
Ib. x. 544.
I vndirtak … For to ken ȝow to clym the wall
c1420 Wynt. i. 1619.
Men he kend tyll ere and sawe
Ib. vi. 265. ?1438 Alex. ii. 5230.
Porrus … That can ken cowartis for to quaik
1540 Lynd. Sat. 1567.
Vpon thy craig tak thair ane clout: To be courtesse I sal thé ken
b. a1400 Leg. S. iv. 141.
Criste, oure mastere, can vs kene Gud fore ewil to ȝald almene
Ib. x. 269. a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 207.
Kenand thé, man, all prid for till disperne
Ib. 217.c. 1375 Barb. xvii. 68.
Till do as thou sall ken
a1400 Leg. S. v. 116.
Quhene man his propre thing … gyffis powre men, as He to [the] ȝunge man cane kene In the Ewangel
a1500 Rauf C. 436.
Do as I thé ken
a1540 Freiris Berw. 109.
Thay … did as scho thame kend

d. Also in the passive, with the person as subject: To be instructed how to, or charged to, do something. a1500 Henr. Fab. 561.
This tod … start about and cryit as he wes kend
1513 Doug. ix. viii. 123.
The Troianys, that … Be lang vsage of weir war lernyt and kend Quhou thai thar town … suld defend

3. With the person as object : To teach or instruct, to impart instructions to. a1400 Leg. S. xl. 482.
Al that ware honeste men Ȝarnit that he suld thare barnis ken
c1460 Thewis Wysmen 187.
Thai ar ay reddy for to ken All … wnletteryt men
c1460 Consail Vys Man 120.
Tak nocht in ill for to be kend
1538–9 Prot. Bk. T. Johnsoun (S.R.S.) 35.
That Schir Hendrie Louk … held his barnis that he kennit in his scoull at sic subjection [etc.]

b. absol. To give teaching. c1420 Wynt. vii. Prol. 12.
Inwyows brynnand men, That offtare will reprove, than ken
?1438 Alex. ii. 7717.
Thay held speke … of amouris mony wys, Bot I na wait, bot as lufe kennys [F. Fors qu'amours en ensaingne] And ȝarnyng leris and lyking lennys

4. To teach, show or point out to one (the way, to or from a place or person). In lit. and fig. contexts. a1400 Leg. S. vi. 545.
The apostil … That has me kend the suthfast vay to Cristis blyse
Ib. xviii. 843. c1420 Wynt. viii. 4819.
Thai had wyth [thaim] ane, That kennyd thame a by way, That ewyn down betwix craggys lay
1513 Treas. Acc. VI. 54.
To ane man to pas with him to ken him the gait
a 1574 Three Reformers 13.
To trow in traytouris, that do men tyiste, The hie way kennand thame fra Chryst

b. To show the Way to, to direct, guide or conduct (a person), to (till) a destination (also, a person). Also fig. c1420 Wynt. v. 2988.
That thai walde ken hym to that bestys halde
c1475 Wall. v. 414.
A trew Scot … Brocht thaim sone oure, syne kend thaim to that place
Ib. ix. 786. 1513 Doug. iii. ii. 92.
Lat ws wend Thidder quhar the goddis oracle haith ws kend
15.. Clar. v. 1295.
Thay speirit quha was ladie of the feist, And they tham kennit to Meliades
1562 Treas. Acc. XI. 178.
To ane boy to ken the saidis masaris to the assis
fig. a1568 Scott xxxvi. 55.
I sall to synnaris mak narratioun … I sall thame ken to consolatioun

5. To ken (a person) to (a parcel of land). a. To guide or direct (the person) to the land; to point out to him its situation and its boundaries. 1551 Prot. Bk. W. Corbet (S.R.S.) 16.
Geiff the said James kennis nocht grayt[h]lie the said iii halff landis thair was send ane tennand of the sam towne to ken hym to the said lands or to part tham fraye the laiff of thair landis

b. Chiefly spec. To ascertain authoritatively and point out to a person the situation and limits of his or her separate portion of land, thereby formally admitting the person to occupation of the land.This procedure was carried out: 1. espec. in the 15th and the early decades of the 16th c., by baillies or liners in burghs, as a method of formally admitting an heir or new owner to his land; and 2. latterly chiefly by sheriffs and other judges of equivalent jurisdiction, as the procedure, subsequent to the service of the breve of terce or the breve of division, whereby a widow was formally entered to full possession of her terce or a portioner to his or her share of the land to be divided. 1468 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 28.
Swa the son of the secunde wyff, askande him to be kende to the saide land as air til his fadir
1490 Acta Conc. I. 124/2.
To infeft the said Adam & ken him to quhat parte of the said Willȝamis landis of Athra that [etc.]
1500 Dunferm. B. Rec. I. 113.
Johne Persone [etc.] … linaris, svorne and chosyne … to devid and kene ilkane of the sadis persounis to thar avne landis
1508 Ib. 168. 1507 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. I. 56.
[She] thereftir producit ane precept of the schirrefs direct to the mars making mention that thai hed kennyt hir till hir ressonabill terce of the said lands
1522 Acta Conc. XXXIII. 17 b.
The said Janet Liddale to rais ane breif of diuisioun … and the schiref of the schir to ken hir to hir thrid part thairof
Ib. 45.
[If the heir] was kennyt to ane land and tenement within the said burgh
1551 Prot. Bk. R. Lumsdane MS. 18 b.
Twa mark land … that he awcht and suld be kennit thairto as vse is be diuisioune of cawillis to be cassin thairvpone
c1575 Balfour Pract. 108, 457. 1585 Prot. Bk. J. Borthuik MS. 28.
Archibald Douglas … ane of the schreffis … be vertew of ane retour, past to the ground of the landis of Merktyll and thair kend & enterit Jeane Prestoun … to the sonny thrid part and terce of … Merktyll
1661 Melrose Reg. Rec. II. 40.
[The petitioners crave warrant to be given to George Hownham ‘Long’, George Hownham weaver [etc.] … to pass upon the ground of the said lands and show the petitioners where the said lands lie, that they may enter thereto … ; the bailie ordained the said persons to pass to the ground] and to ken the saids petitioners to the saids lands
1681 Stair Inst. iv. iii. 12.

c. Const. for, of, with or without preposition: To invest with, admit to occupation of, assign (the land), in this way. a1497, 15.. Gray MS. vi. 7.
With na kynrike thou beis kend Fra that thi cors be cled in clay
1532 Edinb. B. Rec. II. 59.
Ane baillie and vtherris of the counsale till pas ken and assing the said Sir Jhonne the saidis akerris of land
1622-6 Bisset I. 298/16.
Tuiching the divisioun of landis maid betuix any portioneris, to ken ilk ane for there awin pairt is of nane awaill, gif the samin be maid without ane breve of divisioun
1681 Stair Inst. ii. vi. 14 (1693) 277.
The brieve being thus served, the sheriff or bailiff must also, if it be demanded, ken the relict of her terce, which is ordinarly done by the sun or the shade, … and so the division of the tenements proceeds by aikers, two befalling to the heir, and one to the relict

6. To make known, show, display, manifest, in other senses. (Cf. Kythe v.). c1450-2 Howlat 108.
Withoutin caus or cryme kend in this case
a1585 Maitl. Q. xxxix. 72.
Be sum signe let this be to me kend
a1578 Pitsc. I. 194/23.
Quhilk was weill kynd on thae men and vthiris sensyne in the realme of Scotland
1597 Edinb. Candlemakers' Seal of Cause Ratif.
And that he beir on his creill his maisteris mark to ken him and his stuff

II. To recognise or know.

7. To recognise (a person or thing) at sight or by tokens; to identify; to diagnose (a disease). Also, to know (one person or thing) from (be, by) another: see also Be prep. 3 f, By prep. 3 a.(a) 1375 Barb. v. 316.
Bot, for that men suld nocht him ken, He suld a mantill haf, ald and bar
a1400 Leg. S. ix. 48.
Ȝe sal hyme kene Be his hare, that is crispe & blak
a1500 Seven S. 1864.
The master said I ken thai wordis, Of his stepmoder that is the saw
a1540 Freiris Berw. 234.
Fair dame, ken ȝe nocht me?
1551 Hamilton Cat. 222.
Quhow can a medicynar discerne quhom he may hail … quhil he ken the seicknes?
a1586 Lindsay MS. 85 b.
That they mycht ken of far ilk lady hir lord
1586 Perth Kirk S. 255.
If I have your wort-dish, come to my house and ken it
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 787.
He kenns not a B be a bullfoote
1686 Stuart Joco-Ser. Disc. 67.
Some … should … turne a widdy 'bout his craig, To ken him from a straying naig
(b) c1420 Wynt. ii. 386.
He kend thaim nevyrtheles ilkane, And on thame threpyt thai ware spyis
a1540 Freiris Berw. 154.
His knok scho kend and did so him in lett
1531 Bell. Boece II. 399.
He demandit thaim gif thay kend thair handwrittis and selis
(b) a1500 Seven S. 2377.
The stewart beheld the knychtis hand and kennit the ryng
1502 Treas. Acc. II. 58.
For caus the King kennit him in the toun of Air
(c) 1375 Barb. vii. 272.
Thai stert vp, the hous to defend, But soyn eftir, the kyng has kend James of Douglas
a1500 Henr. Test. Cress. 380.
Father, I wald not be kend
1602 Shetland Sheriff Ct. MS. 19.
The plewche yrne wes kend and seine in the said Cristopheris plewche
c1650 Spalding I. 18.
He directis sum freindis to tak wp thair ashes and brynt boneis … and as thay culd be kend to put ilkanes asses and bones in a kist
(b) 1434 Aberd. B. Rec. I. 390.
Ilk baxtar sal haf on his lofe his awn takyne, that it may be kennyt by quha aw the lofe
1436 Ayr B. Ct. MS.
Myseleneis wifis acht to cum to the markat with cop & clapar that thai may be kennit by

8. To recognise, identify, perceive, detect (something non-material, as a quality of a person or thing). c1420 Wynt. iii. 944.
Falaris … gert hym all the fawtys mend That mycht be sene off it or kend
Ib. v. 3673.
Can thow noucht ken the fellown Charge off thi presumptyowne?
Ib. viii. 1932.
Robert the Brws kend well than The falsate off this wykkyd man
c1460 Consail Vys Man 171.
Atte last lawte is kend
a1500 Henr. Fab. 641, 2.
My destenie and eik my weird I ken; My auentour is cleirlie to me kend
a1499 Contempl. Sinn. 97.
War in a King sic disposicioun kend That he wald just men honour
Ib. 1477.
Our clokit consciens sall clerlie thair be keud
a1500 Doug. K. Hart 54.
Ane [servant] for the day quhilk jugeit certanly With cure to ken the colour of all hew
1533 Gau 5/4.
Quhou thay sal ken thair sine and ar sinful creaturs
a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 863.
Sir, for ȝour clergie to be kend, Tak ȝe twa asses eirs

9. To perceive with the eyes, to descry, distinguish, make out, see. Also fig. c1450-2 Howlat 587.
Syne in a feld of siluer certane Of a kynde colour thre coddis I kend
1513 Doug. v. vi. 72.
Be this thai wan neir to the rynkis end, Irkyt sum deill befor the mark weil kend
Ib. xi. 23.
Al the Troiane wemen dyd sche ken Syttand on the schor … The gret loys of Anchises regratyng sair
1590 Burel Pilgr. i. vi.
So fast the deir ran to his den, His coulour I cud skantlie ken
fig. c1590 Fowler I. 29/76.
I left my interpryse to which I first did tend, Bot in my breist the rev[i]uing raggs of lowe may yit be kend

b. To perceive mentally, be aware or conscious of, feel. a1568 Scott xxvii. 40.
Gif scho my luve quyt clame, I sall not kend [= ken it]

10. a. To recognise or come to know (a person) for what he really is; to perceive the inward quality of (a person). c1460 Thewis Wysmen 309.
It is … Spedful that … thare ferys men may ken Quha wys ar, quha vncunand men
15.. Dunb. P. v. 14.
And he that is of hairt vntrew, Fra he be kend, fair weill, adew
1540 Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 137.
A mair cowart was nevir … , I ken him weill, for all his boistis and crakkis
1635 Dickson Wr. 10.
Good Lord, countest thou of me as my frieuds? Kens thou me no better than they?

b. To recognise a person as of a specified character, to know or perceive him to be (a brave man, a friend, etc.). 1375 Barb. xi. 219.
A rout of nobill men, That all be contynans mycht ken
?1438 Alex. ii. 4320.
Than war the douchty eith to ken
a1500 Bk. Chess 1466.
A frend is kend in gret necessite
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 197.

c. Const. object and complement : To acknowledge, admit, accept; to consider, regard (a person, as of the character stated or as rightfully entitled to the dignity specified). 1375 Barb. iii. 750.
Thai as lord suld … him ken
a1400 Leg. S. ii. 190.
That he kene me mare mychty … than is his kinge
c1420 Wynt. v. 2057.
[They] kennyd Cryst for thare creatoure
Ib. 5334.
The Dewyll … sayd than He kend hym [St. Serf] for a wys man
a1500 Bk. Chess 1676.
Erar I ȝow assur A man slaar we suld him iuge & ken Than for to be a mediciner of men
a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 284.
Corspatrick … sayd he kend bot Wallace King in Kyle
1513 Doug. i. vii. 134.
Ane worthy weriour suythly thai mycht hir ken
1551 Hamilton Cat. 251.
Let us al thairfor ken our self to be brether in God
a1578 Pitsc. I. 95/18.
They sould never obey nor ken him againe as ane king or prence

11. To know or come to know a. God. b. Oneself. c. One's inward quality. (In pregnant sense.)a. c1420 Wynt. i. 42.
The kynde of angelys and of men God made of noucht Hym for tyll ken
1533 Boece viii. iii. 253.
Be thir intollerabill dammagis fynalie we war teichit to ken almychty God
a1585 Maitl. Q. xvii. 7.
Trowble … To ken thair God makis thame able
b. a1400 Leg. S. xxxi. 4.
[This story] suld mowe women To lof God & thame-selfe kene, That of thaim na vertu hase Bot it cum of Godis grace
c1420 Wynt. viii. 3974.
Thir … men That kend noucht thameselff for pryd that day Na set noucht before thame God off mycht
1456 Hay II. 147/4.
How he that kennis wele him selff kennis wele all othir thingis of the warld
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 318.
For he couth ken him self, i curtasly him lerit
1533 Boece vi. ii. 187 b.
Quha was procedit of sobir blude suld of ressoun be compellit to ken thare self, of quham thai come … and how thai spendit thare gudis
1549 Compl. 143/23.
Gyf thou hed grace to ken thyself, thou vald sune persaue [etc.]
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xiv. 47.
Ken ay thy self best in prosperitie
c. 1567 G. Ball. 28.
God grant ilk man, his hert sa kend, To sin na mair

12. To acknowledge, recognise, admit to knowing, accept, own (a person or thing). a1400 Leg. S. iii. 692.
The pupile … Trowit in Criste, and cane hym kene
Ib. xv. 77. a1538 Abell Chron. 2 a.
Ambycyon kennys na kyn na kyndnes
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. clxxv. 7.
Thocht ȝe do plesar till gryt men, Thairfoir thai will ȝowe skantlie ken
1596 Dalr. I. 291/5.
Quhen this king saw his peple … sa … stifnekit … that thay walde nocht kenn thair office
1614 Crim. Trials III. 296.
For quhat conditioun beis promeist ȝow be onie in Orknay, thay bot skorne ȝow; for the Counsall will not kenne quhat conditioun thay mak to ȝow
Ib. 306.
His fader, for that caus, wald skairslie kenne him, or gif him ony mantenance
?1672 M. Bruce Sermon in Edinburgh 10.
Noble Nebuchadnezzar would not ken this, he was so great, till he made him to ken it by a sore skin

b. To ken (a person) for (something), ? To acknowledge the person's right to the thing, to accept as rightful possessor of (but cf. sense 5 c). 1572 Inverness Rec. I. 219.
And quhen [I] … com to Dundye to rasaue the said salmond fra James Blayr. the said James wald nocht ansuer nor ken me for thame

13. To have knowledge or understanding of (something); to know or have learned what it is or of what it consists; also, contextually, to obtain knowledge of, learn about. Also absol.(a) c1420 Wynt. iii. Prol. 15.
The sentence … Suld move men to besy be Thare statis to kene orygynalle
c1475 Wall. viii. 54.
Now God be juge, the rycht he kennys best
1551 Corr. M. Lorraine 352.
I man lat your grace ken the browt of this cuntre
1551 Hamilton Cat. 6.
Seik nocht to ken thai thingis quhilk ar abone thi capacitie
c 1575 Annandale Corr. 273.
We rak nowcht how mony honest men kene owr demenour towardes yow
1638 Row Red-Shankes Serm. (1642) 2.
The errand ye ken too, to curse where the Lord had blessed
absol. 1513 Selkirk B. Ct. 23 b.
To furthschaw in the said cause sa fer as thai keyne
1519 Ib. 70.
Adam Wylkeson … and his allya that kennis best to depone … that the taker of the said hors was nocht thair servand
(b, c) a1400 Leg. S. xii. 157.
Judas kennyt nocht the cunctre, Quhare he wes borne, na quhen that he Come
?1438 Alex. ii. 2727.
Gif I knaw ocht or euer kend, This battale mon this weir tak end
c1475 Wall. xi. 308.
Wallace it [the letter] saw, and weill thair harmys kend
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 1325.
Sa that the cause may be kend, and knawin throw skill
1661 Black Sc. Witches 43.
Schoe wawered in her ansr., some time saying he did blood at the nose and vtherwhilles swore that schoe kend nothing of it
absol. c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 376.
With one messyngere that [v.r. thar] wele kende

b. intr. To make judicial inquiry, take legal cognizance, upon. = Cognosce v. I, Knaw v. 8 b. c1575 Balfour Pract. 268.
The lordis of sessioun ar jugeis competent to ken and cognosce … upon the retractatioun and validitie of ony decreit [etc.]

14. To be acquainted or familiar with (a thing); to be conversant with or versed in (a body of facts, branch of knowledge, etc.) a1400 Leg. S. vii. 395.
Than swer Abnen that he kend nocht The crafte, quharethru he helpit mocht
c1420 Wynt. v. 436.
All thare langage welle kend he
1449 Acts II. 35/2.
At iuste men be maid justicis that kennys the law
c1475 Wall. i. 82.
To Corspatryk … he send, His consell ast, for he the contre kend
a1500 Rauf C. 651.
Thair was na man thairin that his name kend
a1500 Seven S. 1603.
Of my dishonour ȝe ken all how Bot I murn mekle mare for ȝow
15.. Chrystis Kirk 87.
Men said that kend his archerie That he had slane anew
c1540 Lynd. Kitteis Conf. 19.
Quod he, Ken ȝe na heresie?
1560 Rolland Seven S. 3406.
Kennis thu not weill this taill thow tald to me, … Quhilk is richt fals
a1578 Pitsc. I. 285/9.
To cheise [as regent] ane of our awin lordis quho … kens the qualletieis of Scottland
a1663 Pappity Stampoy 15.
Curtesie is cumbersom to them that kens it not
1686 Stuart Joco-Ser. Disc. 23.
Wha kenns a pipe will sur'ly grant sir, Maist of the [skill] lies in the chanter

b. To become familiar or conversant with, to learn; also, to study. c1460 Thewis Wysmen 294.
Vysdom proferis hym tyl al men, Bot ful few of vs can that ken
c1475 Wall. viii. 483.
Thir ensampyllis war noble for to ken
a1500 Seven S. 627.
The child … for to ken set all his thocht The prattikis as his master wrocht
15.. Wyf Awcht. 25.
Sen that ȝe will husy skep ken
1560 Rolland Seven S. 1224.
O cocatrice that will not ken thy awin conscience
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. cxi. 44.
All ȝe that sould be chrissin men Ȝour honour and ȝour dewtie ken

c. reflex. To have knowledge or skill; to be versed or accomplished in. = Knaw v. 9 b.Also ME. (a 1376). Cf. F. se connaître en or à (already in OF.). c1450-2 Howlat 704.
The boytour callit was cuke that him weile kend In craftis of the ketchyne
1456 Hay I. 252/15.
It is nocht semand to sett a persone to be juge in materis that thai ken thame nocht in [F. qui est ingnorant de ce mestier]

d. tr. To know or have learned of (something) by personal experience; to have experienced. c1590 Fowler I. 30/105.
Woe. woe, to him that kenst so weill [sc. the power of Love], and thow the same sall knaw
a1665 W. Guthrie Letters Horning (1681) 12.
Hewas bold, and tender, kent as much of Gods grace, as ever you did, beleeve

e. To know as a habit or practice to which one is given; to be accustomed or given to. c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 356.
The cappill … Sa curtasly the cart drawis, and kennis na plungeing
1567 Sat. P. xi. 73.
The godlymen Quhilk think na harme nor falset ken

15. To know (a Way, road, etc.). b. To ken the gate (to do something), = to know the way to, know how to. 1490 Irland Mir. fol. 219 b.
Thai sperit at the hirdis … of the cuntre that kennit the way and gaitis, quhare thai twa gaitis passit to
1633 Rutherford Christ's Napkin 17.
Because they ken not the gate to this well of life
1682 Peden Lords Trumpet 21.
There is manie a man spears the gate they ken full well
b. a 1700 J. Maidment New Bk. Old Ballads (1844) 15.
Well I wot he kens the gate To play at hough-ma-gandy

c. To know to do something or how to do something. ?1665 M. Bruce Six Dreadfull Alarms 17.
Well kens he to strick the iron while it is hot

16. To know of or about (a person), by personal observation or by report; to have observed or have heard of; also, to get to know of, learn of. a1400 Leg. S. xxxiv. 321.
Scho … speryt at hyme gyf kend he hade A bischope quhare he duelling made
c1420 Wynt. ii. 1534.
[Hercules] chesyt wytht hym the wychtest men In tyll all Grece that he couth ken
a1500 Lanc. 547.
Shir king, one to yow am y sende Frome the worthiest that in world is kend
1533 Boece iii. v. 96.
To nane … pepill is the Romane seuȝorie vnknawin bot gif peraventure thai be sic pepil that nane vthir nacioun kennys
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xcvii. 55.
I ken nane now for Godis luife To do ane wrang that will forbeir
a1605 Montg. Flyt. 499 (H).
Then the kumeres that ȝe ken came all with a clake To conjur that codȝoigh
c1578 Rid Square in a1568 Bann. MS. p. 58/152.
Theirs all the specialls I of speake, By others that I could not ken
1613 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 9.
That ane unknown man neither kenned by the people nor allowed by the Presbyterie … should be obtrudit [etc.]

b. p.p. Known by report; well-known, celebrated, famous or notorious. ?a1500 Steel Roy Robert 145.
Ane inborne tratour at was kend
c1500-c1512 Dunb. xiv. 31.
Sa mony theivis and mvrdereris weill kend
1567 Sempill Sat. P. vii. 230.
Thair laude and fame sall mont abone the skyis; … In all storyis thay salbe cleirly kend
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xcv. 46.
He is weill kend, Johne of the Syde, A gritter theif did neuer ryd

17. To be personally or familiarly acquainted with (a person); to have as a friend, associate or acquaintance.(a) c1400 Troy-bk. i. 7.
Tharfor the Grekes thai luf & ken, And ay eschewis fra Latyn men
c1450-2 Howlat 806.
The schenachy, the clarschach [etc.] … Scho kennis thaim ilkane
a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 391.
Deulbere is thy kyn and kennis thé wele
c1500-c1512 Dunb. lxiii. 48.
Kokenis, and kennis na man of gude
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 44.
A cairle sould not ken a gentilmans servanse
(b) 1375 Barb. i. 327.
That he wald trawile our the se … And dre myscheiff quhar nane hym kend
a1500 Peblis to Play 27.
Than spak hir fallowis that hir kend, ‘Be still, my joy, … ;’
1597 Misc. Spald. C. I. 175.
Swa reput and hauldin be all that kend thé
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 835.
I kend yow of old, they called your gudedam dub
(b) a1538 Abell Chron. 124 b.
James Synclaire at I kennit weill
1596–7 Misc. Spald. C. I. 89.
To gar him repent that ewir he saw or kent hir
Ib. 126.
That ewir he kendit thé
(c) c1500-c1512 Dunb. xliii. 2.
Thir ladyis fair that makis repair And in the court ar kend
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1265.
Quhair he is best kend, he is worst loved

b. In the passive, To be personally known by, or admitted to familiarity with a person or amang persons. a1500 Lanc. 905.
For o knycht he send, That was most speciall with the lady kend
a1568 Bann. MS. 8/11.
Quhill I had ony thing to spend … Amang my freindis I wes weill kend

c. To know carnally. c1552 Lynd. Mon. 3414.
Quhen the pepill … Saw the angellis … Transformit into fair young men, Thay purposit thame for to ken, And abuse them unnaturallie

18. a. To have to do with, have dealings with (a thing). a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. xxxi. 34.
To tak ane maling [etc.] … , Bettir had bene the first [tenant] had never kend it, Nor thoill that schame

b. To take separate possession of (one's own share of a property) : cf. sense 5 b. 1625 Dumfries Test. 124 b.
Incais she plesis to mairie, ordanes ilk ane of his four bairnes to ken thair awin part of geir
a1633 Hope Major Pract. II. 55.
Any of [the diverse portioners of lands] who thinks himselfe intressed in laboring of his part may raise a breife of division … that ilk ane of them may ken their owen part

19. To be aware of (something) as a fact or as something of which one is informed, to be apprised of, to know of; also, to apprehend as a truth, to be assured or certain of. b. To ascertain. a1400 Leg. S. xxi. 385.
Fore of my-self & my wyf … The gettyne kene I wondir wele & it that gottine is
Ib. xxxii. 204.
Frend, I kene hale thi wil & the vnmycht of my compere
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2524.
Thairfoir he spairit nouther busk nor boig, For weill he kennit the kenenes of the doig
a1500 Seven S. 2367.
Thar was nane that kennit that traide Saifand the masoun that it maid
c1500-c1512 Dunb. l. 18.
This deid thocht na man kennis
1509 Justiciary Rec. MS. (Reg. H.) II. 144.
Gif thay kene ony tresoun to the kingis persoun
1513 Doug. iii. v. 21.
Quhar tythingis, oncredibill to thame not kend it, Come to our erys
1514 Selkirk B. Ct. 34 b.
Bot giff thair be condiciones that we kene nocht betuix the parteis
1535 Stewart 46747.
His fatheris deid syne quhen he kend and knew
1567 G. Ball. 9.
Defame na man in ony sort, Suppose his fault or vyce thou ken
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 1428.
Tel na mae nor ye ken
1622-6 Bisset I. 296/23, 25.
Gif the defender hes ay had possession let him tak on the assyse … that kend his use and possession and gif he had nocht the possessioun desyre uthir men to be upoun the assyise that kend littill
c1650 Spalding II. 51.
Thay took to Edinbrugh with thame also the erllis secretar, … , to try what he kend
?1665 M. Bruce Six Dreadfull Alarms 19.
Yes, gang I must; I ken no other faer
1686 Stuart Joco-Ser. Disc. 3.
By the faith o' my body I kenn that fow weel
b. 1622-6 Bisset II. 207/8.
That na merchand … pas over the sea … bot that he have … at the leist … thrie serplaith of woll … quhilk salbe kend or he pase, be tryell

c. intr. To know or learn of (something). c1420 Wynt. vii. 1862.
[The Pope] Send wyth hym a messawngere In Scotland to ken off that matere
c1500-c1512 Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 454.
We … quyetly … convoyis our materis That no creatur … kennis of our doingis

20. p.p. Known as a fact, well known, familiar (to someone). b. Widely or generally known or recognised. a1500 Henr. Fab. 1369.
My werk Is couth and kend to mony cunning clerk
1513 Doug. xiii. Prol. 122.
I wait the story of Jherom is to ȝou kend
15.. Clar. i. 1075.
Quhen this thing was to his Hienes kend, Grit glaid he was
1587-99 Hume Epistle 2.
To kings is kend thy knawledge singular
c1680 Mackenzie Mem. (1821) 235.
Our proverb, The ill ken'd is better than the good unken'd, holds in nothing so much as laws
b. 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58.
Ȝoure hee wisdam, discretion, manheide … as wele is kend thrw out al the werld, wil defend me
1456 Hay I. 278/20.
Gif a … lord had tane ane armes … and borne it lang tyme opynly, kend in dede of armes and in weris
1480 Newbattle Coll. (Somerville) Reg. H.
That the said vexacion … be notory [sic] kend, that he the said Johne … may nocht bruk … the said landis
c1568 Lauder Minor P. i. 645.
Thus lat ȝour deids … be sene and kend till all and sum
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. cix. 16.
Sa weill is kend my innocence
1590 Burel Pilgr. ii. xl.
Thy glore now, the more now, Is kend, ô potent God
16.. Hist. Kennedy 52.
The trewthe of that is weill kennitt

21. With various dependent constructions in place of the simple object : To perceive, learn, become aware; to know, be aware, have learned; to understand, apprehend; to acknowledge, admit (that something is so, etc.).(1) 1375 Barb. xiii. 50.
King Robert, that weill can ken That the archeris war perelous
a1400 Leg. S. xi. 184.
To that end that thu Kene thi goddis ar learis now
14.. Maner of Battale 229.
Schir, kenys thow this is thi sele … hale and undammyst?
c1420 Wynt. i. 99.
Kennand that thai nakid ware
Ib. v. 1704.
Than the prowest … kend at scho his douchtyre was
a1500 Henr. III. 150/14.
Becaus I ken ȝour cunnyng … Is clowtit and clampit
a1500 Colk. Sow i. 424.
Be this ȝe may weill ken That foly is no sapience
1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I. xxxvii.
Johannes Turnbyll … deponit that he kennit that James Smyth was borcht to Jhone Smyth for xxv s.; 15 18–19 Selkirk B. Ct. 68 b. We kene nocht that euer your lordschipe had ony titill or rycht thairto
a1568 Scott xxi. 29.
Cupeid, thow kennis I burd to knaw The langsum leving in thy law
Id. xxviii. 18.
Weill I ken I may nocht get hir
a1570-86 Maitland Maitl. F. cviii. 24.
At ȝour conventioun gar the cwntrie ken That ȝe trawell to mak tranquilite
1598 James VI Basil. Doron 62/10.
Quhen ye haue … maid thame kenn that ye cann strike
1634 Rutherford Serm. John xx. 13 in Bonar Fourteen Communion Sermons by the Rev. Samuel Rutherford (1877) 190.
Ken ye not that poor folks are glad to get an errand to a hall-house?
1681 Colvil Whig's Suppl. (1751) 90.
All honest, and unbyass'd ken Those whom thou mean'st, were worthy men
?1661-5 M. Bruce Soul-Confirmation (1709) 11.
I will tell you what I have to crack of, and I will let you ken, I will crack of it
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xi. 154.
Tel quhat men Tha ar, sa we may kene
c1420 Wynt. ii. 315.
Joseph … cowth wele bayth ken and se Quhat land suld yhelde or fertyll be
1456 Hay I. 57/10.
Mycht nane ken quha had ony avantage
a1500 Seven S. 1741.
We sall ken Thare by gif ȝe be suthfast men
1515 Selkirk B. Ct. 42 b.
The inquest fand that the balȝeis kennis quhat pertenis to ane burgess ayr be ayrschip
1570 Misc. Bann. C. I. 40.
For all his raschnes in speiking he kenis weill ynoughe wherat he wald be
1571 St. A. Kirk S. 357.
Quhat was his erend the deponent kennis nocht
1596 Dalr. II. 443/3.
That the better tha mycht kenn, quha war to gouerne after her
1600-1610 Melvill 480.
What geppes of gear our Bischopes hes bein in Scotland, … the haill countrie kennes
1635 Dickson Wr. 6.
When sin, Satan, affliction, death set on, ye will ken better what was Job's disposition
a1681 J. Welsh Churches Paradox 18.
O say ye, I wad bide it out and I kent how long it would continue
(3) c1420 Wynt. ii. 686.
Oure fra hym beyhonde a se He kend lyand a gret cuntre
1513 Doug. ix. viii. 120.
Quhar as the army of the Troiane syde Was thynnast scattyrit … , at thai mycht ken The weirmen not sa thyk in syk a place
1517 Selkirk B. Ct. 58.
He kennes be relatioun of Ranald Helme … the said Wolȝam to have bocht xv schep fra the said Ranald … and mair he kenis nocht
1601 Elgin Rec. II. 90.
William Fyndlay promesit to … tell sick personnes as he kennis to pas throche the ȝairdis on the Sabboth daye breking the dykis
1681 Colvil Whig's Suppl. (1751) 87.
Vices which all the world doth ken Familiar to clergy-men
(4) c1420 Wynt. v. 4339.
Ane empryoure, … Lucyus swylk mycht have bene kend Be the message that he send
1456 Hay I. 265/28.
That thai may be kend wenand thame self till have rychtwis … querele
1513 Doug. i. Prol. 246.
Touyr is kend a grayn of that ryver In Latyn hecht Danubium or Hyster
1535 Stewart 18371.
Or dreid that I be for ane lear kend
1540 Acts II. 375/1.
The persoun that happynnis to gett thir landis & broukis the samin peceablie ȝeir and day … & sa kennyt heretable possessour thairof ȝeir & day
1560 Rolland Seven S. 7571.
Gif thow be kend in that same [fault] culpabill
a1570-86 Maitl. F. lxxxv. 34.
Ay blyth I reid we be At evir in blis we may be kend
a1586 Kamington Chron. Setoun xiv.
Quhilk maid Setoun to be moir creuell kend

b. In parenthetic constructions.(1) 1375 Barb. vi. 18.
Vre helpis ay hardy men, As by this deid ȝe may weill ken
a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii. 399.
Thi godis, gyf thu can kene, Ar mad bot of handis of men
Ib. xxxvi. 1058.
He sa demanis thaim, as ken we
c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 1300.
As now is kende with lese & mare
1456 Hay I. 75/30.
The thingis that ar corporale … Ȝit have thai othir naturale movementis, as clerkis kennis
1535 Stewart 27339.
All that wes done, as tha sould gar him ken, Vnhappelie be ill asposit men
1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 263.
As I trast your grace kenis be hys broderis credens
1560 Rolland Seven S. 9298.
I am waik and febill. as ȝe kend [: defend]
?a1640 Copie Baron's Ct. 29.
‘What are you resting … ? ’ ‘More nor our room can pay, as you well ken’
(2) a1400 Leg. S. xxxiii. 29.
He his tribune als, thu kene
1513 Doug. i. i. 33.
The fatale sisteris reuolue and schaw, scho kend, Of Troiane blude a pepill suld discend
1535 Stewart 36673.
Also thair is in this kinrik, ȝe ken, Rycht mony ill … asposit men
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5066.
Octauiane ȝe knaw is couetous, And lufis gold ȝe ken abone measure
c1568 Lauder Minor P. iii. 2.
Thir vearse ar sweit … Unto the hartis of godlie men, I ken
1573 Sat. P. xl. 41.
Riches and rent we ken dois not abyde
1638 Row Red-Shankes Serm. (1642) 2.
Balaam ye ken was ganging a great way

c. With a pronoun (it, that, (the) quhilk, etc.) standing in apposition to, or for, what is known. Also in the passive sometimes with pronoun omitted (in sense 20) .(1) a1400 Leg. S. i. 185.
And that suld men richt wel ken
1560 Rolland Seven S. 5779.
Euer mair ȝe promeis me ane mendis, And as ȝe do, God and the warld it kendis
1567 G. Ball. 169.
And sa I mak ane end, Christ grant vs all to kend [? = ken it], And steidfast to remaine
1586 Maxwell in Paisley Mag. (1828) 386.
I lat ȝou kennit [sic] thir wers he pennit
?a1640 Copie Baron's Court (1821) 2 i.
This is a fault remediless in men, Which you, sir baillie, perfectly do ken
(2) 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58.
[I am] in grete auenture to be heely reprovit the qwilk is wele kennyt to me
c1420 Wynt. ii. Prol. 6.
As in all storys welle is kende
1513 Doug. xiii. xi. 40.
And now I haue … maid Juno, as that full weil is kend, Forto becum … favorabill
15.. Misc. Spald. C. II. 191.
The guid mynd our cousing hes born ws at al tymis … , as hes bein kend be his notable ackis
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 1933.
Deith, Hounger, Darth, it is weill kende, Off Weir this is the fatell ende
1556 Lauder Off. Kings 887.
Quhat our pastoris thay may spend, Me neidis nocht schew; sen it is kend
1567 Lanark B. Rec. 36.
Gef the samin kan be knawing, … gef it can be kenit in tyme cummin
1572-5 Diurn. Occurr. 128.
Mr. James Balfour [etc.] … being as is notourlie kend the principall devyseris

d. To put (a clock) right. 1653 Edinb. B. Rec. VIII. 328.
To tak doun, dight, mynd, and sett up the great knoak … and to ken it right and in good ordor

22. In impersonal construction with dependent clause of statement or interrogation : It is (wele) kend, Wele is kend (= sense 20) (that something is so, how something was done, etc.).(1) 1398 Acts I. 210/2.
Sen it is wel sene and kennyt that oure lorde the Kinge … may nocht trauail to gouerne the realme
1456 Hay I. 255/11.
And suthe is, and wele is kend that the pape Clement was than verray pape
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 4451.
Apperandlye it may be kende, Quod he, thare glore sall haue ane ende
1567 G. Ball. 234.
To all mankynde it is weill kend, That euer come hidder, that he mon die
1600 Misc. Bann. C. I. 173.
It is kend werray weill that I wes neuer bloode thristie
(2) 1456 Hay I. 72/14.
How it may be kend in a man gif he be forsy or nocht
c1552 Lynd. Mon. 737.
How he thame namit yit bene kend
1640 Spalding I. 253.
The Erll … rave and distroyit the samen, that it sould never be kend what covenanteris war the subscriveris
?1665 M. Bruce Six Dreadfull Alarms 15.
And it were kent how much we have thortured with God

b. Common in formulæ introducing the principal statement of a legal deed or formal declaration: Be it kend, made kend, it mot be kend.Answering to the various optative or imperative uses of scio, nosco, pateo in the corresponding formulæ in the Latin deeds.(1) c 1380 Charter (Reg. H.).
Be it kennyt till al men throch this presens me … haf hecht [etc.]
a 1409 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 73.
Be it kennyt til al men that we George of Douglas … has assentyt [etc.]
1423 15th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. viii. 33.
Be yt kenyt tyl al be thire present letteris me … tyl haf … mad … my lufyt frendis … my special mesangerris
1454 Glasg. Univ. Mun. I. 14.(b) 1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 14.
Tyll al and sendry … be it kende that … it is accordit [etc.]
1425 Reg. Great S. 11/1.
Be it kend tel al men throwch thir present letteris ws … fortil haff gewin … the offyce [etc.]
1482 Edinb. Chart. 146.
Be it kend to all men … ws … tobe … oblist [etc.]
1546 Reg. Cupar A. II. 35.
Be it kynd tyll all men … ws … to haue … sett [etc.]
1589 Coll. Aberd. & B. 354.
Be it kend till allquhome it effeiris be thir presentis [etc.]
1627 Aberd. Council Lett. I. 269.
Be it kend to all men … we … grantis me to have resewit … saxe deme-colvering
1670 Dunkeld Presb. I. 182.
Be it kend till all men by thir presents, me … Bishop of Dunkeld [etc.]
(2) 1423 Charter (Reg. H.) C.O. No. 37.
Be it maid kend till all … me Alexander of Lochtrysk … giffis and grantis [etc.]
1430 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV. 391.
Be it made kend til al men throch thir presentes lettres that I … is becumyn lele man [etc.]
1434 Liber Coll. Glasg. 249.
Beit mad kennyt … me Johne Stewart … til haf gyffyn [etc.]
1488 Rec. Earld. Orkney 332.
Be it maide kend … me … to haf sellit [etc.]
1527 Fam. Rose 200.
Be it maid kend to all men be this present vrycht me … to haue assouerit [etc.]
(3) 1568 Hosack Mary Q. of Scots 568.
It mott be kend till al and sindrie [to] quhais knawledge thir presentis sall cum [etc.]

23. To make kennit or kend, to make known, declare. Variously const.(1) c1420 Wynt. vii. 3326.
The lettrys … he gert be send To mak hys mennys dedys kend
1540 Lynd. Sat. 3131.
Thy life and craft mak to thir kingis kend
(2) c1400 Troy-bk. ii. 2730.
Scho … To Menelay hir fader sende A grevous pleynt makand him kend That sche was nocht into deynte Haldine
1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
I sall with the help of Gode make it well kennyt that I haff trewly kepit … the trewis
c1420 Wynt. vii. 226.
That He wald send A takyn off fyre to mak thame kend Quhat lord thai suld ches to be Kyng
1560 Rolland Seven S. 9016.
Thair was a message send Out of Egypt be writing makand kend, That of the lait was new deceissit thair king
(3) 1560 Rolland Seven S. 9031.
I haue ressauite writing, Makand it kend my fathers departing
1567 Lanark B. Rec. 36.
Quhay that raveillis ony thing that the said provest [etc.] … dois, befoir thej mak all the samin opinly kend
(4) c1420 Wynt. vi. 124.
For to refus or to comend, As swylk inqweystis may mak kend
1513 Doug. xi. x. 59.
Ȝon … myschews Enee, As that the rumour surely hes maid kend, … A certane horsmen … Hes send befor
1546 Lynd. Trag. Card. 313.
It is your craft, I mak it to ȝow kend, Ȝour selfis in ȝour templis for to teche
c1552 Id. Mon. 131.
Be thir prophyceis appeiris From Christ, as thay mak till us kend, Twa thousand, till the warldis end

b. In one of the formulæ for introducing or concluding a formal declaration. (Cf. 22 b.)(1) 1402 Dundee Chart. No. 22.
We Robert Duc of Albanye … makys it kennyt til al men that … the saidez parties [etc.]
1424 Grey Friars II. 167.
Til al and syndry that this letter herys or seis I, Johan Buty, … makis it opynly kende that I wayt [that the charter of Kinghorn was forged]
1429 Melville Chart. 22.
Til yhoure vniuersite … we mak kend that ther comperit in the scherefe court … a worthy squiare [etc.]
1465 Misc. Spald. C. V. 393.
And we mak kende at the said Thome has payit us to gersome [etc.]
1490 Irland Mir. I. 23/8.
And than the fader of hevin … gave his sentens diffinitive … , sayand : I, God, … makis kend to all my creaturis and to my seruandis sendis salutacioune; I wil ȝe knaw [etc.]
(2) 1488 Red Bk. Grandtully I. 171*.
And this … we declar and makis kend be thir our present lettres

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