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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 2001 (DOST Vol. X).

Tosche(o)derach, n. Also: toscheoderache, tosherodaroch, toshdorich, toschodairach, tosheodire, tossochdoir; (tosachisdori, toseachderach, toschoderach, tochederauch, toyseachderach, toyschochderay, tosordereh, tocioderach, tosheagor, tussochdoir, thoschachderach, thochoderach, thoseanderaw, thochisdoir). [Gael. toiseach (see Toscheochdoras(c)hip,n.) and ? EIr. doír-rath a client relationship with a base person, prob. influenced in some instances by Gael. deòradh a stranger, wanderer, fugitive. Cf. Manx toshiagh-joarey.] An executive officer of the crown, the office itself, freq. equated with crowner or coroner (Crounar(e n.) or Mair n.The function of this office is not clear; see, for instance, the Skene quot. below. For a detailed study of the linguistic evidence, see W. Gillies ‘Some Thoughts on the Toschederach’ in Scottish Gaelic Studies XVII (1996 [1997]), pp. 128-42. For a discussion of Gaelic legal concepts and terminology in Scots Law, see W. D. H. Sellar ‘Celtic Law and Scots Law: Survival and Integration’ in Scottish Studies XXIX, pp. 1-27. a1200-1398 Cart. Levenax 49.
Carta officii de tosheagor et officii forestarie de Levenax Patricio de Lindsay … totum officium quod dicitur tosheagor de Levenax
14.. Acts I 235/1.
Cum nomine officii sui scilicet si fuerit marus domini regis vel toseachderach
14.. Acts I 58/1.
Per seriandum vel coronatorem vel tosordereh vel alium summonitorem [Acts I 58/2, be the seriand or be the crownar]
1446–7 Charter in Argyll Mun. MS 20 Feb.
Totale et integrum officium senescalliatus tosachisdori ac mari tocius terre nostre de Craginche
1453 Exch. R. V 601.
Thome Forbas toschederach, pro feodo suo in officio de toschederach comitatus de Marr
1454 Exch. R. V 658.
1455 Exch. R. VI 70.
1456 Exch. R. VI 269.
Thome Forbes, toyschochderay
1457 Exch. R. VI 361.
1458 Exch. R. VI 436.
1550 Reg. Great S. 108/2.
Officio coronatoris, alias thochisdoir
1554 Reg. Great S. 206/1.
Cum Tossochdoir totius Kyntire
1597 Skene Verb. S. s.v. Toscheoderache.
Aberrans … pecus aut domino furum iudagatori (tochederauch vulgus appellat) [Boece (Latin) 207b, tocioderach vulgus appellat; Bell. Boece (M) II 52, serchour of thevis] aut sacerdoti reddito
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. (Latin) ii 121 (Index).
1632 Reg. Great S. 650/2.
1539 Reg. Privy S. II 458/1.
The viii merk land in Knapdale callit Kilcammak … with the Tossochdoir of all Kintyre … all lyand within the schirefdome of Terbert
1554 4th Rep. Hist. MSS 476/1.
c1575 Balfour Pract. 303.
That the executour of the summoundis shaw and expreme at the time of the making of the executioun, his awin proper name, togidder with the name of his office, viz. gif he be the king's mair, herauld, toschederach, or ony uther officiar havand powar to summound
1597 Skene Verb. S. s.v. Toscheoderache.
The lands of Gya, and vtheris with the Toschodairach of Kintyre
1597 Skene Verb. S. s.v. Toscheoderache.
Toscheoderache, ane office or jurisdiction, not vnlike to ane baillierie, speciallie in the Iles and Hielandes … Some alleagis to be ane office perteining to execution of summonds … Sik as ane quha summondis … ane vther to compeir before ony judge … Vtheris vnderstandis the same to be ane crowner … Last, summe vnderstandis it to be ane searchour, and taker of thieues, and limmers
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i 93.
Qvhen ane is summoned … the sergent, the crowner, the toscheoderach (the mair of fie) in his summons … sould declare to him for quhat crime, or for quhat cause he is summoned
1682 Lauder Notices Affairs I 350.
All the Jurisdictions … Right of Generall Justiciary, Tosherodaroch or Mairship, Chamberlanry [etc.] … are annexed to the Croun, and ordained to be ratified in the nixt parliament
1685 Acts VIII 493/2.
[Annexation of] the heretable crownership and toshdorich or majorship in these shires [sc. Argyll and Tarbat]

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"Toschederach n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 6 Oct 2022 <>



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