A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
Sped(e, Speid, v. Also: speide, speyd, speed(e. P.p. also spedde, spad. [ME and e.m.E. spedenn (c1200), sped (c1250), spede (c1275), speed (Chaucer), spead (1545), speede (1553), OE (ᵹe)spédan.]
I. 1. intr. To meet with success, prosper, attain a purpose or desire; also, const. to spede to do (something); in(to), on, of (a purpose). Also in collocation with Spil(l v. and Spurn(e v. Cf. proverb., Sped(e n. I 1 d.
(1) Thane com a pylgrime … entre askand; And fore he sped nocht, … He knokit faste apon the ȝet; Leg. S. iii 1004.
I kene hale thi wil & the vnmycht of my compere, That to spede had na powere; Leg. S. xxxii 206.
To assege yone castel … Euer quhill ye speid; Gol. & Gaw. 336.
Quha hes this stane sall haue gude hap to speid; Henr. Fab. 125.
Quhair sic sproutis spreidis, the euill spreit thair not speidis; Henr. Fab. 2438 (Ch.).
Dunb. (OUP) 149/81.
Sum speidis [at law] for he in court hes menis; Dunb. (OUP) 199/24.
It is ane prouerb … Let ane ȝoung man quhidder he speid or nocht Hane not his speich, but speik furth; Rolland Seven S. 8882.
The king sieing that he could nocht speid witht fairnes [etc.]; Pitsc. I 94/17.
Quha speiddis bot sic as heych espyris?; Montg. Ch. & Slae 360 (L).
Sall I liue off my hope to speid, And liue no more, cros'd with consuming cair?; Mure Early Misc. P. ii 91.
(2) He hyr leit wit vtrely That othyr worthyt hym to sped Hyr wil to wyne, or [etc.]; Leg. S. xxx 97.
Ane alde coble … he fand, … & lap thare-one … In his purpos venand to spede; Leg. S. xl 508.
He that thinkis on his luff to speid, He may do weill; Wall. v 640.
The hale rejosing of my spreit Wald speid in to my erand than; Dunb. (OUP) 97/27.
Then war tha blyth all … And put away all dreddour and all dreid, In gude beleif of thair purpois to speid; Stewart 31096.
I hald thé by thi mynd, To dreid the man the quhilk for thé is deid, And throw thi power oft of his purpois speid; Stewart 39806.
Grantar and gevar of all grace … That we may speid spend on ws space To get of our gilt forgifnes; Bann. MS I p. 18/12.
(3) Quho that will noght for this prayer turn, Quhen thai wald faynest speid, that thai may spurn; Kingis Q. § 186.
[They] oftymes vnavisitlie dois thair deid That garris thame oftymes spurn quhan thai suld speid; Hay Alex. 2538.
Thewis Wysmen 362.
Quhan we wald spill thow gart ws speid; Bann. MS I p. 19/31.
b. With adverbials expressing the manner, etc. of succeeding in(to), intil, of (a purpose, etc.), also, to do something; specif. to fare or progress well, ill, etc. (in something).
(1) Thai sped on sic maner, That thai thar fayis discomfyt hade; Barb. xvii 898.
Dewenik can to Catnes pas, … And sped sa weile in schort tym thare, That [etc.]; Leg. S. xxvii 847.
Sanct Machor Furth preichit … & swa sped that he Gert mast part of thaim cristnit be; Leg. S. xxvii 851.
Quhen he saw he sped nathing For his enculȝe or entysing; Leg. S. xlix 33.
He sa graithly sped had thare Of all his erand and weil-fare; Alex. ii 6520.
Quhen he sawe that he mycht nocht in that maner spede, he sett him in ane othir maner fassoun to procede; Hay I 13/34.
(2) Mathew … of appostil & ewangelyste … in-to that wark sa wel spede, That [etc.]; Leg. S. x 27.
In til leteratoure sa wel he sped, That [etc.]; Leg. S. xxv 500.
Quhen scho lang sic lyf had lede, & thare-in [had] nathing spede [etc.]; Leg. S. xxxvi 870.
Thir preistis returnit, evill doung, and na thing sped of thair purpos; Bell. Boece II 104.
(3) Leff is to him that mistar has to be doand with his land quhar that he may best speide; Burgh Laws c. 89 (A).
It sall be leifful til hym the forsaid lande as he best may speid to sell; Acts I 29/2.
(4) Thai … tald thair lord how ewill the formest sped; Wall. v 856.
In till all haist than hamewart is he gone, And schew this king that tyme how he had sped; Stewart 16844.
How haue ȝe done, and sped in ȝour jornay: Or quhat kin end that ȝe haue brocht it to; Rolland Seven S. 9617.
The bischope com hame and schew the king the maner and how he had spede in this commissioun; Pitsc. I 347/2.
Pitsc. I 239/23.
Ye mett the Guidman of Johnstouneburne and tauld him how ye sped; 1601 Crim. Trials II 355.
(5) Schir Amer, that fra the chas With his men than reparit was, That litill sped in [E. sped lytill [in]] thair chassing; Barb. vii 83.
Theodora, that had il spede, Ȝed til hyr husband [etc.]; Leg. S. xxx 341.
Quha is hated in his feid, Weill na may he neuer speid; Alex. ii 390.
Trewly … he dois ill. Ȝit, quhen he had serued hir lelely … Me think than had he sped richt wele; Alex. ii 3094.
To supple the wingis … And gif the vangard hapnit weill to speid Reconfort thame … And gif thame hapnit in feild to win the flour, Lat thame allane with thair conquest honour; Hay Alex. 1196.
Al thing has tyme wald men tak heid, Quhai dois nocht swa the were sal sped; Consail Vys Man 354.
Weill born scho was … Scho trowit weill tharfor to speid the erar; Wall. viii 1115.
I might have thold he had done well, And better sped in his journey; Sir Eger 555 (L).
As for my work I have no dread, I trust in God right well to speed; Sir Eger 870.
Quhen all the branchis sa war sned The ȝoung tre na better sped; Seven S. 338.
For lack of iustice sum gettis vrang … Sum in the cessione lyis our lange And hulie speiddis; Maitland Maitl. F. 427/11.
[She] sat doun befoir the dure, and said ‘ill might they all thryve, and ill might they speid’; 1629 Dalyell Darker Superst. 33.
For hee that loues lightliest Bee sure hee shall speede best; Craig v 10.
If the graunting of ane assembly … prove the advancement of ther designe, it may be thought that they have spedde weall in ther wicked designe; J. Gordon Hist. III 150.
c. impers. It is well sped, it spedis to, it is a good thing for, it is better for (a person, etc.).
And though the deed he sought on him, It is well sped to all his kin; Sir Eger 528 (L).
For it spedis to thee that aan of thi membris perise, than that al thi bodi ga into helle; Nisbet Matth. v 30.
d. To be profitable or useful (to).
Wytht thame wes Natyownys duelland sere That spedys noucht to be reknyd here; Wynt. i 992.
Wynt. ii 816.
I suffer allone … Ane wofull wrecche that to no wight may spede; Kingis Q. § 28.
2. tr. To assist, help (a person), to cause (him) to succeed or prosper. Also absol.
That haly thinge [sc. receiving the Sacrament] had spad hir sa; Leg. S. xviii 1366.
He spurnyd offtyr than he spede That blyslys bryde; Wynt. v 5091.
Quhen thow has ned … nane bot grace thane may thé sped; Ratis R. 1399.
It sall be done as ȝe deme dreid ȝe richt nocht … Ȝe sall be specialy sped; Howlat 879 (A).
The hie God of his gracis Him self dispisit ws to speid; Henr. III 147/54.
All worthi Scottis, all mychty God yow leid, Sen I no mor in wyage may you speid! Wall. ii 199.
Logik will him speid Be argvment; Bk. Chess 1667.
Thow help me with gude consall … in all neid … thou me speid; Obsecro 78.
absol. With luf is langsum lyf to led Quhar thai twa [sc. Reason and Hope] can nocht help na sped; Ratis R. 1095.
Here ar vrytin … Sum thingis that may help & sped To knaw the cours of thi ȝouthede; Ratis R. 1100.
Jesus, our King, is gaine in hunting Quha lykis to speid thay may; G. Ball. 175.
b. As a wish for success, etc. invoking the help of God, the Devil, etc. In 1662 quot. some form of greeting or incantation may be intended; cf. d below.
Do than, quhar mychty [C. and] God thé speid; Barb. xviii 389.
Go hens … the mekill dewill thé speid; Wall. ii 93.
Wallace ansuerd … ‘Go wndyr loft; Sanct Androw mot ws speid’; Wall. ix 120.
I pray grit [M. to] God him speid Him haill & sound in to his travell; Freiris Berw. 64 (B).
Quhan on of vs or mor ar in the shap of catis, and meitt with ony vtheris owr neightbouris, we will say ‘Divell speid thé, goe thow with me!' And immediatlie they will turne in the shape of an catt, and goe with ws; 1662 Crim. Trials III 611.
c. As an adjuration: Sa (greit) God (mot) me speid, (may) God help me.
I am traistar, sa God me speid, Than I into ane castell ware; Alex. i 788.
‘I can not spell,’ quod he, ‘sa God me speid’; Henr. Fab. 1010.
Thairfoir gude lord sa greit God mot me speid The inwart lufe that I vnto ȝow beir, Sa causis me remaine still with ȝow heir; Rolland Seven S. 2746.
d. absol. As a greeting: God speid, also an instance of this.
Withowt God speid thair herberie wes tane; Henr. Fab. 262.
In come Gib Hunter, our iolie cat, And bad God speid; Henr. Fab. 327.
God speid, my sone; Henr. Fab. 1363.
Thom mett hir be the way … and said, ‘Gude day, Bessie;’ and sche said, ‘God speid yow, gudeman.’ ‘Sancta Marie,’ said he, ‘Bessie, quhy makis thow sa grit dule and fair greting for ony wardlie thing?’ 1576 Crim. Trials I ii 52.
3. To promote, further, expedite (a cause, matter, etc.); to bring or urge (a matter) to a conclusion; to accomplish or carry out (an intention, task); to deal with, put into effect (a (legal, etc.) matter). Also, const., upoun (= with regard to) a legal transaction.
(1) pres. [I can] … helpe thé for to sped thi thing, Gyf thi cause be of luffyng; Leg. S. xxx 155.
This [sc. telling history] in fourme to sped and hast The wertu of the Haly Gast … I call devotly to helpe me; Wynt. iii Prol. 37.
Hys breyffe he gert spede … Till swmmound this Ballyoll bodyly; Wynt. viii 1593.
Yhe haue set the morne efter the fest of the purificacioun … to spede that mater and to present a persoune to the said vicarage; 1451 Reg. Episc. Brechin. II 88.
Lowrence the actis and the proces wrait, And thus the pley vnto the end thay speid; Henr. Fab. 1240.
At hys command thai … bissely begouth speid hys entent; Doug. iv vi 30.
Quhill I maye furnis an grot to speid your servis sall I nocht leif huisand me … to your auin weill; ?1549 Corr. M. Lorraine 302.
p.t. This pape Schyr Luci, The quhilk ressaywyd thame thare rycht welle, And sped thare erandys ilke dele; Wynt. vii 1928.
Than Wate has tane his leve to ga That sped had wondyr welle his nede [C. at neyde]; Wynt. viii 5687.
Quhen I wes pege, I did vaslege, and sped my erand sone; Bann. MS 256b/9.
p.p. I se wele that myn gat is sped Na Sathanas sal nocht mare me … God richt wele has sped myn wa; Leg. S. xiii 74.
Syn owr request mycht nocht be spedde anens yhow; c1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 19.
The message & the treteis to be send in France & in Ingland … to the qwhilkis to be sped the clergie … has grantit [etc.]; 1398 Acts I 212/1.
Scho wald ger in prosperyte That thing be sped, forout lattyng Or incombrance of ony thing; Troy-bk. i 437.
Ciuil mutis the quhilk ar put in the court hidd[er]tillis ar sped in part [Skene Reg. Maj. i 65b, partlie are exponed]; Reg. Maj. c. 135.
He suld never be sene bot anys in the ȝere … And alsa thare, gif ony gracis remissiounis or legitimaciounis was to be done, was sped; Hay II 93/32.
Na thing is gottin but wordis sum; Nocht sped but diligence we se; Dunb. (OUP) 207/28.
[He] has brocht wyt hym wrytyngis and dyrectyones fra thaim bayth to be sped in Frans, Flandris, and Rome; c1522 Doug. in
Doug. (Sm.) I p. ci.
The materis was sped … or Crystmaesse last bypassit; 1525 Douglas Corr. 99.
[He] sal do his diligence to get the samin sped and done betuix and Mychalmes nixttocum; 1538 Stirlings of Keir 358.
As God wald sic thing was na thing sped; Rolland Seven S. 4412.
(2) Sesing of … land may nocht be takin … quhill our said soverane lordis confirmatioun be optenit and sped vpoun the said infeftment; 1535 Renfrew Arch. Coll. I 171.
The preve sell is speid upoun my gyf[t] of the personage of Douglace; 1558 Waus Corr. 12.
The Lordis of Secreit Counsall … ordanis the Lordis Commissioneris … nocht to compone nor speid ony confirmatioun upoun the few abonewrittin; 1566 Reg. Privy C. I 466.
b. To achieve, accomplish (an aim or objective); to procure, obtain (a licence, permission, etc.). Also const. to (= for) (a person).
(1) To hym I went desyrus of frendschip, And sped that sammyn so in falloschip; Doug. viii iii 162.
The … procurator … producit ane appunctment … for the hamebringing of the … twa dispensationis for the said sovme of llib, of the quhilk thair was xxvlib payit, berand that thai [sc. the remainder] suld be spedd and raisit within ane certane tyme; 1518 Renfrew Arch. Coll. I 113.
Praying ȝow … to speid ane licence as is forsaid [sc. to allow James V to buy horses in England], and to send it with all deligence to this realme; 1535 St. P. Henry VIII V 15.
Fyve hundreth theiffis strang At anis will thair remissioun speid; Maitland Maitl. Q. 44/60.
(2) Becaus yon euyll myndyt Byschop of Murray … hes sped Sanct Andris to hymself … my self and frendis thinkis nedful I be promouit to that seyt quhilk now is vacand; 1515 Doug. in
Doug. (Sm.) I p. xxxvi.
Remember my salve conduct and sped the sammyne to me [sc. his promotion] as I wrat to yow latly; 1515 Doug. in
Doug. (Sm.) I p. xxxviii.
4. a. absol. To kill (a person) ? in a particular way. b. To bring (something) to an end.
a. The knycht … fell on kneis askand mercy At the king … And said the king mycht be the law As a tratour him hang and draw; and thare he put him in his will, To hang or heid, or speid or spill. And thare the king … Forgaif him; Wynt. vii 98 (W).
b. This is Goddis awne complaint … With my wo thi neid I sped Quhy arttow to thi freind vnkynd? Gray MS iv 35.
II. 5. reflex. To go with speed, to go quickly from one place to another, freq. with adverbial expressing direction or speed; to hasten to, etc. (a person, place, etc.), in (a place), also, to do (something). Also proverb.
(1) We sall swa row and speid ws sua That we sall weill eschaip thaim fra; Barb. iii 617.
He thocht to sped him sua that he Suld at the dyk befor thaim be; Barb. viii 205.
‘Schir but ȝe speid ȝow hastelly, Ȝour seruandis halely will be slane. Speid ȝow, or thay will de ilkane!' Alex. ii 1818.
Speid thé, man, and thé confes With humill hart; Dunb. (OUP) 177/37.
Of thi cuming we haif rycht grit dispair … Speid thé, thairfoir, in dreid we all forfair; Bann. MS 79a/39.
(2) Thai saw Thar fayis … cummand … That sped thaim full enforcely; Barb. vii 583.
Thai thaim defendyt manlely Quhill that the Douglas come ner That sped him on gret maner; Barb. xii 106.
He … bad thaim sone agayne thaim sped Swa that [etc]; Barb. xv 463.
The remaynynge thane of that day I sped me faste one myn way; Leg. S. xviii 856.
Alex. ii 1816 (see (1) above).
Hyit hym hard throu the hall to his haiknay And sped hym on spedely on the spare mure; Gol. & Gaw. 112.
Mak reddie sone, he sayis, and speid ȝow fast; K. Hart 779.
Clar. iii 1941.
For oght the kirk culd him forbid, He sped him sone; 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 370.
(3) He sped him efter thaim in hy; Barb. iii 602.
Giff a man on the wall may get He sall defend & it be ned Quhill the remanand wp thaim sped; Barb. x 582.
He … sped him thidderwart swith; Barb. xvii 180.
Thai … sowne gert send Till Hanyball, and bad hym spede Hym hame, and help thame in thare nede; Wynt. iv 1677.
He sped him in [sc. to the hall] spedely; Rauf C. 654.
In agayn [sc. to the fighting] full fast thai can thaim sped; Wall. xi 867.
Furth of that sted I went, and throu the rowt Of ennemyis and flambis I me sped; Doug. ii x 125.
Speid ws fordwart; Doug. vi x 5.
He … sped him hyne in all the haist he mocht; Stewart 9203.
Richt bissalie thame sped Amang the laif … Innumerabill sleipand that tyme tha slew; Stewart 52242.
Speid thé hame speidaly, Incontinent, and milk the ky, And mvk the byre or I cum hame; Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 81.
I pra your grace caus the leutenand wyth the garisonis to sped tham our; 1549 Corr. M. Lorraine 296.
(4) He … Sped him in hy to the fechting; Barb. iv 279.
Barb. v 137.
The pape … bad hyme that he suld nocht irke Bot sped hyme hame til his kirk; Leg. S. xli 382.
Speyd [C. speide]; Wynt. viii 4352.
He sped him fast in to the hall; Seven S. 468.
The noys … of mony marynar … Thar feris exorting … To speid tham fast towart … Crete; Doug. iii ii 121.
Swyft as the wynd he fled … And to his cave hym sped; Doug. viii iv 91.
The Morave with haisty iournais sped him to the king; Boece 188b.
Speid ȝow agane to me, my iois; Lynd. Sat. 935 (Ch.).
They al consalit my lord to speid him to the said conwention with al deligens; 1545 Douglas Corr. 160.
A squyar and ane madin bricht Vn till a chalmer fast thame sped; Bann. MS 143b/3.
Wha'll bid me when the kaill-bell's rung To board me speed? 16 … Sanny Briggs in Sempill P. 46/22.
(5) He sped him to the wer Till help his eyme in his myster; Barb. x 309.
(6) Thai sped thame to the ton … In hope of Vincent for to wyne … thai sped thaim bath, in wil Martirdome to cume til; Leg. S. xxxvii 47.
(7) Efftyr that all this wes dwne In Scotland hame he sped hym swne; Wynt. viii 1626.
(8) proverb. Speid yow ben and the litle pan in your hand; Carmichael Prov. No. 1387.
Speid yow with the keyis, the cat hes the kinkhoste; Carmichael Prov. No. 1389.
b. intr. To go quickly to, till (a person or place); to move with speed.
(1) Scho … bad him till the batell sped [C. spede]; Barb. iv 276.
‘To the chawmer … Speid fast,' he said; Wall. iv 775.
Quhou to the kyngis palyce speid Ene, That syne was take; Doug. ii viii heading.
Eftir plegeis war askit and ressauit he departit speding to his moder and broder; Boece 182b.
At sound of trumpett Danys sped haistelie to the ionyng; Boece 384b.
(2) The anteloip, the sparth furth couth speid; Henr. Fab. 895.
Speid home, for quhy anone cummis the nicht; Dunb. (OUP) 176/11.
Hir systir An … Herand sa feirful confluens thyddir speid; Doug. iv xii 56.
I haiff gottin … ane writing fra my lord gowernour to sped furthe my schippis upone thir Inglismen that lyis in the Fyrthe with diligence possible; ?1549 Corr. M. Lorraine 319.
Sum … fleing fra the sanddy beddis, speidis baith with airis and erect salis; Winȝet I 3/17.
c. tr. To cause to move quickly or at speed; to cause to pass quickly from one place to another or to a person. Also absol. and reflex. Also to speid one's feit.
(1) Rycht as spuris spedis the horse to ryn fast; Hay II 46/19.
With his spurris his coursoure he gart spede; Hay Alex. 3892.
I pray yow at a word sped thir lettyris to Flandris … and sped wyth thaim the kingis wrytyngis; 1515 Doug. in
Doug. (Sm.) I p. xxxvii.
Gif your hye prudens thynkis spedfull at salue conduct be sped her at the instance and subscriptyon of the said duk; c1522 Doug. in
Doug. (Sm.) I p. ci.
Ane clois lettre … to be speid to my lord of Sanctandrois with uthir writingis; 1526 Treas. Acc. V 265.
Speid to him ane signatour thairof in the best forme that can be devisit; 1542 Milne-Home MSS 37.
O you parkes and faites, to succour sloue, From you nothing to better me is sped! … from yow no helps aryse; Fowler I 271/12.
absol. Farand on thair stedis … With spurris spedely thai speid Our fellis, in fane; Gol. & Gaw. 25.
reflex. Emenedus was brym as ony bare, And with the spurris he sped him, and nocht to spare; Hay Alex. 3637.
(2) Als fast as Alexander mycht speid his feit Ane vther message be the way he met; Hay Alex. 2381.
Sum … swam the flude … vtheris … sped thare fete, quhil thai war fra danger; Boece 333b.
6. reflex. To act with speed; to hasten to do, in doing (something) or to (an activity or purpose); to prepare oneself quickly.
There is some overlap with 5 above.
(1) We sall speid ws swagat that we Sall be all redy till assembill; Barb. ii 296.
Thar-for sped thé … Fore dred, quhene thu wald thou ma nocht To state of grace thane be brocht; Leg. S. iii 741.
Nane laser mair to carpe haue we. Bot speid ȝow in all that ȝe may! Alex. i 2121.
My lord sec[r]etar hes send ane writen to me sayand that he wes to gett his anser about mydsomer. I dreid and we speid ws nocht hestele we sall [etc.]; 1547 Corr. M. Lorraine 188.
(2) Ledehous that the ledder maid Sped him to clymb fyrst to the wall; Barb. x 411.
I will me speid To help him, for he has ned; Barb. xi 645.
Alexander … Wald speid him sone in thare helping; Alex. i 242.
With gret desyre and thocht Tobe on grund, Troianys sped thame to land; Doug. i iv 29.
[They] Sped thame with fude to recover thar strenth; Doug. i iv 96.
Tysyphone … With quhip in hand al reddy fast hir spedis Thame to assail; Doug. vi ix 82.
(3) And sa behuffit thaim o neid To fecht and thaim to batall speid [R. to fecht and batalle spede, C. to batal and to feycht spede]; Wynt. iv 1708 (W).
The sparhalk to the spring him sped Als fers as fyre of flynt; Dunb. (OUP) 163/79.
Onto that wark al sped thame bissely [L. accingunt omnes operi]; Doug. ii iv 63.
To thi purpois se thow speid thé sone; Stewart 39808.
Some yeid to drink & some stood still And some to cairds & dyce them speid; Reid Swire 62.
b. absol. or intr. To hasten, hurry, be quick in an activity. c. tr. To urge (someone) to do something.
b. He bad sped wythoutyn let, And his hors sone till hym get; Wynt. ix 2511.
Twenty clyantes to on man of law … praying at on instant to speid As all attanis wald haif speid to proceid; Bann. MS 159b/37.
The wyfe said Speid, the kaill ar soddin; Jok & Jynny 76.
Thoght ȝe be ȝong, ȝit once ȝe may be ald: Tyd will not tarie; speid or it be spent; Montg. Misc. P. xxxii 46.
c. The clergy … sped thame [sc. the people] to make His [sc. Matthew's] sepulture; Leg. S. x 446.
d. In imperative: Speid hand!, hurry up!, make haste! (Hand n. 12). In early use in collocation with have done (Do v. B l c) but later appar. including within itself the notion of completing an activity. Also, once, to speid one's hand, to prepare quickly for something.
(1) Doug. iv x 91 (see Hand n. 12).
Now tarie nocht thairfoir; speid hand, haif done; Stewart 39807.
Speid hand, or I sall paik thy cote; Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 88.
Speid hand, man, with thy clittir clatter; For Goddis saik, man, latt me mak watter; Lynd. Sat. 4012.
At ȝour lyking, To saill or go ather be land or sea. Speid hand, the gudwyfe said, for cheritie; Clar. iii 850.
(2) The Rutilianys … Syne sped thar hand [L. expediuntque manus], and maid thame for the fight; Doug. xii v 91.
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"Sped(e v.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 23 May 2019 <https://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/spede_v>
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