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First published 2000 (DOST Vol. VIII).

S(c)hape, Schaip(e, v. Also: schap, shaip, schaype, s(c)heap(e, schepe, scheip. P.t. s(c)hup(e, schwpe, s(c)huip(e, schoup(e, schope, schoipe, shoop(e; schape, schapit; schep. P.p. schapin(e, -yn(e, -en, schaipin(e, shaippin, shapin, -en, chapin; schappin, shappen; schape, s(c)haip(e; shaped; scepit; yschappit; ischape, yschape. [ME and e.m.E. scape (Cursor M.), schep- (c1315), shappen (Chaucer), p.t. scop (Cursor M.), shupte (Piers Plowman), shoop (Chaucer), shope (c1400), p.p. shapenn (Orm), issape (1297), shape (Chaucer), shaped (c1300), OE scieppan, scóp, scapen.]

I. To create or fashion.

1. tr. Of God or the Fates: To create. c1420 Wynt. i 75.
All oure kynde … Lyk made to Gode and schapyne wes
1513 Doug. vi xi 69.
All ȝon be thai sawlys quhamto, by the fatis hie, Bene other bodeis eftir this yschape [Ruddim. ischape]
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Hebrews x 5.
Thou wald nocht sacrifice and offring; bot thou has schapen a body to me
a1568 Bann. MS I p. 50/65.
Jehova … schupe my saule to his similitude
1685 Sinclair Satan's Inv. World 23.
Which the mighty God of heaven shoop

b. To re-create in a fresh form. Const. noun complement of the form given. c1450-2 Howlat 112 (A).
That ȝe wald cry apon Crist … To schape me a schand bird in a schort space

c. To produce, bring into being (a non-material thing). Also said of circumstances. ?1438 Alex. ii 6052.
The beginning of lufing Hes shapin to vs the barganing
a1628 Carmichael Prov. No. 608.
God schup thole, gif man micht byde it

d. To bring into being by a natural process. c1460 Wisd. Sol. (STS) 479.
It is hard to a man to knaw how the banis of barnis ar chapin in thar mothiris wambe
1513 Doug. viii x 66.
As quhen the byrnand sonnys bemys brycht The watry clowd persand … Schapys the figour of the quent rayn bowe

e. To be … schapin for, to be specially fitted, apt, or marked out (to do something). 1375 Barb. xx 216.
That the douchty lord Dowglas Best schapyn [C. schapen] for that trawaill was
1513 Doug. viii viii 134.
By the goddis abufe … Tobe callyt and schaip [Sm. shaip, Ruddim. schaipe] for this mater
1666-74 Fraser Polichron. 428.
Mr. Robert Farguison a pregmattick head, who kendled a fire in our university at Aberdeen anno 1654, … is shapen certainly for mischeefe

2. To make out of already existing materials. 1513 Doug. x xi 82.
Thys goddes than furth of ane boys clowd In lyknes of Ene dyd schaip and schrowd A voyd figur
c1520-c1535 Nisbet Hebrews xi 7.
Noe … schupe ane schip into the hele of his hous

3. To give (something) a definite shape, by carving, etc. a1400 Leg. S. ii 839.
[He] fand a tre and it schapit With his tetht
1513 Doug. ix i 35.
Iris … flaw vp … schapand quhar scho went A gret rane bowe
a1568 Sempill Sat. P. xlviii 65.
Now gif ȝe wirk wyislie and schaip it precyslie The elwand wald be grit and lang

b. p.p. Given, or having, a certain shape, freq. one specified as pleasing or unpleasing, well-made, etc.(a) ?1438 Alex. ii 2577.
Small with ressoun and schapin wele
Ib. 3863.
Hir face and hir middle small Portured and shapin suthfastly
c1450-2 Howlat 404 (A).
Syne schir schapyn to schawe mony schene scheld With tuscheis of trast silk tichit to the tre
a1500 Rauf C. 459.
Trewlie that tenefull was trimland than, Semelie schapin and schroud in that scheild schene
1513 Doug. v v 44.
Twa syluer coppis schapyn lyke a boyt
Ib. xii ii 83.
The quhilk stedis schapyn at all delyte
1531 Bell. Boece I xlix (see Schapen ppl. adj. 1 a). a1578 Pitsc. II 17/16.
Ane strang man of personage weill schapin in portratour, that is to say weill braint in legis, and armes weill schoulderit, fair plessant faceit [etc.]
1581-1623 James VI Poems I 93.
A monster in the sea, shapen like
1640 Innes Sketches 508.
Ane great diamond schapine lyke a heart
(b) 1513 Doug. vi i 42.
Thar was alsso craftely schape and mark That namekouth hows quhilk Laborynthus hait
Ib. viii i 34.
A … garmond … schaip lyke a hempyn saill
(c) 1699 Anal. Scot. I 355.
They have plenty of large fish shaped like a makreill

c. specif. Of a flight of birds: In formation of the shape specified. 1513 Doug. vii Prol. 120.
Palamedes byrdis … Fleand on randon, schapyn like ane Y

d. intr. To take on a certain shape. 1513 Doug. v xi 18.
Hir trace quhar scho [sc. Iris] went, Schupe [Ruddim. schape] lyke a bow of diuers hewis ment

4. tr. Of a tailor, etc.: To cut or fashion (a garment, etc., cloth or leather). Also to schape up, to make up (a garment). Also in fig. context and absol.See also Schapen ppl. adj. 2.(1) 1490 Irland Mir. II 141/3.
It was ordand for him … or euir cot or govne was schapin for him
a1500 Bk. Chess 642.
To schaipe and sew to spyn & weif perfyte All thing to vs that langit woll or lyn
c1500 Rowll Cursing 237 (M).
Nor ȝit na tailȝour that schapis with scheiris … Maist principillie to schaip thair grayth In hell for steiling heir of clayth
1513 Doug. xii vii 45.
With habyt schapyn on surrugyn mak
1540 Lynd. Sat. 4119 (B).
I leird telȝeouris … To schaip fyve quarteris fra a goun
1549 Edinb. Hammermen 181b.
Giffin to the tailȝiouris that helpit to waill the taffettis & schoipe thame
1563 Cal. Sc. P. II 75.
Albeit this be schaipin, I fear it salbe evill sewit, for me lord of Argyll
1576 Edinb. Test. IV 214.
I leif to my sister douchter … sum lynning claithis chapin to hir body
1605 Glasgow Skinners Addition to Seal of Cause (Donaldson Suppl., s.v. Horn).
That nane … schaip or horne pointis, schaip or mak purssis nor hald servandis to do the same
1609 Skene Reg. Maj. i 136.
Claies shappen and cutted to be worne
1628 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. II 442.
He caused bring in to the tolbuith of Selkirk a nolt hyde to have shaippin the same
1641 Edinb. Test. LIX 286.
Gloves schaipine & presentlie schewing
1649 Cupar Presb. 138.
Andrew Patrik … stayed their with his sone sheaping the breeks and drinking the quart aill
(2) 15.. Sym & Bruder 19.
[They] schupe thame vp, to lowp our leis, Twa tabartis of the tartane
fig. 1571 Sat. P. xxvi 59.
Quhat ȝe do schaip, the Lord himself dois sew
absol. 1450 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 12.
That na cordiner … sal schap and bark in the craft of cordiner, vnder the pane of eschitt of the ledder barkit
a1500 Bk. Chess 642.
Octoviane … his douchter chargit he the quene To gar instruct thaim … To schaipe and sew
1568 Lyndesay Pref. (STS) 398.
Quhy may I not then … be ȝour tailȝeour, thocht I can nouther schaip nor sew?
1575 Haddington B. Rec. (Robb) 4 Feb.
George Wilsoun tailȝeour … oblist him that in cais he be apprehendit wirkand in his craft within this burgh, that is schaipand and shewand … to pay to the tailȝeours craft … xl sh.
1618 Bk. Old Edinb. C. XVIII 119.
[Cordiners were forbidden to] schaip and schew [on Sabbath]

5. To give (a person) a new (and improved) appearance by providing him with (fresh) clothing. Also proverb. c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 158/26.
Thocht God mak ane misfassonit man Ȝe can him all schaip new agane … Telȝouris and sowtaris blist be ȝe
proverb. a1663 Pappity Stampoy 37.
Meat makes and clothes shapes but manners makes a man

6. To change (oneself or another) into (in) a different creature or thing; to transform. a1568 Gyre-carling 19.
The carling schup hir in ane sow and is … gane Gruntlyng our the Greik sie
a1605 Montg. Misc. P. xvii 79.
Sho prayd the gods hir helpers be … Quha shupe hir in a laurell trie As he did hir embrace

7. To portray, depict. 1501 Doug. Pal. Hon. 41.
The vmbrate treis … War portrait, and on the eirth yschappit Be goldin bemis viuificatiue
Id. Æn. xii Prol. 164.
The pantyt povn … Kest vp his taill … Schapand the prent of Argus hundreth eyn
1609 Garden Garden 91.
He first that … vpon a rolling round Shuip her [sc. Fortune] to sit

II. To plan, prepare or direct.

8. To devise (a measure, plan, remedy, etc.). 1375 Barb. xvi 581.
Quhen thai away thus ridand wer And na defens begouth to schape [: byschap]
c1420 Wynt. viii 2272 (C).
The gret malice Agayn hym schapyn [R. scharpyd, W. scharpit] mony wise
1460 Hay Alex. 948.
Than Aristotill … Was callit with thame to schape thair interprise
Ib. 2979.
Bot in the toun thai schope ane vther wyle
a1500 Lanc. 89.
Yhoue lewith in disspar … And schapith no thinge of thine awn remede
15.. Clar. iv 204.
God for hir has schappin sik remeid That [etc.]
c1530-40 Stewart Maitl. F. 355/85.
Schaip sum remeid for Godis deite And lat no moir the weydis ouir ga the corne
a1605 Montg. Flyt. 79 (T).
Schort mischappin schit that schuip sick ane swnȝie

9. To design, intend, make up one's mind or endeavour (for) to do something; to make preparations. Also absol.Also, once, const. clause object.(1) pres. 1375 Barb. xvii 606.
Thai within that saw thaim swa Swa gret apparaill schap to ma
1384 Acts I 349/2.
Gif it happins that any gretter … schapes for to ride witht oste [etc.]
1386 Rot. Sc. II 85/2.
Gyf ony gretter or smaller of outher of the reaumes shapes to do harme into the bondys of the tother part
c1420 Ratis R. 1260.
Schap to ber sum gud sciens
1456 Hay II 103/10.
Thy servand schapis to be falowe to thé
Id. Alex. 3457.
That sould nocht be Withoutin straik that I sould schape to fle
1475 Edinb. B. Rec. I 31.
Gif ony persoun … cummis of newe after this act to the guid towne and schapis to wirk [etc.]
a1500 Seven S. 1484.
Hir moder said … How schapis thow thi hart to set?
1513 Doug. ii viii 15.
Troianys agane, schaping defens to mak, Rent turettis doune
15.. Clar. i 299.
Gif we schap to crabe our creatour
1567 G. Ball. 142.
Our fais that byssie is, That schapis till [D. Thy sheipe to] stroy baith auld and ȝung
a1568 Bann. MS 157b/14.
For to be ane verry knaif that shrew schapis evir
a1605 Montg. Sonn. xlii 12.
I shape the soner to assay
(b) c1460 Consail Vys Man 119.
Schaip nocht al faltis for to mend
Ib. 125.
But greit profyt schaip nocht to pleid
c1475 Wall. ix 240.
Schaip to pleys God in mendyng off thi lyff
1481 Acts II 139/1.
Quhat tyme he schaipis to invaid this realme
1513 Doug. xi x 65.
Hym self ascendis the … hyll By wentis strait … Schaip [Ruddim. schapis] on our cite fortocum prevely
Ib. ix iii 184 (Sm.).
1535 Stewart 8694.
I haif ane gude presume He schaipis first to muthe battell on me
1540 Lynd. Sat. 738 (B).
Quhat kynd a man schaip ȝe to be?
Ib. 1309.
Scho schaipis to luge with thame all nicht
c1550 Rolland Ct. Venus iii 292.
Sayand, schaip ȝe to Cupid King complene?
Id. Seven S. 6696.
Quhat deuil (said I) me think thow schaipis to ride
a1605 Montg. Sonn. xx 2.
Shaip ȝe to shift him lyk a pair of cartis?
(c) c1500-c1512 Dunb. Flyt. 71.
With ane doig leich I schepe to gar thé schowt
(d) a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 504 (L).
That hie Suld nivir scheip to saill the sie [W. Maid never schip to saill the see]
p.t. 1375 Barb. v 539 (C).
Quhen men schupe hym to betrais He gat vitting tharof alwayis
Ib. x 455 (E).
Thai war abaysit for the cry And schup rycht na defens to ma
Ib. xix 393.
Thai persawyt … That thai [sc. the enemy] … schup to do no mar that day
a1400 Leg. S. i 524.
The hound … schup to do na man schath
c1420 Wynt. viii 3652 (W).
Thai … syne schupe on thar way to ryde
1456 Hay I 271/9.
It war lyke as he schupe to sla him
Id. Alex. 17297.
And in a prayn he [sc. the king] schupe to pas his way
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2256.
The volff … schupe to mak debait
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 456.
Than thai schupe for to assege segis vnsaught … that maist of myght moght
1478 Peebles B. Rec. I 183.
Sir Willyam bownit and schup to trawall in other contreis
a1500 Seven S. 281.
This devill That schupe to fyle my womanhed
a1500 Bk. Chess 875.
To devocioun schupe this knycht to go
a1508 Kennedy Pass. Christ 374.
With all thair mycht thai schup him for to hald
c1500-c1512 Dunb. (OUP) 163/61. Id. G. Targe 268.
Your angel mouthis … has … fair ourgilt oure spech that imperfyte Stude or your goldyn pennis schupe to write
1513 Doug. ii x 130.
My fader … quham I schupe to haue … caryit to the nerrest hillys hycht
Ib. ix Prol. 74.
My lewytnes … Schupe to enterprit … Thys maist renownyt prynce of poetry
Ib. iii i 73. 1525 St. P. Henry VIII IV 317.
Giff thay schupe nocht to remeid sic enormyteis
1535 Stewart 55833.
Except ane certane that schup ouir till found
1554 Duncan Laideus Test. 161.
We schupe to flie, bot we wantit wingis
a1568 Bann. MS 54b/107.
And I vprais and hamewart schup to fair
(b) c1400 Troy-bk. ii 2383.
Acastrus … schope also With hid quentys Pirrus to slo
15.. Clar. iv 1451.
Ȝit schope I never no wicht for to deceave
(c) 1535 Stewart 7231.
Out of the feild he schuip nocht for to steir
Ib. 6806.(d) 15.. Clar. i 93.
To confort him he schoup or he wald stint
Ib. v 2494.
(e) a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 261 (Wr.) (see (f) below).
(f) a1605 Montg. Ch. & Slae 246 (L).
Ay the mair I schep [W. schape, Wr. shoope] to smorr it, The baldar it brak out
p.p. 1489 Lennox Mun. 130.
The … barownis … ar … distroyit lik as thai haue schapin nov of late … to … distroy the archibischop
(2) c1420 Wynt. v 1991 (W).
Scho … schupe gif scho had had a knyf Scho suld [etc.]
absol. c1420 Wynt. v 1993 (W).
Thus schupe scho in that aduenture

10. reflex. To set oneself (to (till) (for to) do something); to prepare, make ready; to make up one's mind.Also, once (in Nisbet after Purvey), const. that.(1) 1375 Barb. ii 327.
Ȝone folk … Schapis thaim to do with slycht That [etc.]
Ib. v 219.
Or that he schap hym for to fayr To werray Carryk
Ib. xi 299.
For schup we ws on hors to fycht … We suld into gret perell be
a1400 Leg. S. xxvii 34.
And hou that he Schupe hym to God plesand to be
Ib. xxxiii 936.
Thai … schupe thame til assalȝe sone
c1420 Wynt. iii 858 (W).
He suld dye Quha euer him schupe abak to fle
Ib. viii 4570 (R).
Till assege Kyldrwmy He schwpe hym
1456 Hay I 17/10.
Than schupe he him till assailȝe the membris of the Cristin faith with the cryme of ypocrysye
Ib. 288/2.
He suld … exhort him … that all before that ever he schape him for hors, harnais, na othir provisioun for the bataill, that first he schape him to se for a gude confessoure
Ib. II 124/2.
And quhen … thou have etyn ynouche, than schape thé to sytt a lytill and rest thé
Ib. 103/1. 1459–60 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXVI 148.
That Johne of Scrogs … schapis him to analy and sellis his landis
1460 Hay Alex. 3015.
Than all the smythis schupe thame to mak harnes
1462 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 20.
That na nychtbour schaip thame to by ony vittuallis … befoir the entrie
a1500 Henr. Fab. 2527.
The volff … schupe him for to ryn with all his strenth
1478 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 339.
Forsamekill as … [he] schappis him … to annale and desaris … his son
c1475 Wall. ix 1664.
To sailȝe him he trowyt thai wald thaim schaip [: chaip (= escape)]
a1500 Bk. Chess 554.
He schupe him than to go
c1500 Fyve Bestes 271.
Ȝe schape ȝow nocht for till oppress the pure
1513 Doug. ii viii 18. a1540 Freiris Berw. 520 (M).
And to the dure he schapis him to gone
15.. Clar. iv 1805.
The king schuipe him to ryde
Ib. 2568.
That we Schoupe ws this night in Belvilladoune to be
a1568 Bann. MS 30a/63.
Schaip thé no moir with ws to stryve
(2) c1520-c1535 Nisbet Hebrews xiii 21.
Schape you in al gude thing that ye do the will of him

b. Const. for: To prepare oneself for a specified eventuality. 1375 Barb. xii 211.
Lordingis … Schaip we ws tharfor [C. Schapis tharfor] in the mornyng Swa that we be the sone-rysing Haff … buskyt weill
1456 Hay I 287/34 (see 10 (1) above). 1571 Sat. P. xix 95.
Gif ȝour fais tryumphis ouer ȝow to stand, Schaip ȝow for deid

11. intr. To schape for (something), to make preparations for; to endeavour to bring about, achieve or obtain.1375 Barb. xii 211 (C) (see 10 b above). 1467 Coll. Rebus Alban. 80.
And iff ony maner of man scheapis or wald scheape for thair … wndoing, the said Lord Forbes and his pairtie sall defend thame
a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 473.
Thus thai schupe for ane salt, ilk sege seir
a1500 Seven S. 867.
Than schupe thai for it [sc. gold] with deligens
a1500 K. Hart 769.
Than Wisdome sayis, ‘Schape for sum governance’
1513 Doug. xii v 42.
Quhen we … for our self list schape for na remed

12. tr. To direct the course of, send forth. Also schape away, to chase away (an animal) (cf. 15 below). 1375 Barb. xix 419.
Thai … schup thar bataillis as thai wald Apon thaim till the fechtyn hald
1567 G. Ball. 175.
Ane cursit fox lay hid … Nane mycht him schaip away

b. To direct, or aim, a blow at (till) someone. Also const. indirect object. 1456 Hay I 270/34.
He wald … prevene the strakis and geve him the dedely strakis first that he schaipis till him
Id. Alex. 1965.
[He] till him schupe ane straik rycht sturdelie
Ib. 3271.
And Tholome … Schupe him a straik and till him was cumand

c. To direct, or induce, (a person) to do something. 1602 Dundee Shipping P. 77.
And y hawe scepit ane honnest mayrschand to keip it waking till [etc.]

13. reflex. To direct one's course; to go towards, directly or with urgency. ?1438 Alex. ii 6070.
Sen thay haue thame auansit sa Schape we vs to thame alsua
c1420 Wynt. vii 2568 (W).
He schupe him to the cete rycht
1460 Hay Alex. 3004. a1500 Gol. & Gaw. 599.
Schaip thé evin to the schalk in thi schroud schene
c1475 Wall. ix 27.
Be schort awys he schup him to the se

b. Const. on a person: To advance on with hostile intent; to rush on. 1456 Hay I 271/13.
Sen he schupe him on him with syk a fere and in syk maner
c1475 Wall. xi 403.
Apon the Scottis schup thaim all with gret mayn

c. Without complement: ? To advance. 1456 Hay I 50/26.
Than schupe schir Hanyball him, evin the stricht way quhare he was

14. intr. for reflex. To direct one's efforts to a specified end. b. tr. To direct (something) towards a goal. 1375 Barb. iv 548.
And schaip alwayis to that ending That beris in it mensk and lowing
c1420 Ratis R. 21, 23.
Gyf at thow schapis to bounte, Thi branchis braid and gret sal be, And gif thow schapis thaim to wice, Infortone will wndo thi price

15. intr. To make one's way with force or haste (to a person or place). Also, once, with cognate object. b. Schape away, to retreat, flee.(1) ?1438 Alex. ii 9811.
To Alexanders battell Porrus shupe [F. s'est Porrus enbatu]
1460 Hay Alex. 1902.
King Nicolas … drew the brand … And schupe till him with all his haill intent
Ib. 2175.
King Philip come … with ane drawin sworde in hand, And till Alexander schupe with all his vre
c1475 Wall. x 408.
Feyll Sotheroun than to Wallace fast can schaip
a1500 Sir Eger 962.
Sir Eger, now where shape ye?
a1500 Seven S. 2702.
The king … to the dynere schupe in hy
(2) 1460 Hay Alex. 3171.
[He] strenȝeit his steid and schupe ane cours of were
b. c1420 Wynt. vii 3263 (W).
The king … schupe away out of that pres With his navyne
Ib. viii 5583.
We will ws fenȝe as we wald fle … And quhen thai se ws schape away … thai sall sone brek array

III. 16. tr. Of God, fate, fortune, etc.: To destine, decree. c1409-1436 Kingis Q. §24.
Fortune it schupe non othir wayis to be
1460 Hay Alex. 436.
Gif grace of fortune schapin to men be It cumis of Him
Ib. 3974.
Off thame that liff wald, and thame to liff war schapin [: happin]
1513 Doug. i iv 82.
Onto Itale we ettill, quhar destany Has schape for ws … herbry
Ib. ii ii 113.
The cauld dreid ran in throu thar banys For feir quhamto was schape this destanye
Ib. ix iii 71.
The ful tyme of det, By the werd sisteris schaip, is now compleit
Ib. x Prol. 10.
For rest thou ordanyt nycht, For diuers causys schupe seir sessonys and spacis

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