A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
Sav(e, Saf(e, Saif, Sauf, Salve, Saff, v. Also: saw(e, saive, saif(f)(e, sayf(f(e; sauf(f)(e, sawf(f)(e, salf(f, saulf(f)(e, salwe; seff. P.t. and p.p. also saift, -d, sauft, sawft(e, (sawth). [ME and e.m.E. sauue(n (Ancr. R.), saluin (a1225), save(n (c1250), sauf (Cursor M.), safe (Rolle), sawe (c1425), salve (1432), OF salver, sauver (1050 and late 12th c., in Larousse), late L. salvāre.]
1. tr. To bring or deliver out of danger; to rescue from (impending) misadventure or misfortune; to avert danger from. Also, rarely, in the passive without agent, to be saved, to escape.
There is considerable ambiguity with sense 2.
(1) Hyre barnis … ware fletand One a burd, & sawit ware; Leg. S. xxi 83.
Sir, ȝe sawit ws now; Ib. xxvi 201, etc.
Gif the duk … be tane, quhethir gif [any] suld save him, have merci of him and ransoun him; Hay I 120/13.
Quharfor he chesis quham he lufis best, and helpis to save him; Ib. 194/26.
Thai held him lost, ȝit God him sawth [1570sauit] agayne; Wall. ii 419.
At he wald haf sawit him and he micht haue wone to him; 1486 Bk. Carlaverock 447.
Thou sal thole iniuris & spulȝe, ande ther sal be na man that can saue thé; Compl. 24/15.
If he wald haue sauit his sones [sc. from the gallows], he wald not haue stopit for ane woman; Maitland Geneal. Setoun 20.
Erepte, save, sane; Buch. Comm. on Virgil Æn. iii 476.
John Robertson … peressitt at the Saynd ness, in the watter, sawand Alexander Myll; Cullen Chron. Aberd. 46.
(b) And to hir [sc. Venus'] court siclik I am annext Wnder all pane, and refuge nane I haif, Without ȝour grace [sc. Vesta] with sum salue wald me saif; Rolland Ct. Venus ii 946.
Vnto the tyme the prowest and wtheris nychtbouris saiffit the said James; 1563–4 Inverness Rec. I 109.
Hou Andro Wood of Largo saivit the Erle of Glencairne; Pitsc. I 317 h. of ch.
Quho raid suoftlie throw the feild to saif all freindis that thay might comprehend on lyffe; Ib. 319/29.
Bot inmedeatlie Androw Wode … tuik him and saiffit him and brocht him away on lyue; Ib. 320/6.
(c) Thu ma lichtly … Sauf hyme & do thi-self na il; Leg. S. xxx 250.
All the folk off Tessaly Had nere bene drownyt. … Wpone ane hille was callyd Parnas Thare thai ware that sawfyt was; Wynt. ii 460.
Salve ws, lattir wardis of Troy, that we ne spill; Doug. iii ii 39.
All drowkyt and forwrocht, Thai salwyt [Sm. salffit, Ruddim. saiffit] war, and warpyt to the cost; Ib. x vi 45.
It wes aggreed that he suld keip vessellis to sauf and conduct theme towardis there landis frome the said harbarie; Bisset II 234/9.
(2) And of his gud the most part all He kest out … To saif his folk; Troy-bk. ii 2390.
All that schyltrum thai slw down, And sawffyd off Berwyk swa the town; Wynt. viii 1770.
For to sawffe his comwnate Than wyth the wardane tretyde he; Ib. 5551.
Schir … Ȝe wald haue reuth and take this ambassade For thocht ȝe had neuer vther seruice made Till Alexander ȝe seruit ȝoure warisoun To saif his men or thai be dongin doun; Hay Alex. 3467.
Quhou Eneas the trayson dyd persave, And quhat debait he maid the town to save; Doug. ii vi heading.
On horsbak in this Tarchon baldly draw, Wilfull his pepill to support and saw; Ib. xi xiv 10.
Maid proclamationis … That ilke man … Sulde cum, and saif thare awin cuntre; Lynd. Mon. 2030.
Ane woman than … Saifit the toun; Maitl. Q. 94/160.
Hester … Saifit the peopill all; Ib. 94/162.
That now or never is the tyme to gaine honour … and to saive or lose thair countrie; 1640 Kirkcudbr. Min. Bk. 51.
(3) Bot quha sa redis Virgill suythfastly Sall fynd Neptune salf [Ruddim. sayffit] Eneas navy; Doug. i Prol. 162.
The maryneris … with lang bolmys of tre … Inforcis of to schowyn the schyp to save; Ib. v iv 95.
Awalke! … and put to ȝour hande stoutlie to saif Petiris schip; Winȝet I 6/21.
Ane … wall … within quhilk schippis and boittis are drawin and salvit; Descr. Isles 437.
1602 Conv. Burghs II 139 (see b below).
Meattis it behuifis to cast out the guidis to saif the schip; Bisset II 242/34.
(4) Ȝour hous … laitlie onlie on the Lord it lenit, … Quha send ȝour self to sawe it and sustenit; Maitl. F. 424/175.
b. To extricate (goods or possessions) from (the threat of) destruction or loss; to salvage.
There is some overlap with (3) above.
Gyf a schyp be brokyn … the men ar haldyn to saufe als mykyl of the gudes as thai may; Ship Laws c. 21 (B).
Gif be aventure of sey ony parte of spuleȝe … be salfit and drevin bakwart apoun thare coist; Boece 87b.
Giff ony skipper be schipbrokin than sall he and his cumpany be haldin to saiff and succour the schip and guidis with the reidship of the schip [etc.]; 1602 Conv. Burghs II 139.
Bisset II 241/24.
The bischops seruandis saiffit his bookis and vther insicht and plenishing and hid thame in nichtbouris houssis; Spalding I 194.
My lords monny was saved [from the fire]; c1685 Annandale Corr. 314.
2. To keep safe, to preserve from danger, to protect. Freq. said of God.
Gol. & Gaw. 793 is included here ((1) (b)) as, appar., an alliterative use of a phonetic doublet. This seems to make rather better sense in the context than that salf is an instance of Saw v.2 to heal, remedy.
Cf., however, the example in Piers Plowman, sauen … and saluen … of alle synnes cited by OED (salve v.1 2 b).
(1) Now ga we furth … Quhar he that maid off nocht all thing Lede ws & saiff [C. sauf] ws; Barb. viii 263.
Bot thane for the takine of the rud He mad on hyme … thocht he vntrewful was, Ȝet wes he sawit nocht-the-les; Leg. S. xxxii 22.
And God … Mot saif our king, and gif him hart and hand All sic wolfis to banes of the land; Henr. Fab. 2775.
The king grantit the gait to schir Gawane, And prayt to the grete God to grant him his grace, Him to saue and to salf; Gol. & Gaw. 793.
Bot fader ȝit I dreid that we Be tane … He said, Na, son, God will ws saif, Becaus that we sic mister haif; Seven S. 865.
And for girth come he hidder than, And we haf savit him as we may; Ib. 1947.
Quhow Grekis maid thare deuotioun haill To Mars, to saif thame in battaill; Lynd. Mon. 2352.
Without that ȝe [sc. the seventh sage] find sum help … Conforme to the sayingis ȝe said … That was ilk ane to saif ȝour day about; Rolland Seven S. 6168.
He sall saif thé mychtfullie, And na mischance sall cum to thé; G. Ball. 108.
Thow may me saif, thow may me spill Baith lyfe and deide lyis in thy will; Ib. 170.
Fair weill leill lady … Fair weill that may me saif and spill; Bann. MS 225b/22.
And Jonas, in the quhellis bellie, Thow safit thre dayis; Montg. Suppl. xxxi 35.
Let na man do evill for counsell of greit men, or thair maisteris, thinking thay sall save thame; Buch. Detect. (1727) 160.
Becaus he pat downe the puire vitches and saiffit gretter in his awin cumpanie daylie with him; Pitsc. II 218/6.
(b) Der God, … Sawff hym and scheld him fra his fayis! Barb. ii 145.
To sawffe hym and hys swnnys thre … He gert, of Goddis byddyng, mak Ane ark; Wynt. i 379.
Salf; Gol. & Gaw. 793 (see (1) above).
Sum be myrknes of the nycht war salfit; Boece 49b.
Aidane thus deliuerit be reskewe of his son was horssit and salfit be flicht; Ib. 317b.
Quha haillit hir and teichit hir all thingis, and speikis and wairnis hir of thair cuming and saulfis hir; 1588 Crim. Trials I ii 163.
(2) Now se I na remeid To saif the selie beistis that I keip; Henr. Fab. 2467.
Gevin to Arche Pennecuik to saif the quenis hors [sc. when being taken onboard ship], vj frs. vij s.; 1538 Treas. Acc. VIII 159.
Preistis, pray na mair To Sanct Anthone to saif thy sow; G. Ball. 197.
(3) His douchtir … to the dragone Suld be gyffine, to sauff the ton; Leg. S. xxxiii 106.
The Scottis men … Made ordynawns thare land to save [: gave]; Wynt. viii 3739.
Thow has convoyit … this victorios armye without ony harme resauit. … Be thy manhede … oure army is salfit but dammage; Boece 87b.
That my citee was sauffit be thi helpe; Bell. Livy I 34/31.
The first … said … this day the cietie I sall saue; … The secund said the nixt day fallis me Fra enemeis for to keip the cietie; Rolland Seven S. 6135.
God saifd our ship, and ruled our noble ruther, And helpt vs throu; Montg. Misc. P. xlviii 161.
(4) Gif God savis my neuoys weill And my suord and my mais of steill, I sall me venge; Alex. ii 1243.
I say nocht na he sulde … abandon all his gudis, lyf, and body to sauf the Cristyn faith; Hay I 131/5.
We tak on hand … To saif baith myrrour & ymage; Seven S. 1792.
That nowthir tre nor other thing … war sauffit or left vndistroyit; Bell. Livy II 181/16.
17 salt hyds, which were laid upon the highest lofting of the steeple and bells for saving the said lofting and bells [sc. from fire]; 1671 Orkney Rentals App. 64.
b. In phrases of benediction, sometimes also by way of greeting, as God save ȝou, God save the King. Cf. 7 f.
(a) God sawe thé, gif his willis be; Alex. i 584.
And God … Mot saif our king; Henr. Fab. 2775.
‘Quhat set yow thus,’ scho said, ‘so God yow saiff’; Wall. viii 1324.
The hyndmest [said] … ‘God saue ȝow, schir, of Scotland salbe king!'; Stewart 39718.
Freyr Allane said I pray to God ȝow saue Heir is aneuche forsuth of Goddis gude; Freiris Berw. 316.
God saif him & the haly gaist And keip the man fra manting mekle; Sym & Bruder 124.
[He] saluist thame … God saif ȝow seid of Salomon; Rolland Ct. Venus ii 38.
God saif our king and send him lytill ado; 1573 Sempill Sat. P. xxxix 379.
(b) Him that now regnis, quham God sauff; a1540 Misc. Bann. C. III 41.
c. To guarantee immunity or safe-conduct to, to warrant the safety of.
To sayff the erll Wallace … Set on his clok a takyn for to se, The lyoun in wax that suld his condet be; Wall. xi 905.
Sa be this maner of brevis all schipis and guidis be saiffed [v.r. assured] of the richt of the said prince; Bisset II 233/24.
Ib. 235 n. 1.
3. With non-personal agent: To serve as a protection, defence or means of deliverance to.
(a) Alssua … suppos he pas to do sum pugny of were … that savis him nocht; Hay I 116/33.
His helme was crasit and in the harnes him clave Quhill all the gold of Grece mycht nocht him save; Id. Alex. 3266.
Couert of treis sawit him full weille; Wall. ii 71.
His dowblet wes maid of ledder And saift [M. sauft] him; Christis Kirk 97 (B).
Sa it become … That the four toris sauit the childis face; Rolland Seven S. 1804.
Thy boist … sall not saif thee I say; Ib. 6409.
Quhen gallow pin or cutting knyfe Suld stranglit thé, and saift my deir; 1570 Sat. P. xi 55.
(b) That he [sc. Cyrus] suld hang hym on a tre, Quhare nevyre rayne wytht mekyll wete Na nakyn swn mycht sauff with het; Wynt. iv 424.
Bot … gif he war suilke a mysdoar that gyrth of haly kyrk aw nocht to sauffe hym; Acts I 38/2.
Gif a man be tane apon ane otheris sauf condyt, traistand in it that it suld sauf him and lede him seurly; Hay I 181/8.
We … revokis all … respittis to the effect that the samin sall be of nane avale … to sauf ony maner of person to be accusit … for recent slauchteris … committit be thaim; 1533–4 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 417.
The said conduct … is sufficient anewcht to salf the said Jhone that he be na presoner; 1543 Acts II 431/1.
4. a. To spare (a person), to allow, freq. out of clemency, to escape impending punishment, death, etc. Also absol.
(a) The kyng Pryame … The which thow aught … To saue in thyne protectioune; Troy-bk. ii 848 (C).
That nane that was in that cittie … sould sauit be; Alex. i 26.
Quhilkis for na gude thai mycht do thare suld be savit, bot thai suld tyne thair hede; Hay I 117/2.
He is ane iuge to nane suspect, To pvneis synffull man and saif; Henr. Abbay Walk 36.
Wallace commaundede thai suld na wermen saiff; Wall. iv 256.
Wemen … And ȝong childer, forsuth thai sawyt no ma; Ib. 492.
[He] slew thaim all … and saiffit neuer one; Bk. Chess 1037.
Haue mercie, luif … Quhat have I wrocht … That ȝe suld murdir me … Leif creuelte and saif ȝour man for schame; Dunb. (OUP) 39/13.
That da tha sauit nother ȝoung or ald; Stewart 32258.
I ordand ȝou to slay doune al the Romans, and nocht to saif ane of them; Compl. 100/28.
The laird of Virmestoune … passit to the regentis ludging and thair gave him fair vordis to come furth promeisand to saue him, quha instantlie come furth … beleivand to have beine sawit bot it stuid nocht in the handis of thair backaris to save thame at that tyme; Pitsc. II 263/17, 19, 20.
Quhen thow did all the warld distroy for Adame sine; And sauitt Lott; Montg. Suppl. xxxi 31.
[He] wes set at libertie by the Earle of Catteynes who saiffed him not out of any favor towards him … bot onlie [etc.]; Gordon Geneal. Hist. 185.
absol. In batall is mor worschipe … To wyn & saif than for to sla all dovne; Bk. Chess 1033.
(b) He gert that woman sawffyt be That sauffyt hys spyis … Quhen thai come that towne to spy; Wynt. ii 1083.
He chesit of thai twa Men erare to saufe than sla; Ib. v 4088 (W).
Auchten schyppys gret thai wan: Off thai thai sawffyd nevyre a man; Ib. viii 1758 (R).
Sauff; Ib. ii 1140.
Ib. vi 1080.
That sawfte suld be nayne Off Sotheroun blud, quhar thai mycht be ourtayn; Wall. vii 1039.
Thai sawft na Sotheroun for thair gret riches; Ib. viii 525.
To sauff thi king or spill; Ib. xi 1378.
Salf; Seven S. 612.
Bot and thow salf me and thoill to pas hame to my cuntre haill and feire thaire salbe perpetuall remembrance of the clemence … of the Impriour of Rome; Abell 22b.
Barclay wes hangit in Striueling, and the vther wes sauffit vpoun cautioun; Diurn. Occurr. 181.
b. To spare (a thing), to leave undestroyed.
The admirall … set Craigfergus into fyre, And saifit nouther barne nor byre; Lynd. Meldrum 96.
That na maner of … persones … mak murburne … bot yeirly … and that … upone grass only, saiffand hedder and young wood; 1621 Black Bk. Taymouth 352.
They brunt and wasted the toun of Wick bot they saiffed the church; Gordon Geneal. Hist. 196.
5. reflex. To extricate oneself from danger, to act to assure one's safety, to keep oneself safe.
(a) Amend thy mis thy self to saif; Kennedy Bann. MS 268b/44.
[They] Gaif him counsall na langar for till byde … And saif him self vnto ane better tyme; Stewart 19616.
Thairfoir, deir hart, ȝour self ȝe saue, Howbeit thay tak me; Lynd. Meldrum 1246.
Saif; Id. Mon. 3343.
Thay … saifet thame selfes in wodis, mosse, and mure; Dalr. I 170/5.
Gif … he had nocht … fled in Irland … to safe him selfe; Ib. 183/9.
(b) For this tempeste sal lest … Ay till we herbry this ded cors; For-thi, to sawfe ws, cast it owt! Leg. S. xvi 479.
Gyf that ȝe … That now may sauf ȝow, gif ȝe will, And out of dangere lithtly fare; Troy-bk. i 184.
A schyp … hapnys to … ryve thai sauf thaim [A. sau thaim, H.2 saulfe thaimself] at that tyme the beste wyse at thai may; Ship Laws c. 22 (B).
Nother party wist … To salf hym self quhar away to fle; Doug. x xiii 8.
6. To deliver, preserve or spare (one's own or another's life, also banys, blude, liffis savite).
(1) That na man acces suld hafe To leche hire na hir lyf safe; Leg. S. xlii 190.
Gif me some Of ȝour mete … That I tharewith my lyve may saif [: haif]; Troy-bk. ii 2540.
The Bauderane … tane With men that wald him sone haue slane Na war Cassamus … That safit his lyfe as man of pris; Alex. ii 1904.
I say, treuly he awe to save his lyf and defend him; Hay I 200/29.
Fra thow be bund thow may mak na defence To saif thy lyfe nor ȝit thy libertie; Henr. Fab. 2929.
To saiff his lyff thre ȝer he duelt in But; Wall. vii 936.
The grewhound savit his sonnis lyf; Seven S. 483, etc.
The fidenatis slang away thare wappynnys, and askit thare live to be saiffit; Bell. Livy II 99/23.
Thay war fane … To saue thair lyfis, for to cut thair mane mast; Rolland Seven S. 569.
[He] said that gif thaj wald let in my lord Bothwill he wald saif all thair lyvis and let thame gang hame; Diurn. Occurr. 101.
Quhen Donald had tint the victorie, he thocht best to saif his lyfe be flychte; Dalr. I 182/26.
(b) Ilk man to sauff his lyff, Fled; Barb. x 703.
To saufe his lyf I hicht lely; Leg. S. xl 1143.
That kyngys fyve Crape in a cove to sawffe thare lyve; Wynt. ii 1194.
All man is behaldyn to sauf his awin lyf; Hay I 198/34.
I say he may defend him lefully and sauf his lyf again his juge; Ib. 201/21.
Ib. 183/20 (see 7 c below).
Bid him salff oure livis and honoure; Id. Alex. 3442.
Be quhais defence his lyf was saufeit; Leslie 200.
[They] had not faillit to have slane thame, wer not Nicolas and Gilliechallum Rossis, brethir to the said George, saulffit thair lyveis; 1596 Reg. Privy C. V 293.
(2) Ane is our liffis savite That suld on na vis savit [E. sawft] be Gif thai had vs at thair liking; Barb. iv 537 (C).
To saif the blude of man Nane vther way [sc. than by single combat] as now counsall I can; Hay Alex. 1793.
And we agane … Besowth my fader to salue his wery banys, And not be wilful to perys; Doug. ii x 161.
b. With inanimate agent or instrument.
That bataillyne with-owtyn dout Sawyt [C. saffit] thar lywys; Barb. iv 137.
Ane woman … leit meill fall doun throw the loftis of the toure, be quhilkis his life wes certane dayis savit; Bell. Boece II 476.
The said Haggerstoune … shot in his corslate of pruife, which sauet his lyfe; Bann. Memor. 133.
My lyf with the lyfe of the skipper and companie miraculusly saived by the kok bot; 1640–1 Ruthven Corr. 72.
7. To keep intact or unsullied, to maintain, preserve, safeguard (honour, chastity, conscience, etc.). b. To maintain or uphold (a right, privilege, or the like). c. To keep, not to break (an oath). d. To maintain, preserve, not to allow to lapse or be lost or destroyed. Also const. to (= for) a person. e. To reserve or retain (to oneself) from destruction, alienation, etc.: cf. Sav(e)and pres. p. 1. f. In expression of benediction, by way of compliment: (May God) preserve (the attribute of the person). Cf. 2 b.
(a) Wyrk yhe then apon swylk wys That ȝour honour be sawyt ay; Barb. ii 341.
Be besy concord fore to draw … gif that thow may, Saifand thi consciens alway; Ratis R. 356.
Hay Alex. 3442 (see 6 (1) (b) above).
Henr. Fab. 2929 (see 6 (1) above).
And grant the frekis on fold farar to fall, Baith thair honouris to saif; Gol. & Gaw. 1008.
I pray God better his honour saiff Na to be lychtleit sua; Dunb. (OUP) 99/44.
A lufsummar leid … That couth be secrete and sure and ay saif my honour; Id. Tua Mar. W. 284.
Fy on hir that can nought feyne her fame for to saif; Ib. 461.
Gyf thaire be ony service at ȝoure grace wyll command me or ony of myne alegeance saiffyt, we sall be redy at command; 1525 Douglas Corr. 99.
I alone, the quhilk abone all men Suld saif ȝour schame and als ȝour honestie; Rolland Seven S. 5947.
Timothe, says he, saue that thing geuin thé in keiping, eschewand the prophane nouelteis of woices; Winȝet II 61/13.
Sa my private and publick impugnatioun did saife my conscience sufficientlie; 1567 Anderson Collect. Mary II 282.
To saif hir pure virginitie; Montg. Misc. P. xvii 78.
(b) I sall thi kyndnes quyte, And sauf thyn honoure; Gol. & Gaw. 1102.
Thai suld … nocht fle bot be vassalage sauf thare honoure; Boece 115b.
That be deid thai mycht saufe thare wirginite; Abell 13b.
I did gritly mervell that he … shuld not haif considerit of these materris befor thay wer brocht in suche termes that culd not be calde back agayn, princely honour salveit; 1586 Cal. Sc. P. VIII 383.
Sir James Hackett and Colonell Scotte [were] cleired by the comittee, ȝet that did litle salue ther honor amongest honest men; Balfour Ann. IV 89.
A slender paper used by him for salving his conscience at the swearing of the Test; 1681 Lauder Observes 54.
b. Till ilke kyrk [the] rycht suld stand … Before all sawffyde [C. sauffyt, W. sauf, A. sauff] the dygnyte; Wynt. vii 740.
Till all prestys he dyd reverens And sawffyd thare statys wyth diligens; Ib. 3578.
The Erle Jhon dyde besynes … To sawffe the rycht off [his] cwntre; Ib. viii 4470.
To sauff my state I haiff maid hir my advocate; Ib. ix Prol. 49.
To advyse with lawyers how their priviledges might be salved if such a patent should pass; 1681 Edinb. Surgeons II p. 238.
c. Quhen he cowertly To sauf his aith did felny; Leg. S. xxxvi 548.
The said knycht is in a difference: to enter to sauf his ath, or to absent him to sauf his lyf; Hay I 183/19.
d. (1) Be him … God disponit to saufe the natur of man all othir distroyit be ane flude; Abell 3a.
(2) Gif goddis lykyt lenth my life langar space Thai wald haue salwyt to me this litil place; Doug. ii x 140.
The realme of Latynis and Troianis was sauffit to this childe Ascanius be prudent tutorie of Lavinia his moder; Bell. Livy I 15/20.
e. Our souerane lord according to the libertie and priuilege saulffit to him selff … hes [etc.]; 1587 Acts III 436/1.
f. ‘Aa, souerane lord, saif ȝour mercie!' quod he. ‘My purpois wes with him for to haif plaid’; Henr. Fab. 1078.
8. To deliver (a person, his or her soul, etc.) from sin and its consequences; to bring to spiritual salvation.
active He … til [his] mayster consale gaf To do sa and hymself sawe; Leg. S. iv 66.
He callit Paule To safe & succur syndry sawle; Ib. xv 14.
Thy blud that sauit ws all; Fifteen Ois 304.
God of his iustice mon correct And of his mercy petie haif He is ane iuge … To pvneis synffull man and saif; Henr. Abbay Walk 36.
To saif thi saull now schawe thi sapiens; Contempl. Sinn. 580 (Asl.).
It is mekle better finaly to saif the man na to tyn him; Irland Mir. II 126/15.
Lang tyme eftir that he [sc. Trajan] deit … Sanct Gregor … prayit for him and at his prayer God of his mercy savit Traiane; Ib. III 128/14.
He that saulis saifis and dammis; Rowll Cursing 17 (B).
Saife [BD sayffe]; Dunb. (OUP) 21/167.
Vthir sawlis to saive it settis thame weill, Syne sendis thair awin saule to the deill; Lynd. Sat. 4535 (B).
The king is not saif be his greit armie … And mony thousand hors may na man saif; G. Ball. 94.
Na sanct can saif ȝour saule; Ib. 193.
(b) Of hyme that sal ws sauf on tre; Leg. S. xxxvi 80.
Sawfe; Ib. xvi 4, etc.
Jhesu Cryst [was] of Mary borne Tyll sawffe oure lyff that wes forlorne; Wynt. i 494.
Justice … Haldis pepill in pes & gude prosperiteys Salfis thaire saulis makis thaire saluacioun; Regim. Princ. 158 (Fairf.).
Salue; Nisbet Jude 23.
(c) And vthir sempill peple trowit as the kyrk trowit that tym and that saffit thaim; Irland Mir. II 13/4.
He saffit us nocht be the mediation of Moyses, bot be the bitter … passion of his awin naturall sone; Hamilton Cat. 38.
passive & mony sonnis of Israel … To God, thar lord, turne sal he, & sagat thru hyme sawit be; Leg. S. xxxvi 66.
He … that treuly kepys this informacione … he beis sauit; Cr. Deyng (STS) 268.
Saiffit or damnit, knew we in speciall, We suld na prayer … for thame expreme; Contempl. Sinn. 669 (Harl.).
Sauet; Nisbet John iii 17.
Saiffit; Hamilton Cat. 127.
Qvhat haif ȝe for ȝou, that the infantis of the faythful ar saifit alrady but baptim; Winȝet I 81/18.
I … luikis to be sauit be na mene bot be … Jesus Christ; 1593 Edinb. Test. XXV 121b.
In tham that ar saiffed and in tham that pearishe [2 Cor. ii 15]; 1600 Melvill 475.
1615 Edinb. Test. XLVIII 256.
reflex. This way heffing seffit my lyff … the Lerde of Fentre thinking on guid ressoun … to seff him selff sufferit allenerle for his relligioun; 1593 Innes Rev. III 103.
b. In asseverative expressions, esp. sa God or Christ me save.
(1) Sa God him self me saiff [: haff v.; C. saff] Ik hald me rycht weill payit; Barb. xx 220.
The Bauderane said, ‘Sa God me saif, The ressoun quhy fane wald I haif’; Alex. ii 2381.
Schyre, (sayd he,) sa God me sawe, The kynryk yharne I noucht till have; Wynt. viii 243.
So me Crist saif; Howlat 120 (A).
Sa Christ me saue; Rauf C. 500.
Yhe sall it haiff, als God me saiff in saille; Wall. v 675.
My sempillnes … Wait off na way, sa God me saiff; Dunb. (OUP) 71/22.
Sa God me save; Ib. 121/98.
Saife; Lynd. Sat. 4461 (Ch.).
(2) Marge Gelletlie … purgit hir be hir great aith Lat neuer hir saull be saifit if euer scho knew him; 1619 Perth Kirk S. MS 7 June.
9. In prec. senses, with participial or adjectival complement: To rescue, keep, preserve, etc. lefand, on plunderit, etc.
(a) For thare hele … God had hym sawyt than lefand; Wynt. ii 408.
To saiff the lordis injustified [Pitsc. I 183/13, from iustifieing] in the tyme of the kingis furie; Pitsc. (1814) 201.
The toun wes saiffit on plunderit by payment of this soume; Spalding I 213.
(b) Fere leware he had … A man off his to sauff wnslayne Than off hys fays to sla … a thowsand; Wynt. v 1445.
So hail and feir mot salf me Jupiter; Doug. ix iv 98.
Ȝe may sauff the bairnis of Fergus vndefraudit of thair kyndlie heretage; Bell. Boece (M) I 53.
I pray to God him speid And sauf him sound in till his leill travale; Freiris Berw. 65 (M).
He wald haif sauffit the sone of ane theif, being his tennent, unjustifiit, allegeand [him] … to be his awin; 1564 Reg. Privy C. I 306.
10. a. To keep undisposed of, to retain intact in safe keeping (goods). b. absol. To save up (money, goods), accumulate by saving.
a. That sic schip … nor na thing within hir salbe adiudged wraik bot the guidis sall be saifed and keiped be the sicht of the schiref coronall; Bisset II 213/1.
b. Gett and saif and thow sall haif, Len and grant and thow sall want; Bann. MS 147a/4.
11. a. To safeguard or deliver a person from (disgrace, shame).
e.g. by behaving discreetly. Const. possess. of the person and noun as direct object.
It moste be to me leful rewth to haue Of my frendis myschance, hys lak to save, Quhilk in hys awyn defalt tynt not the gre; Doug. v vi 112.
b. (To take the action needed) to avoid or prevent (an undesired outcome).
That Wm. Fraser … would be excommunicat the next sabboith day according to ane process led and deducit againis him befoir the Presbytry unles he saveit the same; 1629 Cranna Fraserburgh 184.
To … saive the schedding of much innocent blood; 1639 Rec. Kirk Scotl. 215.
12. To give protection from, fend off, keep out (something material).
With inanimate agent.
The plesant plane-trie will the leavs vnfauld With fairest schaddow to save the sone in symmer; 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv Pref. 46.
Thre daillis to saiff the weit abowe the sclaittis that na weit cum within the scoole; 1595 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 582.
13. In prec. senses, const. fra (from) and for a. A person, b. An impending misfortune, undesirable consequence, etc.
a. I a maid; and standis in mony stour, Fra Inglismen to saiff my womanheid; Wall. v 691.
Than think I hiddowus Mahowne hes me in armes Thair ma na sanyne me save fra that auld Sathane; Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 102.
Fra sic a syre God ȝow saif [M. sauf] my sueit sisteris deir; Ib. 145.
Quhou Perseus sauit Andromada fra the cruel monstir; Compl. 63/14.
b. (1) Giff God ws sawys fra persawing Off thaim; Barb. x 576.
The ded he tholyt … To safe ws fra the wethirwyne; Leg. S. xvi 246.
Saf; Ib. xliii 120.
Tharfor women suld kepit be, That thai mycht na licht women se, … It savis thame mony a tym fra ill; Gud Wyf & D. 226.
He commandit the round tempil … to be cassin down. … Yit the inhabitantis saiffit the samin fra uter eversioun; Bell. Boece II 378.
He is callit … saluiour for he saiffis ws fra our sinnis; Gau 36/1.
Lynd. Mon. 298.
This fell serpent he hes ouircum … And sauit the childe fra perrell; Rolland Seven S. 1809.
Ȝe haue saift this day fra schame and skaith Ȝour awin honour & als my douchters baith; Ib. 9572.
To procur in the caus of Elizabeth Payt … to save hyr caus fra paresing becaus sche is seik and maye nocht compeir; 1565 St. A. Kirk S. 251.
Defend vs from temptatioun … , Saif vs from schame and from dispair, From unbeleue and Lollardis lair; G. Ball. 13.
To … saif vs fra exces and drunkinnes; Ib. 19.
Skeyne Descr. Pest 17.
From forfalting he sauit his lands; 1570 Sat. P. xvi 56.
He saift thé from the gallous; Ib. xviii 9.
As they might saiff thair contrie fre skaith and boundage; Pitsc. II 103/28.
Saiffe; Ib. 239/21.
Of the office of ane Christiane magistrat … To hauld hand to thame alsweill concerning thair awin personis, saifing thame from iniurie and oppin violence; 1581 Bk. Univ. Kirk II 503.
Sawitt [Cullen Chron. Aberd. 61, saifitt]; Montg. Suppl. xxxiii 36.
A verie high mountaine … which saiffs and gairds the shipps from the wind which doth come on the east; c1630 Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. II 187.
Monro causit big wp … ane court de guard, for saifing of his soldiouris fra weit and cauld on the nicht; Spalding I 278.
(b) To sauf thame fra his venyme; Leg. S. xxxiii 78.
And we sall sawffyd be fra blame; Wynt. iv 799.
All that ryfft togyddyre crape And sa was sauffyde the cyte Fra stynk than, and mortalite; Ib. 1223.
Devotly Prayer he mad … For till relewe hym … And tyll sauff hym fra that deffame; Ib. v 4203.
[They] suore to sauf thame and kepe thame sekirly fra all harme; Hay I 29/29.
The wemen sone he sauffyt fra the dede; Wall. v 1127.
Ambrois … in ane littir tursit be twa grete hors to sauf his person fra troubill; Boece 286b.
Traisting throw strenth of the place … to sauf thare flamynis, thare preistis [etc.] … fra occisioun & fire of inemyis; Bell. Livy II 209/4.
Our lord Jesus me sauf from sic ane cace And keip me out of perrell and fra schame; Freiris Berw. 88 (M).
(c) Quhou Neptune his navy salvyt [Sm. saifit, Ruddim. sauit] fra wraik; Doug. i iii heading.
Be my laid star virgyne moder … from hell, salue al go not to wraik; Ib. iii Prol. 45.
God salf ws all from sik a syre as this! Ib. xi Prol. 72.
Because he tuke the saidis gudis be ane pretendit titill … the quhilk at that time not beand declarit null, aucht and sould salve him fra all crime of spuilȝie, albeit the samin may not salve him fra wrang; Balfour Pract. 470.
Salve; Pitsc. II 55/25.
(d) The pylgram, that sa Saffyt hym fra his felone fa; Leg. S. iii 1124.
reflex. He counsalit hir to seike remeid, To saif hir-self frome felloun deid; Troy-bk. ii 2004.
Now Crist, … Cum of the croce & saife thé fra the ded; Kennedy Pass. Christ 966.
Hys hed coverit, to salf hym fro the dynt; Doug. xi xiii 68.
As maist cowart … bestis saiffis thaimself for dangeir; Bell. Boece I 152.
King Druskene … with ane fewe cumpanye salfit him self fra dangere; Boece 365.
(b) Sa ma thu thé sauf fra hel; Leg. S. xxx 257.
Gyf thow will sauf thé fra schowris Of gret dises, of new amouris Be weil ware [etc.]; Ratis R. 1038.
(2) Alswa betwene the chapellis guteryt with hewyn stane to cast the watir owte and to save the werc for the watir; 1387 Edinb. Chart. 35.
14. To clear oneself from (the imputation of legal default, or its consequences) by offering an acceptable excuse.
At the ferd court of the mut he sal at his entra warand his essonȝes and gif he may set for hym certane resonis to sauf his distres thai salbe sufferit; Burgh Laws c. 102 (A).
Sa that … the tennande sal be neuermar herde thairof [sc. if he fails to appear on the fourth day] bot gif that he may sauf the dais of his defalt be the lorde the kyng warande & be the kyngis breff; Reg. Maj. c. 5.
And gif the ferd day the party deffendand aperis & cumis & can salf his defaltis he sal nocht be amercyt bot he sal ansuer til his party of the querel; Quon. Attach. c. 4.
15. To sauff occurs in Barb. and Wynt. in senses of Sav(e)and prep. and of Safe prep. a. prep. Excepting only, except for, except. = Sav(e)and prep. 2 a. Only in Wynt. b. With due respect to, without offence to. = Sav(e)and prep. 2 c.
a. Quhare nowthire man na wywe To sauff geawntis thare he fand; Wynt. iii 541.
For nane thare governale than had To sauff barnys off yhowthad, Threllys [etc.]; Ib. iv 1598.
But barnys tha bredyre deyde ilkane, To sawff Robert oure kyng allane; Ib. viii 1326.
Ib. iv 1168, 2438, v 420.
b. ‘Schyr,’ said he, … ‘To sauff ȝour presence it [is] nocht swa'; Barb. iii 173.
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