A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)
Sal(l, S(c)hal(l, aux. v. Also: sale, sel(l, scal; chall; sol. 2nd pers. sing. (with thow) also sal(l)t. 3rd pers. sing. (once, in Doug.) salt. P.t. suld(e, swld(e, swild, scwld, sould(e, sowld(e, sowlld, (sovuld, swold), seuld, sewld, sald, sud(d, suid, soud, sowd, sold(e; s(c)huld(e, schwld, chuld, (suchuld), s(c)hould, s(c)hold, shud(e, shood. 2nd pers. sing. suldist, -est, (suldelst) (Doug.), souldest (Knox, Pitsc.). 3rd pers. pl. sulden, -yn, schulden (Doug.). [Early ME sæl, sel (Layamon), sal (Bestiary), north. and north midl. ME sal(l (Cursor M.), 2nd pers. sing. also salt (Cursor M.), pl. early ME sale (Owl & Nightingale), north. ME sal (Cursor M.), early ME sulen (c1175), sollen (Layamon), p.t. early ME sollde (Orm), sulde (Bestiary), north. suld(e, sould, sud, salde (Cursor M.), 2nd pers. sing. also suldes (Gen. & Ex.), ME and e.m.E. pres. 1st and 3rd pers. sing. schal (Owl & Nightingale), shal(l (Orm), ssal, schel, 2nd pers. sing. shallt (Orm), schalt (a1225), etc., shal (a1400), pl. sholen (c1300), shuln (Piers Plowman), etc., shule (Orm), etc., p.t. sholde, sholte (K. Horn), sschulde (14th c.), shuld (Wyclif), schude (Pecock), chuld (1471), should (1515), etc., OE preterite-present strong verb sceal, sculon, sc(e)olde: cf. MDu. sal, sullen, solde. Cf. also the reduced variant, S1 b and Is, Thous, etc.] The following also occur written as one word: salbe, salbehald, salber, salcum, salhappin, salhave, and (only in Doug.) suldbe: cf. late ME selbe (1458–9), late ME and e.m.E. shalbe (c1400). S(c)hal(l, s(c)huld(e, etc. are found chiefly in anglicised or late texts. An auxiliary and modal verb with the infin. of the main verb without to: Shall, will; should would; etc.
A. pres. Shall. In various senses, the reference may be either to a single future action, immediate or delayed, or to action extending through an indefinite future.
1. In a question asking for a decision as to which of several possible courses of action is most appropriate or expedient: Should, ought. = B 10 d.
Bot quhidder sal we begin ȝour commendation … at ȝour haly lyfes, or at ȝoure helthful doctrine, we ar doutsum; Winȝet I 4/32.
2. In stating necessity or inevitability or a necessary condition: Must, must needs, will have to.
Off his awin deid ilk man salbeir the pais; Henr. Fab. 2667 (Bann.).
Ȝit to the iuge thow sall gif compt of all; Dunb. (OUP) 186/36 (B).
1607 Bk. Carlaverock I 307 (see A 6 h below).
3. In instructions or commands or statements of what is appointed or agreed or is in accordance with the law. a. In the second person, virtually equivalent to an imperative.
Ȝe sall understand or wit, = Understand, know, in expositions.
(1) On this maner weile wyrk thou may: Thow sall tak Ferrand my palfray; Barb. ii 118.
Bot ȝet sall thu duell in this stede Thre ȝere in Godis corne to wirk; Leg. S. xxvii 1348.
And ȝe thre damysellis sall bere Cumpany to this bachelere; Alex. ii 2141.
Wynt. viii 6679.
And ȝe sall follou ane lytill efterwart And gadder hering, for that sall be ȝour part; Henr. Fab. 2047.
Ȝe sall remane Quhill somere & I sall with ȝow ga; Seven S. 1172, 1173.
I sall thé schaw takynnys tharof ful meit, Quhilkis thou sal hald within thi mynd secreit; Doug. iii vi 68.
Justice clerk … , ȝe sall geif to him [etc.]; 1530 Crim. Trials I i 145.
Thou sal notht tak the nayme of God inuane; Gau 9/4.
Ȝe sal ymagyn ane lyne that passis throucht the spere [etc.]; Compl. 48/26.
Gif thare ryse ane mater to hard for thé in jugement … than sall thow aryis … and cum unto [etc.]; Q. Kennedy Tractive 107.
To quham ye sall gif creddeit; 1559 Knox I 395.
Thairfoir ȝe sall in all times furth to cum Gif hir na faith; Rolland Seven S. 3351.
Ȝe sall dyne and we sall talk together; Pitsc. I 91/10.
Cusyng commisser, forsamykill as ye sall nocht faill to insert this contrat [etc.] … and this ye faill nocht as my traist is in yow; 1583 Waus Corr. 27.
Ye sall caus my mother send me twa pair of soillis to my hois; 1607 Sc. Ant. XV 141.
(b) Ȝe sell informe the King of Ingland … of [etc.]; 1542 State P. (Reg. H.) No. 30a.
Secundly ye sel schaw our said cousing [etc.]; 15.. Misc. Spald. C. II 191.
(c) And the left syde lang salt thou … Cyrkil; Doug. iii vi 111.
(2) Ȝe sall ondirstand Virgill in all partis of his proses, quhat maner [etc.]; Doug. Comm. i iv 41.
Heir sall youre grace understand how [etc.]; Bell. Boece II 515.
Sallt; Nisbet III 323/19.
Madame, your grace sall wnderstand [etc.]; 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 46.
1568 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
And caused one to wryt on this maner: ‘Willie, thow sall wit that I am haill [etc.]’; Bann. Memor. 173.
(b) Ye schall schaw the provest that [etc.]; 1617 Aberd. Council Lett. I 144.
b. In the third person: Is to, are to.
(1) In direct or indirect speech with the verb of the main clause in the future present (active or passive) or perfect tense. (2) In indirect speech with the verb of the main clause in the past tense, but with future reference of the predicate of which sal(l is the operator. (3) In the phrase it salbe leful (lesum).
(1) Cum omni genere bladi crescentis in dicta terra … quod molent [gl. that thai sal grind] pro sustentacione sua; c1360 Facs. Nat. MSS II xix.
Dicti eciam Edmundus [etc.] … edificia … construi [gl. be made] facient [gl. sal ger] competencia; Ib.
The qwilke werke the forsaide masounys sal warande watir thicht; 1387 Edinb. Chart. 36.
Sale; 1399 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 6.
That the saide Erle of Mar hase gifin his … consent that the saide Schir Dauid [etc.] … sal hafe … the lordeschip of Caueris; 1405 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 200.
1409 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 72.
Alsua it is accordit that our lord the governour sall giff [etc.]; 1420 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 182.
Na man bot a burges sall by woll to lytt; Acts I 24/2.
Gif it happinis a presoner to be takin … he salbe at the command of the wardane; Ib. 351/2.
The smythes and hammermen sal fynd the three kingis of Culane; 1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I 9.
The doctour concludis that the man of armes sall byde and serve his lorde; Hay I 149/28.
The causis that the Lordis of the Sessione sall knaw apone; 1457 Acts II 47/2.
Henr. Fab. 2048 (see a (1) above).
Sale; 1478 Acta Conc. I 16/1.
1487 Aberd. B. Rec. I 42.
And gif thir persons thinkis expedient to chese other twa persons … thai sal have leyffe to ches thaim; 1488 Reg. Paisley 406.
We … grantis that thar sall na cryme be imput to thame thairthrou; 1504 Edinb. Chart. 188.
Lytil Julus salbeir me cumpany; Doug. ii xi 55.
Send certaine discrete personis … to the Bordouris, quhar our commissionaris salcum and meit for … new tretting of peax; 1528 St. P. Henry VIII IV 500.
He sall find ane man that can and sall hald the plewch; 1531 Reg. Soltre 104.
Heir sall thay harle Chestety to the stokkis and scho sall say [etc.]; Lynd. Sat. 1443, Stage Direction (B).
Aganis the lawis … maid … ordaning that the saids magistratis salbe yeirlie exchangeit and [etc.]; 1585–6 Reg. Privy C. IV 42.
That the samein barrons sall not be licentiat to returne home againe to the saids north parts; 1594 Bk. Univ. Kirk III 823.
That ordour be takin quhat salbe the price [etc.]; 1606 Peebles Gleanings 11.
1633 Elgin Rec. II 225.
1671 Forbes Baron Ct. 288.
Sall; 1671 Edinb. B. Rec. X 109.
1673 Ib. 145.
(b) And thai sel kepe the wateris lauchfully … , Alsua nan sell pind vthir vnlauchfully; 1437 Reg. Dunferm. 285.
He sell ansuer to the laird of Jariswod; 1527 Carnwath Baron Ct. (SHS) 63.
(c) In the first [college] shalbe ane classe of dialecticque; Bk. Disc. 215.
Soche as ar dispossessed shalbe restored to thair landis … rowmes and possessiouns withoute alteratioun; ?1570–2 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxii.
Admonition wes gewen … [that they] shal reteyne them those dayes at theyr lessonis; 1574 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 16.
That they will lett know … who shall be generall; 1648 Misc. Maitl. C. II 467.
[The baillie] sall use all means [etc.] … and that he shall use all endevour [etc.]; 1671 Goudie Shetl. Antiq. 235.
He shall lift up the small teynds of Nether Cramond; 1673 Cramond Kirk S. II 15 June.
The said tenement … shall be layable in no more annuitie then according to the rent; 1675 Edinb. B. Rec. X 215.
That all heretors, life renters, wadsetters, heads … of clans shall find caution [etc.]; 1694 Old Ross-shire I 89.
(d) That day that chuld be halden the xix day of Averill chall be chot to the xv day of May; 1385 Rot. Sc. II 73/2.
(2) It was ordanit … that Thome Gray … sal cum in his lynnyne clathis this next Sonday … bair fute [etc.]; 1486 Aberd. B. Rec. in
Misc. Spald. C. V 30.
1513 Ib. (Sp. C.) I 87.
King Malcolm … gaif to Makduf … iii privilegis: first that the Erle of Fif sal croun the king; Bell. Boece II 277.
It was ordanit … that fre baronis sall mak jebattis; Ib.
(b) It was concluded … that he shall be lowsed fra the said sentence; Row 130.
(3) It salbe leyffull to the said Jone … to make [etc.]; 1427 Wemyss Chart. 53.
It salbe lesum to ony gild … to tak the said gudis fra the said James; 1536 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 17.
In that caice it sall nocht be levesum to that persone to be servit as na air; 1564 Stirling B. Rec. I 82.
It sall be liesom to the said craftismen to choise [etc.]; 1587 Aberd. Trades App. 332.
Quhan any stair … salhappin to fall … it sall nawayis be lesume to the heretour [etc.]; 1632 Aberd. B. Rec. III 47.
(b) Except allanerlie that it shal be lesum to fyve or sex … of the speciall freyndis of the defunct to be present at the lyk walk; 1606 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 54.
c. In indirect questions complementing verbs of instructing, informing or knowing.
How sal thow byg castel towne or toure This clerk he kennys; Bernardus 257.
Heir techis us Vigeis … how battale within listis salbe governit; Maner of Battale 226.
Your lordschipe man … send me vord quhat I sale do tharto; 1511 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 107.
The Pater noster leris al man quhow thay sal … get that same help; Gau 8/9.
Beseikand your grace to schaw … the berar quhat we sall lyppin to; 1543 Corr. M. Lorraine 47.
1544 Hamilton P. II 385.
I can not tell trewlie How our scoller examit weill salbe; Rolland Seven S. 423.
This is my uill, quhaitt sall bei doune uith my bodei clothes quhain itt sall bei Heis blist uill to kaill mei from thes leif; 1649 Wemyss Chart. 231.
4. Expressing the speaker's intention or determination that the event stated shall take place or the state of affairs described shall obtain; used in promises, threats and other assertions. a. In the first person.
Often little more than an expression of the intentional nature of the action and thus virtually equivalent to a simple future auxiliary. Cf. also A 5 a.
sing. Gyff thow will hald in cheyff off me … I sall do swa thow sall be king; Barb. i 156.
I sall thole a quhile & se On quhat wys that thai pruwe thar mycht; Ib. ix 28.
Fore thu dyd the apostilis bydynge … Of the bandis I sal louse thé; Leg. S. ix 229.
Fra His luf I neuirmare sall Be departyt; Ib. l 596.
Bot gif that I may … Leif, … Ȝit sall I [F. Je vodrai] athir wyn or tyne; Alex. ii 2741.
Thy name I sall ay nevyne; Dunb. (OUP) 6/60.
Theif loun, I sall slay thé; Lynd. Sat. 1942.
I sall apply ane exempil conformand to this samyn purpose; Compl. 12/29.
I salbe hussy gif I may; Wyf Awcht. 20.
Vpon the grene Befoir ten houris I salbe sene; Lynd. Meldrum 320.
Pas and seik ane dispensatioun Than sall I wed ȝow with ane ring; Ib. 969.
I cry ȝow mercie flour of gentilnes As I that sall … ȝow serve; Clar. i 279.
I sall awysit be Or I hir luve agane; Scott xxiii 39.
Will scho absent, Hyne sall I went; Ib. xxvii 25.
Sweit hairt … Found sall I neuer this forrest fro Quhill ȝe me confort kyth; Maitl. F. 364/152.
Opponing thy self to deith saying I will not die and I sall not die; Rollock Wks. I 303.
Alwayes stay, my lord duik, and I sall gang up and get your lordschip the veritie … thairof; 1600 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXXVI I 7.
Ye are but a gouke, sir; I sall fasten your feete, sir; 1619 Calderwood VII 364.
[The witch says] I sall goe intill a craw; 1662 Crim. Trials III 608.
(b) Off this matere now no mare I tel, Bot to the story twrne I sel Of sancte Clement; Leg. S. xxi 622.
I sell leid thé to the place for the freir swewyt thé; 1539 Aberd. B. Rec. I 159.
For luf I sell nocht say ‘ales!’; Montg. Suppl. v 20.
(c) I … Archibalde Erle of Angwissche … schall not … keipe her [sc. the Queen's] courtis, nor medle in the same; 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 191/1.
To cheis ane of ws … vnder quhais counsale … wee schall fecht; Bell. Boece (M) I 35.
As we schall eftir schaw; Ib. 161.
Efter your nixst aduertissement Y schal vreit furader; 1565 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lvii.
[I] shalbe verie laithe … to lippin ether my denner or soupper to that maiter in caice I should die for hungar; 1588 Cal. Sc. P. IX 648.
Give your lordship doe, I shall chalange yow for wnkindnes; 1629 Bk. Carlaverock II 114.
Lat them call in my name att Mr. Wm. Settone … I schall laue derections by him; 1636 Fam. Innes 225.
pl. Quhill I leif, We sal be freindis; Alex. ii 4982.
Send vs word & we sal late hym wit; 1401 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 8.
Will God I leiffe, we sall ws wreke on part; Wall. i 310.
In lyff or dede in faith him sall we haiff Or ger him [etc.]; Ib. viii 44.
In Elchoch park … we … gert feill Sothron de … ; So sall we her; Ib. ix 816.
Or of ȝow lordis sall we no man saif; Bk. Chess 518.
And first sall we considder that [etc.]; Q. Kennedy Tractive 107.
We sall be blyith, and mak mirrie … For [etc.]; Rolland Seven S. 3280.
b. In the second person.
Sometimes in ambiguity with A 3 a.
(a) Sen … That thow sic ȝarnyng has to ga Thow sall pas furth with my blyssing; Barb. v 247.
Lene [me] thi curch … And thu sall haf it in schort space; Leg. S. ii 253.
For gif I leif in liege pouste, Thow sall of him weill vengit be; Alex. ii 3154.
Stryk, doggis, ye sall de; Wall. ix 139.
Fantastik fule, trest weill thow salbe fleyit; Kennedy Flyt. 35.
Ye sall find that I sall gippart my lyfe in your service; 1550–1 Corr. M. Lorraine 347.
Thy falset thow sall rew … For the greit leis thow did inuent … With this same knife I sall cut out thy gorge; Rolland Seven S. 3412.
Ȝe sall richt wonder welcum be And weill intreit; Ib. 8956.
(b) And ȝe sell se ws sone degraid thame; Lynd. Sat. 3616 (B).
King Cupaid … , Thow sell nocht hurtt this hairtt of myne; Montg. Suppl. v 5.
Ib. xxxiii 95.
(c) [For] that thow me lufes steidfastly Of the thrid thow salt be Lord and ledar and with thé Sall be weill neir fyftene thowsand; Alex. ii 7106.
Ne salt thou not that schame suffir, trast me; Doug. xi xvi 31.
Lowp or … thow salt [Ch. sall] lois thy heid; Lynd. Sat. 1948 (B).
This sacrifice than thow salt have Off thy just pepill; Scott xxxvi 77.
(d) Next schall yhe wyt on qwhat kyn wiis [etc.]; Wynt. i 938 h. of ch. (R).
Off Abrahame now schall [C. sal] yhe here; Ib. ii 144 h. of ch.
There is no landis that I have that can be spairit but you shall haue it; 1655 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. VI 43.
c. In the third person.
(a) Bot and I lif in lege pouste, Thair ded sall rycht weill vengit be; Barb. v 166 (C).
Quhateuire it be … That quhemfull be to ȝou to do … It sall be done; Leg. S. xxvii 1341.
As the berare of this letter … sale lat yhow wit; 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 286.
Sall neuer sege … se me with schame; Gol. & Gaw. 1042.
My celsitude … With micht and mercie myngit sall be ay; Henr. Fab. 937.
K. Hart 487.
Throw all Bretane it salbe blawin owt How [etc.]; Dunb. Flyt. 69.
Apon my schuldris I sal thé beir … Quhat euer betyde … Salbe common … to ws baith; Doug. ii xi 54.
Of this mater mare largelie sal efterwart be tretit; Boece 99.
It sall nocht be; no wourdis Sall gar me passe frome my purpose; Lynd. Mon. 3084.
Quhen thair apperit ane daingerous seditioun in Edinburgh, … as efter sall follow; Winȝet I 2/24.
Thy gall and thy gwisorne to the glaidis salbe gevin; Montg. Flyt. 351 (T).
For my awin part he sall knaw of all that I do; 1600 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxxvi.
Bot it salbe sent with the nixt berar, God willing; 1619 Innes Sketches 521.
He sall have my mailles of Ferryhill to help him; 1624 Aberd. Council Lett. I 223.
I knok this ragg … To raise the wind … It sall not lye vntill I please againe; 1662 Crim. Trials III 607.
(b) In spaitt of thé itt selbe sene, Fra leuff I sell leif ever fre; Montg. Suppl. v 15.
My trest Sell ever be in hem; Ib. xxix 80.
(c) Bot followand Virgil … Ane othir wys now salt that bell berong; Doug. ii Prol. 11.
(d) Bot thus shal pas no mo bot as yhow lest; Lanc. 2211.
And quhilk of thame ȝe think maist proffittabill schalbe plesand to ws; Bell. Boece (M) I 36.
My faithfull mynde the wiche shall indure the tym that I have to leve; 1544 Douglas Corr. 153.
Sitt thow this chairge, I will assuire thé The second shalbe [T. salbe] something sairer; Polwart Flyt. 68 (H).
The voual is judged be the sound, as shal be shaued hereafter; Hume Orthog. 7.
As shalbe sayd; 16.. R. Gordon in Macfarlane's Geog. Coll. II 397.
d. In clauses of purpose.
I sall do swa thow sall be king; Barb. i 156.
I sall … Hald off were oure inymyis That we sall welle excus oure name And yhe sall sauffe be fra defame; Wynt. iv 967, 968.
And that the noblis of Scotland sal be mair mindful of this present lyig, to the King of Scotlandis armes … was eikit [etc.]; Bell. Boece II 136.
We suld dant the body onder the spreit that it sal noth lewe as it desiris bot efter the wil of God; Gau 22/18.
I gif … To divers … lords ane ȝeirlie pensioun To that intent that thay … sal plainlie tak my part; Lynd. Sat. 3369.
God willis it not so bot that ȝe salbe seruit be the ministerie of men; Ferg. Serm. iii Malachi in
5. In expressions of undertaking or commitment, in contracts, oaths or the like. a. In the first person.
A contextual use of A 4 a above.
(a) I sall gif hym my charter vndir my seyll; c1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1.
We haf heft trevly we sal manteyn hir [etc.]; 1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 12.
Say to thy kynge We sall fulfill all hys bydding; Troy-bk. i 122.
We … sal leli and trewly defend [etc.]; 1474 Fam. Innes 82.
I or thai sall entyre and lauchfoully infeyft … the said Wylȝhame [etc.]; 1486 Stirlings of Keir 255.
Be it kend … ws … to be bundin … in faithfull manrent [etc.] … And sal gife thame our … trew and best counsail; 1527 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 307.
We sall content and pay [etc.]; 1550 Lochwinnoch Par. 18.
I sall mak concord quhair discord is … I sall give my leill … judgment [etc.]. … Swa help me God; 1613 Glasgow Merchants House 112.
I sall governe no unfrieman's guids under colour of my own. I sall scott, lott [etc.]; 1673 Sc. N. & Q. 1 Ser. XII 169.
(b) And gef I dar nocht … impyng my scaid lordis deshonour … I scal warn hem tharof; 1501 Moncreiffs 58.
b. In the third person, where the commitment is that of the protagonist.
Sometimes in ambiguity with A 3 b (1), but not the same as A 4 c, where the intention is that of the speaker.
That Schir Murthow … sal haue to wife Isabel … and sal indow hir in the barony of [etc.]; 1391 Lennox Mun. 43.
That the forsayd Robert sal resyng vp al his rychtis … in our lord the kyngis handis; 1395 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 4.
Gif the fiffe mark … mai be recuverit … therfore it sall be likand to the said Davy … that [etc.]; 1399 Holyrood Chart. 113.
That the said Alexander is oblyst … that … the said Alexander or his ayris sale fulli … deliver [etc.]; 1402 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 54.
Sal; 1443 Highland P. II 179.
It is … accordit … that als soune as … our souuerane lord the king set his justice are in Dunbertane the said Robert Lorde Fleming salcum thare … withoute ony impediment or stopping; 1465 Colquhoun Chart. 292.
The said … convent sall do … yerly … placebo and dirige; 1469 Ayr Friars Pr. Chart. 51.
Sal; 1482–3 Acts XII 31/2.
It is … appontit and concordit betwix honorable men … the said Schir Patrik sall indot … certane landis … to ane altar … in the parisch kirk; 1520–1 Peebles Chart. 50.
[They] sall aduertis wtheris thairof be thame selff or sum mediattis; 1549 Sutherland Bk. III 110.
1566 Misc. Maitl. C. I 45.
And [she] sall never mary nane uther husband; Buch. Detect. (1727) 94.
6. In predictive statements, where the events predicted are seen as independent of the volition of the speaker or of the protagonist. Sometimes in ambiguity with earlier senses.
a. In the second person.
(a) With-in schort tyme ȝe sall be king; Barb. iv 656.
The child said, Fader … Scho syngis … That ȝe sall me the basyng hald [etc.] … The fader thairof said, Thow sall le; Seven S. 2588.
In hevin ȝe salbe sanctis full cleir Thocht ȝe be knavis in this cuntre; Dunb. (OUP) 159/38.
So at the last, of Stix the cayrful schaw … Thou salbehald; Doug. vi ii 157.
Nevir Heccuba … Was deliuer of sik flambis … As thou salber; Ib. vii v 92.
And Lavinia … to me as spous in hy Sal [Sm. sald] ȝeld lynnage to ryng perpetualy; Ib. xiii ii 88.
Ye sal [P. schulen] find a colt bundin; Nisbet Mark xi 2.
Cursit and wariit sall thow be. … Thow salbe cursit comand in and gangand furth; Hamilton Cat. 32.
God to ȝow will rais sum Josuay, Quhilk sall ȝour bairnies gar sing wallaway; 1567 Sat. P. iii 133.
Weill, madin, haif ȝe lattin this be done? Ȝe sall repent itt; 1591 Crim. Trials I ii 251.
With this rub your heid and ye salbe eisit; a1595 Misc. Spald. C. II xxx.
Thou thy paines sall neuer repent: … Thou'll think it nathing to that glore Whilk thou with me sall ay injoy, When lust hir lykers sall destroy; Melvill Propine 148.
(b) For thy cramping thow salt baith cruke and cowre; Henr. Age & Yowth 42 (Bann.).
Law within a cavern Thar salt thou fynd the godly prophetes; Doug. iii vi 167.
Ib. vi ii 27.
b. In the third person.
(a) Bot me think it war gud maistri Till ony astrolog to say, This sall fall her & on this day; Barb. iv 709.
Douglas, that sall haf litil rest Till the cuntre deliuerit be; Ib. ix 2 (C).
Ane of ȝou betrese me sall; Leg. S. iii 364.
The sevyn angelis signifyis the sevin partis of the tyme that the warld sall lest; Hay I 15/13.
Quha ledis man to sik knawlege that he knawis the thing that sal be in tyme to cum? Wisd. Sol. (STS) 209.
Thy kindome … Sall nocht indure … Bot as the wind will wend away; Henr. Abbay Walk 11.
Or he be strenyeit … Mony ledis salbe loissit; Gol. & Gaw. 277.
Our navy salt [Sm. sall] … The thrid morow be at the cost of Crete; Doug. iii ii 96.
Nor this thy slauchter but ramemberyng Amang all pepill sall not be; Ib. xi xvi 30.
Perchans that wark [sc. translating Ovid] sall occupy thame a quhile; Id. Direct. 114.
Nisbet I 3, etc.
This tyme sall haif ane end, that tyme sall nevir faill; Bann. MS 83a/103.
Now sall appeir … Quha is the trew man, quha is the trature … The trew liege … salbe kend; 1570 Sat. P. xiv 95.
Thir sawis … Quhair euir thow hapnis for to be … It sall thé richt gritlie amend; Maitl. F. 173/127.
Lang sal he liue; Maitl. Q. 275/13.
Ib. 37/106 (see (b) below).
1649 Wemyss Chart. 231 (see 3 c above).
I shoot yon man in the divellis name, He sall nott win heall hame! … Thair sall not be an bitt of him on lieiw! 1662 Crim. Trials III 607.
(b) Nor the Troyiens the toune shall tyn Whyle at that token is with-in; Troy-bk. ii 235.
Al magre thine a seruand schal yow bee; Lanc. 115.
Quha will beleif … Thay salbe saif, and neuer mair shall dee; G. Ball. 15.
The howlat sall leid the beir to his baine. The court of England … Shall shortlie be brocht to confusioune [etc.]; 1570 Bann. Memor. 62.
And after thee none worthier shalbe seene; James VI Poems I 3/13.
Fowler I 29/88.
c. In the first person.
Quhen the committaris of trason ar tryit furtht it sal be fundyn that I [etc.] … sal be clene and innocentis of that foule cryme; Compl. 130/18.
To reid … the holie writt Trew knawlege sall I get in it; Maitland Maitl. F. 337/18.
Quhome, I take God to witnes, I have luiffit als dearly as evir I did, or sall, any levand creature; 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV i 117.
Ȝour lordschip sall sie … that I sall mak eassie passage to ȝone castell; Pitsc. II 89/28.
Its like I shal be but little believed by the benighted world; 1671 Short Testimony Concerning Catherine Allardes.
d. In a statement of the result that is predicted to follow the fulfilment or non-fulfilment of a condition expressed in an accompanying clause of contingency.
For some further examples, see A 9 a and b below.
Will thu in hym trew … , But dowt he sal gyf thé thi hele; Leg. S. vii 414.
Say to our nobill king of micht, Bot he vs helpe … He sall not sie vs on lyfe leuand; Alex. i 466.
Quhen it lykes to Venus … I sall haue lemmen; Ib. ii 3780.
Bot quhay sa leffis eftirwart Sall fynd to wytnes weil my part; Ratis R. 1561.
And gyf thu be the man that that felon ref nytys he this said A. … sal ger it be provit apon thé; Bute MS fol. 141.
And if it so befell … In his defalt … , This warld sal have hyme vtraly defamyt; Lanc. 3210.
Thou salt onon behald the seys large All ombeset with toppyt schyp … Gyf quhil to morow tary in this land thou wald; Doug. iv x 85.
For gif thir salbe still, staanys sol [P. schulen] cry; Nisbet Luke xix 40.
Bot quhen thay heir it sung into thair vulgar toung … then sal thay lufe thair Lord God; G. Ball. 1.
Ye subscryfand this letir, the lard sall geif you ane wdir of his that [etc.]; c1580 Waus Corr. 541.
Howbeit ye stay some two or thrie dayes and kyth in that action as commissionar … it sall not be amiss; 1628 Aberd. Council Lett. I 289.
e. In a statement of the result predicted to follow the fulfilment of a condition stated or implied in the context.
This [turn of events] is weill like That all the war sall ouris be; Alex. i 2345.
Lat me in or I sall de; Seven S. 1106.
All thir properteis sal be patent in reding the livis of gud and evil kingis; Bell. Boece II 516.
The deploration of thair calamite sall move the redaris to imitatioun of virtew; Ib.
Quho list to knaw … Let thame go reid the legend of my life; Thair sall thai find [etc.]; Lynd. Test. Meldrum 73.
But … ye sall be this uyse forme of doing escheu the inconuenientis that … I fell in; James VI Basil. Doron 113/4.
[The effect of which … would be that] the haill cuntrey salbe disquyetit be the insolence of that clan; 1600 Bk. Arran II 101.
f. In a sentence or clause of result introduced by an adverbial or adverbial conjunction of consequence or result, as sa, thareby, sa … that, that, etc.
Chiefly following the sentence or clause which expresses the condition from which the result follows.
Thu … blissit is For-thi … with me Sall hewynlik are & falow be; Leg. S. xxvii 1346.
Thu sal gere sla al thai … That in presone I gert be done, Sa sal Juda haf sorow sowne; Ib. xxxvi 1094.
We sall for fyue dayis treux ta … , Throw freindis help sa get sall we; Alex. ii 4979.
That he … sic martyr on thame hes maid That mony ane madin but held salbe; Ib. 10113.
And syne that he speke wele avisitly till his awin peple. … And thus sall he be … lufit; Hay II 89/11.
For … hungir sal ȝe stand in sik state … That with ȝour chaftis to gnaw ȝe salbe fane; Doug. iii iv 92.
Thow sall find thaim … sa fowsumlie growin … that thay sall appeir als uncouth … as [etc.]; Bell. Boece I xxv.
Refusand thame ȝe me refusit … Tharefor ȝe sall [etc.]; Lynd. Meldrum 5988.
Jesus … chargeit thame … That lufe amang thame suld incres, For thairby it sall cum to lycht That ȝe ar my disciplis rycht; G. Ball. 44.
For I sall bring downe … Thair pryde … Than cleirly sall my word be schawin And all thair falset salbe knawin; Ib. 203.
So that … thow sal have these for enimyes quhome thow hes vexed … Nather yet sal thow retene … these for freinds [etc.]; Fowler II 74/21.
Thomas Foullis hes fund the meinis how that sowme sall be preserved; 1593 Cochran-Patrick Coinage I 264.
g. In a clause introduced by and, which states a consequence of what is stated in the preceding co-ordinate clause.
Thay will ishe furth to vs sone And we sall fle … Quhill [etc.]; Alex. ii 2838.
My sone, do as I say, And it sal lyk thé; Ratis R. 1089.
To the byschope Sylvestyr … Thow send and he sall informe thé [etc.]; Wynt. v 2831.
Schaw weill in werk & … Thow sall in hevin be euir lawreat; Contempl. Sinn. 1560 (Arund.).
I sall dyng thé … And thou sal lik thy lippis [etc.]; Kennedy Flyt. 396.
The lordis … ordanis … to call the said Williame and Janet thairfor and justice salbe minsterit as efferis; 1522 Acta Conc. MS XXXIII 18.
The kingis hwnting vill be schortly, and than sall be best tyme; 1600 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxxvi.
h. In a co-ordinate sentence with or (ellis) as the co-ordinating conj., with sall as the operator of the verb in both clauses.
In which the clause following or (ellis) states a consequence of ignoring a condition stated in the preceding clause.
I sall ather be furthe of the castell this nycht, or ellis sall loise my lyiff; 1607 Bk. Carlaverock I 307.
i. In a (chiefly post-posed) sentence or clause of reason or explanation introduced by for or another conjunction.
I ma sum thynge Do that may be lykyne; For it sal ese gyf; Leg. S. vii 539.
Throv hyme sal al his kyn be lorne, Fore he sal be a bysyne man; Ib. xii 33.
He said that … he fand nathinge bettir to man na to mak gud chere of the gudis he wynis … quhill he is heire fore na mar sal he ber away with hyme; Wisd. Sol. (STS) 207.
For sic thingis sal nocht onely move yow to imitation of virtew bot sall [etc.]; Bell. Boece II 515.
Sall; Rolland Seven S. 1568.
To adhere vnto the one of these two be reasoun that thow salt occasion thairby [etc.]; Fowler II 146/16.
7. a. In noun clauses dependent on verbs and equivalent expressions of affirming, promising, undertaking; believing, knowing, trusting, and the like, in senses A 4-6.
With future reference, whether the main clause verb is in the present tense or, less frequently, a past tense.
(1) I say ȝow sekyrly Thar sall na perell that may be Dryve me eftsonys to the se; Barb. v 67.
Sa treuly thu hicht me til My byding that thu sal fulfil; Leg. S. xxxvi 1090.
We lely heichtis & grantis … that in case gif [etc.] … that our … systir … sall at hir lykyng entir … all hir thrid of the landes; 1381 Douglas Chart. 29.
Ane vthir grant heir mak I thé … That I sall lufe thé all-thir first; Alex. ii 2270.
Ȝe sall be lousit, I tak on hand; Ib. 5177.
He sais … that the tyme salcum that thare salbe bot a pastour and a schepe faulde; Hay I 189/22.
Wall. viii 47.
Ib. xi 816, 1364.
Ande Thomas Strachin … come lawborrouys [etc.] … that the said Johnne Broys salbe unskaithtit of the said Alexander [etc.]; 1508 Aberd. Sheriff Ct. I 71.
Thairfore … I dare baldly afferme na othir besines sall be mair fruitfull to your hienes [etc.]; Bell. Boece II 515.
Gif me ȝoure handis & faith that the adulterare and deforsare of me sall nocht leif vnpunyst; Id. Livy I 125/8.
John Cowane and Wm. Loury obleist them that the gudes … to be loissit at this instant tyme sal be unsuspect; 1545 Stirling Ant. IV 204.
Hys gres has sad that we sall be na lesars; 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 225.
I mak ane vow That Scotland salbe quyte of ȝow; Lynd. Meldrum 760.
I am resolut … that thai sal find na thing in preiudice of my honour; 1568 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
We … willis and declairis that this our reuocatioun salhaue als grite effect [etc.]; 1585 Bk. Carlaverock I 264.
Charles Cleg drummer … hes enactit himself … to do the towne service … and that he sall never absent himself [etc.]; 1639 Peebles Gleanings 201.
(b) I … promitte … that … I sall not … medle witht [etc.] … no schall receiue [etc.]; 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 191/1.
I pledge, ere all the play bee plaid, That some shall lose a laike; Montg. Ch. & Slae 1109 (Wr.).
John Donaldson hes inacted him selff … that … he shall leiwe peiceblie; 1662 Forbes Baron Ct. 230.
(2) Bot wit ȝhe weill … That … Thair sal no mycht … Ger ȝow furth pas of this cuntre; Barb. iv 653 (C).
Qwhyl at thai wate at thai sal turne hame in thair awyn land; Ship Laws c. 21 (B).
I think als sa God … me saiff At my twa handis sall graith thé to thi graiff; Wall. xi 466.
I trast, forsuyth, heirefter mony ane Sal hew quyk facis furth of marbil stane; Doug. vi xv 6.
That thai beleve all empire of kingis sall fynys … als sone as the Tarquynis ar put away; Bell. Livy I 132/16.
Nor I wait not quhat frute thairof sall spring; Rolland Seven S. 1159.
And quhat we sall lippin to in this matter, desyris maist humlie ȝouire heynes answir; 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV i 123.
Gif my brudir levis, as I traist in God he sall; 1577 Fam. Innes 132.
I knaw that the saull of that man sall never sleip bot ewer sall leif ane imortall lyffe; Pitsc. II 74/14.
My lord lippynnis in yow that na thing sall gange wrange in all behalffis; thairfoir schawe your craft; 15.. Crawford Mun. Invent. II 60.
No man lippinis he sall leif; 1615 Lett. & St. P. Jas. VI 258.
Knaw before quhat sall come efter; Carmichael Prov. No. 1021.
(b) It is no doubt but thei ar Englismen, and we fear that thei shall land; Knox I 119.
Ane finall ordour … quhilk hir majestie hopes shalbe to the contentment of the haill; Ib. II 273.
I am sur yow schal hir mor; c1580 Q. Mary in 12th Rep. Hist. MSS. App. viii 9.
Thinking that Christians shall na entres have; 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv Pref. 20.
It is lickely that ere it be long he shall haue againe the same, yea grytter power; 1649 Blairs P. 21.
I hope that our blood shall be a good lift to the Church of God; 1680 Soc. Ant. XLV 245.
b. In noun clauses dependent on verbs or equivalent expressions of hope or expectation, where there is some uncertainty about the outcome: May, may well.
Wys mennys etling Cummys nocht ay to that ending That thai think it sall cum to; Barb. i 585.
Weill mai fall That he sall eschew it all; Ib. iii 294.
For it is lyke … That mair mischeif sall fall ȝe [sic] Than fell ane knycht [etc.]; Seven S. 815.
For quhilk thing we bair sure howp … that ȝour kinglie maieste sell beninglie resaue … oure wordis; 1554 Misc. Bann. C. III 66.
That is the thing thay wald: Prolong the time, lipning the court sall change; Rolland Seven S. 3594.
This guid new ȝeir, we hoip … Salbe of peax, tranquillitie, and rest; Scott i 10.
Ȝit not doubting bot patience in end salbe victorious; Maitl. Q. 214/7.
My houpe mekill incressis that thir my laubours salbe mair freindly acceptit be ȝour lordschip; Fowler II 10/19.
& because I hoape ȝe sall be king of ma cuntreis then this; James VI Basil. Doron 96/2.
1627 Bk. Carlaverock II 89.
c. In relative clauses in these senses.
Anchises schawis Eneas to the end Alhail the lynage sal fra hym discend; Doug. vi xiii h. of ch.
Thay wys to se that day, Quhen the childryng of God, predestinat, Sall do appeir; Lynd. Mon. 6242.
For weill I knaw, displesours ar to cum That he sall do, or ellis he salbe dum; Rolland Seven S. 148.
Quhairanent we luk for your certane ansser quhilk salbe lippinnit for be the bearar; 1594 Misc. Spald. C. I 8.
8. In interrogative sentences, implying a reply in one of the preceding senses. a. In rhetorical and exclamatory questions.
(1) Quhat sall I mar say off his mycht? Barb. x 790.
Quhat sal I say? & now thu mon gange fud to be To ȝone dragone; Leg. S. xxxiii 178.
Quhom sall I blame … a bysyn that I be? Is nane bot dame Nature … Till acus of this caise; … Bot quha sall mak me ane mendis of hir? … I will appele to the pape; Howlat 69, 72 (A).
How sall I leif, allace, Haifand nane vther craft me to defend? Henr. Fab. 707.
Quhat art thou lufe? How sall I thé dyffyne? Id. Orph. 401.
Quhat sall I say? quhom sall I awite? Quare Jel. 248.
How lang sall I thus foruay? Doug. Pal. Hon. 92.
Quhairto … sall I uprys at morrow? Dunb. (OUP) 141/29.
Quhen sall oure inimeis meit ws? Quhen sall thai ieopard thair lyvis aganis ws? Bell. Boece (M) I 171.
How lang sall I this lyfe inleid? Scott xix 13.
He is deipar than hell, than how salt thow knaw Him? Accusation of Wishart in Pitsc. II 73/11.
Bot how sall [v.r. sald] it be said? Montg. Ch. & Slae 556 (W).
Vhat subject, sacred sisters, sall I sing? Vhase praise, Apollo, sal my pen proclame? … Hou sall I sound the fanphar of hir fame? Id. Sonn. liv 1, 2, 6.
Fowler I 240/20.
(b) Quho schall me help allace for to endite … This vice … ? Quhat sall I say? Quare Jel. 245.
For to what purpoise shall laubouris be tane to putt the Kirk in ordour and to what end shall men subscrive and then never mean to keap wourd of that quhilk thei promeisse; Knox II 297.
(2) Allace, allace, sall I thus sone be deid In this desert? Doug. Pal. Hon. 168.
Sall I thus mokkit … My fyrst luffaris agane assay belyve? Id. Æn. iv x 23.
Quod scho, my lord, sall he ȝit leif sa lang? Rolland Seven S. 1365.
Sall I now lewe me behind or Ninus sall forgett? Fowler I 109/145.
Sal we, quha are dead to synn, leve to it? Hume Orthog. 34.
b. In ordinary questions which seek instruction or information.
Sall thow cum agayne? … Yha [etc.]; Wynt. vii 1547.
And thai speire at me ȝour name … , quhat sall I say ore call ȝou? Irland Mir. I 31/21.
Bot, O thou virgyne, quham sal I cal thé? Doug. i vi 38.
Dissait: … quhat salbe my godbairne gift? Lynd. Sat. 788.
9. In dependent clauses of future contingency. a. In conditional clauses. b. In relative, usu. appar. restrictive, clauses. c. In temporal clauses.
Sometimes with sall in senses A 3–6 above in the principal clause.
a. And in case gif I … in the contrare of this lettre … sall attempt or moue I wil & grante that [etc.]; 1379 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 2.
Trowe thowe welle … Gyve evyr thow sall hym se agayne He sall thé set in tyll gret payne; Wynt. vi 2049.
Than sall the man ioys all the gudis of that lande in his lyfe sua at that man sall have wytnes of tua leil men; Acts I 28/2.
In kais it sall happin [etc.]; ?1536–7 Rec. Earld. Orkney 223.
Geif ony sarwand sell happen to left wp hes hand to stryk hes master … he sall [etc.]; 1568 Edinb. Skinners in
Bk. Old Edinb. C. VI 59.
Gif onye contraversye salhappin to aryse; 1577 Laing MSS I 27.
We … sall refound … 1000 pundis money … sa oft … we sall contravene the premisis and thairwith sall … pay to the saidis personis quha salhappin to be querrellit, incaice this tak sall happin to be reducit … the sowme of [etc.]; 1599 Reg. Great S. 304/1.
Gif the persone quho sall enjoy this benefite sall happin … to … debosche in lyiff and conversatioun; 1611 Marischal Coll. Rec. I 115.
If ȝour lo. sall kythe cairles … in this great chairge, ȝe will [etc.]; 1615 Crim. Trials III 24.
I … desyris ye will continew the waluatione of my landis if yow and my chalmerlandis salbe but alreadie agreit on it till my own cuming; 1643 Fam. Rose 335.
1663 Edinb. B. Rec. IX 336.
(b) And if any brother shalbe five times absent … the Presbyterie shall suspend him till the Synod; 1677 Dunkeld Presb. II 31.
That the said Petter shall provyde and secure Jonett Gally … to her lyferent … after the deceiss of the said Jonet Muir when it shall happen the said Jonet Gally to survive her; 1678 Rothesay B. Rec. 360.
b. (1) That the master of the mone sal ansuer for al gold and siluer that salbe strikyn vnder hym; 1451 Acts II 40/2.
[To] ger thame … deliver as law gude faith and conscience will efter the effect as salbe previt before thame; 1498–9 Acta Conc. II 322.
To schaw yow sic resonable causis as sall muf us tharto; 1526–7 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 257.
And quhat sa euer thow sall louse vpon the eird, salbe lousit also in heuin; G. Ball. 7.
To bring sa mony horssis as thai sall gif in roll to sic places … as thai … sall appoint; 1569 Reg. Privy C. II 26.
Under the pane to tyne the haill richt that thay sall have to the said prize; Balfour Pract. 638.
To consent to sic uther thingis as selbe thocht expedient; 1576 Aberd. B. Rec. II 26.
To teiche … the haill … bairnis … , samony as sall be send to the scoill; 1588 Kirkcaldy B. Rec. 120.
That prence which sal want this knauledge inlaketh that part quhairwith a chiftene suld be indewed; Fowler II 108/32.
Also to the gildrie to exact quhat farder they sall think fitt; 1656 Stirling Merch. Guild 69.
1683 Dunblane Synod 202.
(b) Whill that the … evydens I have that shal be toknis of credens; Lanc. 2240.
The liberties … of … brether gild … in … litting in sic true cullouris as thay shall please; 1619 Dundee B. Laws 553.
And whosoever shalbe the collector … to be comptable to the heritours … for quhat more they shall receave then shalbe wared vpon the building of the said chamber; 1650 Kingarth Par. Rec. 24.
As far as they are able for what debts he schal make appeir restand by the toune to him; 1661 Laing MSS I 325.
The justice of peace … befor whom the value of the said quartering or damage shall be instructed and liquidate; 1693 Acts IX 259/1.
(2) We … sall content and pay to … ony … that sall happin to succeid [etc.]; 1550 Lochwinnoch Par. 18.
Vnder the pane of birnyng of the skemmillis … quhairon the burd salhappin to stand; 1551 Edinb. B. Rec. II 160.
To hald … ane court … upone sic … complantis as salhappin to be committit in the saidis faris; 1557 Ayr Chart. 44.
To the prince or princess that salhappin to be borne; 1593–4 Moncreiffs 608.
Ordinis the haill nychtbouris … to gif the saidis doctouris daylie burding as it salhappin ordourlie to cum athorte; 1602 Stirling B. Rec. I 101.
That the … persones quha salhappin to contravene this act sall pay [etc.] … , exceptand alwayes … sick claith as salbe littit and walkit in claith in Edinburgh; 1625 Peebles Gleanings 123.
(b) That all wther craftismen … that hes or schall happin to be decernit … to haif tynt thair fredome … incure the lyk pane; 1581 Aberd. B. Rec. II 41.
(3) Tyll all men that this lettre sall see … we … makis knawen [etc.]; 1407 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 65.
James be the grace of God King of Scottis: Til al and sindry to quhais knawlege thir oure lettres salcum, greting; 1447 Edinb. Chart. 68.
Quhom it efferis quhais knavlegis thir present lettres sall tocum Dauid Listar … greting; 1492 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 301.
1573–4 Stirling B. Rec. II 376.
(4) And as ȝe sall finde the liklyheid of all thingis, lett ws be aduertist therof; 1577 Reg. Morton I 91.
And as the said inqueist sell find; 1582 Perth B. Ct. 19 Dec.
c. Quhen thay sall fle, throw quhome sall ȝe Lippin in the lele men … That seruit ȝow [etc.]? Alex. ii 6671.
Als lang as we sal be kepare to the forsaide priorie; 1406 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 63.
That frae tyme that I sal be … joysand frely the benfice of Turray … that I sal [etc.]; 1450 Antiq. Aberd. & B. II 343.
For all the dais … that thai [sc. lands] sall happin to be in the kingis handis; 1509 Reg. Privy S. I 303/1.
For thow rycht nocht sall haif away with thé … Bot ane thin scheitt that day that thow salt de; Bann. MS 77b/94.
For als oft as ȝe sall eit of this breid [etc.] … ȝe sall schaw the Lordis deith vntill his cuming; G. Ball. 6.
He promeissit … to mak the said erle mutuall support and sould stand his freind … quhan it sall chance him to haue ado with his enemyeis; Pitsc. I 21/5.
We … sall … refound … 1000 pundis money as for damnage … sa oft and how oft we sall contravene the premisis; 1599 Reg. Great S. 304/1.
Ye ar … to decyde in causses matrimoniall … except only … decisiones of bastardeis and adherences quhen the samen salbe connexit with the question of [etc.]; 1610 Laing MSS I 115.
d. In the protasis of a conditional sentence which expresses an outcome dependent upon a condition stated in the apodosis.
Forthi giffe the trewis sall stande it lyes to yhour heenes to se for chastyninge of trespassouris; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
10. Used instead of the present tense in talking in the present about a condition, state of affairs, etc., which continues into the future.
(a) The self ded sal mar lik me Than myn modir defamyt be; Leg. S. iii 189.
Thar is a God [etc.] … ; Thai sal al leilemen saf fra pyne; Ib. xliii 120.
And thai al sal noucht excede Thre hundyr ȝhere; Wynt. iv 1825 (C).
Lowrence, I heir thé le, … Bot all thy sonȝeis sall not auaill thé; Henr. Fab. 1995.
Mors: O mortall man, … tak tent to me Quhilk sall thi myrrour be baith day and nycht; Id. Deth & Man 2.
I salbe laith to lat him le quhill I may luke furth; Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 308.
I … salbe verre glad to awayt apon your command; 1521 Doug. in Doug. (Sm.) I p. xcviii.
The nyxt verkis that I intend to set furtht the quhilk I beleif in God sal be verray necessair tyl al them that desiris to lyue verteouslye; Compl. 18/5.
The Scripture sall thé tell Quhow [etc.]; Lynd. Mon. 3774.
Sa sall God him euer blis That dreidis him ay; G. Ball. 130.
For I esteme it salbe very easie … to vnderstand quhat may be properly spoken of the saull; Hume 100/34.
As Christ him selfe teacheth vs of the power that false prophets sall haue to caste out deuils; James VI Dæmonol. (STS) 50/21.
Stil sall I determine, till breath and lyfe go, To loue hir; Mure Early Misc. P. iii 7.
If I am heer deceaved, reason sall deceave me; Hume Orthog. 8.
(b) Why Ar ȝe agrewit? or quhat tresspas have I Commytit so that I shal yow disples? Lanc. 1312.
11. In general statements of what ordinarily occurs, or of what occurs under specified conditions.
Cf. A 6 d above.
He that will trew His fa it sall him sum-tyme rew; Barb. ii 330.
That na mane for grewous syne Sal disparit be pardone to wyne; Leg. S. ii 498.
Quha precis maste … to be chaste, Sal Godis byding brak; Ib. xxxii 351.
Ȝarn nocht vynyng atoure mesour For dout it sal nocht weil indwre; Ratis R. 996.
And he excede his houre … he sall indispone his stomak; Hay II 126/15.
And be that sall thou knawe quha best lufis thé; Ib. 149/11.
The tyme that a persone heris mes, thai sall fal in na dedly syne; Vert. Mes (STS) 43.
Luf larges, or thou sal lordschip leys; Regim. Princ. 142 (Marchm.).
Quhai euir be large in almous deid Sal euir habound and neuir haf neid; Thewis Wysmen 240.
The wy that wendis for to were quhen he wenys best All his will … Yit sall be licht as [etc.]; Gol. & Gaw. 289.
Sal; Nisbet John vi 52.
Howbeit thow wer accumpanit with thaim all thair tender age, thow sall find thaim … sa fowsumlie growin in thair mid … age, that [etc.] … ; quhairthrow thay sal appeir erar misfassonit monstouris than [etc.]; Bell. Boece I xxiv, xxv.
Pans quhil we pleis, we sal not find thame out; 1570 Sat. P. xiii 3.
It is veray iust judgment of God that deceitfull tyrantis … salbe punisched; Pitsc. I 21/27.
Sa sall thaj perishe … quha ar … out of the Catholik kirk; Hamilton Cath. Tr. in
Cath. Tr. (STS) 99/10.
Quha vsis perrellis perrisch sall; Montg. Ch. & Slae 506 (W).
If a man change the accent, he sall spill the sound of the word; Hume Orthog. 22.
12. Expressing ability, capacity, possibility: Is, are, etc., able to, can, may.
For in this warld … Is nane determynat that sall Knaw thingis that ar to fall Bot God; Barb. i 129.
Giff a man on the wall may get He sall defend & it be ned Quhill [etc.]; Ib. x 581.
Ȝe sal hyme kene Be his hare that is crispe & blak; Leg. S. ix 48.
I tak on me ane pair of Lowthiane hippis Sall fairar Inglis mak … Than thow can blabbar with thy Carrik lippis; Dunb. Flyt. 111.
No castell sall thé keip; Ib. (OUP) 177/29.
Heir sall youre grace understand how [etc.] … Heir sal the braid difference be knawin betwix kingis and tyrannis; Bell. Boece II 515.
Na meit nor drink sall do me gude Quhill that I se [etc.]; Rolland Seven S. 3385.
Be reasoun that thow salt occasion thairby the overthraw of the ane by the help of the other; Fowler II 146/16.
Sa plentifull is the ground, that mekle esier ȝe sall expone quhat it nocht beiris, than quhat it beiris; Dalr. I 5/29.
In any … court, ane man may … giue over his libertie, bot … he sall never recover the samine; Skene Reg. Maj. i 94.
13. In preceding senses, with ellipsis a. of the main verb understood from the context, b. of a verb of going.
a. The maystyr aw to say tyl his falows, Lordys frauchtys in yhour portage … thai aw to say, Swa thai sal [v.r. sa sall we; Ib. c. 17 (H2)]; Ship Laws c. 10 (B).
Sal scho wend hame [etc.] … ? Na, na, nocht swa, I wys, that sal scho nocht; Doug. ii x 43.
Quhat sal I than, I wys, Follow the Troiane navy? Ib. iv x 28.
It at Thou was and evir sal, but varians; Ib. x Prol. 25.
Hey how Hadintoun aill made me never full nor never sall; Carmichael Prov. No. 775.
b. Magre thame bakwart thai sall on force; Hay Alex. 1308.
Thay say, I sall to Paris; Rauf C. 198.
Quhat sall I do, lat se, quhar sall I now? Doug. xii xi 49.
B. p.t. Should.
I. The past tense with temporal function, corresponding to various senses of sall above.
1. a. In statements referring to past time, in indirect speech following predicates of command, instruction, agreement, decision, permission, etc.: Was, were (commanded, agreed, permitted, etc.) to.
Corresponding to sall in sense A 3.
Passing into B 10.
(a) Thai tuk to consaile that … on the morne … Thai suld isch furth; Barb. xiv 167.
Ib. xiii 690, 692.
A takine … That ves, as he suld knok withine [the wheel], To draw fast suld thai begyne [etc.]; Leg. S. xlvii 89.
Ib. vi 54.
A chyld bade hym he sulde draw nere; Wynt. i 201.
He thoucht to ordane … Be statute quhen men suld lat ga … ryfftys off wynd; Ib. v 522.
Thai all accordyt That all thare spek suld be recordyt Till Schyr Edward off Ingland kyng And [he] suld swere that but feyhnnyng He suld that arbytry declare; Ib. viii 158, 160, 161.
1425 Acts II 10/2.
Lettres gevin him that his fader suld nocht analy his landis; 1473–4 Treas. Acc. I 4.
Ane command of the kingis hienes that he suld tak the mater before him; 1496–7 Acta Conc. II 60.
That quhair it wes limit the time of xv dayes to all persouns … that thai suld haif clengeit the samyn … within the said terme; 1500 (c1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 85.
Sche … tharwith eik commandis halyday Throwe owt the cyte all suldbe game and play; Doug. i ix 96.
Congall … aduertist the king of Pichtis he suld be of conforte and with … skarmusch suld defend his landis quhil his cuming; Boece 262b.
G. Ball. 44.
It wes dewysit … that the king suld haif lyne first at Craigmyllare bot … the purpois wes alterit; 1568 Anderson Collect. Mary IV ii 165.
Ordour [was] tane that no Inglishman suld haif benefite within the realme of Scotland; Leslie 37.
Quha did vthirwise, thair lipis with ane hett yrne sulde be burnte; Dalr. I 282/6.
Johne Barry agreit with me that for my 8 merk he is awin me he suld at his first hamecuming from Ingland he suld gif me a hatt [etc.]; 1618 Wedderb. Compt Bk. 135.
Gregorie … forbad thame [sc. preistis] to marie bot that they suld leif cheist; Bisset II 415/1.
(b) & the connotione fand that euerie nechbovre sovuld flag & gutter [etc.]; 1532 Wigtown B. Ct. fol. 270.
The king [etc.] … beine advysit … That Palexis … Sould wad anon the kingis dochter; Clar. i 1560.
Solon the law maker … commandit this … that gif ony … hid him self as ane cowart … he sould be … banissit the citie; Winȝet I 26/20.
The cuntrie … maid bandis amangis thame selffis that ilk ane sould help vtheris; Diurn. Occurr. 37.
Quha declarit his will that thaj sould find cautioun [etc.]; Ib. 186.
It was concludit … that all bischopis [etc.] … sould haue bot ane small part of thair lewing and the rest salbe gewin to the ministaris [etc.]; Pitsc. II 173/6.
This king commandet that na orphiling … soulde be summound afore lawful age; Dalr. I 222/21.
The Session ordained intimatione … that who soever had any ditayes against Janet Kowie … that they sould declar the same; 1646 Elgin Rec. II 254.
The clause insert in the act that the lordis of erection sould be frie of the blensch dewties; 1649 Acts VI ii 717/2.
I cam heir … vpone assureans that I sould cum and go at my owne plesour; Spalding I 170.
Conditiouns … viz.: That he sould depart the realme … at what tyme he sould have pardoun for byganes; Calderwood V 298.
It being grantit that he sould com in his alone and speak quhat he pleased; 1659 Glasgow B. Rec. II 417.
(c) Quhairof we thoicht meitest … to command the bailȝeis to mak proclamatiounis … that thai [sc. the townspeople] swild keip the kingis pace … and that naine of thame swild weir wapinis invaseiff within the brwch; 1606 Lett. & St. P. Jas. VI 84.
(d) That the condicion wes betuix hym and Elizabeth Autherlony … that sche sudd caws hyr son to marie his dochter; 1561 St. A. Kirk S. 128.
The Sessione … thought fitt that the minister soud … exhort the people to keep it [sc. the weekly lecture] better; 1649 Cramond Ch. Cullen 126.
(e) The Troyiens to purpos gane ta That it shold not thar erdyt be But shold be send in hyr cuntre; Troy-bk. ii 59, 60.
The Regent was … wairned that his distructioune was concluded, … to wit, that he shuld be shot; Bann. Memor. 4.
Ane other law that the sisters should not be lowsed of their heid bull; 1575 Orkney Oppress. 4.
The Convention were pleased to order that he should have a comission … and that William Cuningham … should be his levtennent collonel; c1690 Melville Chart. 217.
Of which persones leeted one should be chosen; 1703 Rothesay Par. Rec. 176.
b. In relative clauses, in statements of what was intended or appointed to take place: Was to, were to.
(a) Then send thai furth … The woman that suld be thar spy; Barb. vii 555.
Twa that suld hedit be Fore thar trespace, bocht he; Leg. S. v 341.
Syne a gret fyre made abowt Sulde ger the pynyde wytht-in rare; Wynt. iii 935.
To Dauid Kervour, in erlis of the gallory quhilk he suld mak for x markis; 1497 Treas. Acc. I 357.
Payit to Dande Doule in contentatioun for the kingis doublatis that he suld have at Ȝule and Pasch; 1501 Ib. II 102.
To the man of Bothuile … that suld cum to Strivelin to wirk; 1508 Ib. IV 116.
The day that he suld flit; 1509 Prot. Bk. J. Young 415.
Doug. ii i 35.
Ib. v vii heading.
Becaus na man had remembrance as than in quhat vse the said gold suld haue bene convertit; Bell. Livy II 227/35.
The fyre wes pischt out lang or none Thair dennaris suld haif drest; Scott ii 88.
Be the quhilk lippining the said [earls] … sould meit and fortefie ilk ane uther in the successioun; 1568 Q. Mary in Campbell Love-Lett. Mary App. 30.
The lieutennent past to Haddingtoun, quhair thair suld haue met him the lardis of Lowthiane, quha come nocht; Diurn. Occurr. 37.
The said erle brocht ane font fra the quenis grace of Ingland … to be presentit to our soueranis in the quhilk thair sone … sould be baptisit in; Ib. 103.
Vnto the tyme that scho … sould first speik with hir maister, the Dewill; 1590 Crim. Trials I ii 203.
Quhen thay had … crouned a king quha sulde be ouer baith thair impire and lawes; Dalr. I 87/24.
He was ordained [etc.] … with a paper on his forehead … whilk paper sould conteane thir … words [etc.]; 1638 Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. VII 55.
Ane regiment … quherof Pitscottie sould hawe bene crownar … ; the maist part disasentit that Pitscottie should have bene thair crownear; 1645 Chron. Perth 42.
(b) Chuld; 1385 Rot. Sc. II 73/2 (see A 3 b (1) (c) above).
c. In an adv. clause of reason.
Becaus that for his deid so hie Frome Troy for ay suld [C. shold] bannist be; Troy-bk. ii 1462 (D).
2. In indirect speech with past reference, expressing the protagonist's intention or determination, at the time referred to, a. To perform the action stated, b. That what is stated should take place: Should, would.
Chiefly in noun clauses dependent on past tense verbs or equivalent expressions of affirming, undertaking, intending, etc.
Corresponding to sall in sense A 4.
a. He … swour that he suld wengeance ta; Barb. i 571.
Thane all the pupile passit … till Egeas in, Sayand … thai suld it bryne, Bot he Andro … Lousit; Leg. S. iii 712.
Quod he, Ȝa, … He suld fulfill it ilke deile; Ib. xl 1424.
I said in my mynd and thocht that I suld absten me fra vice & at I suld set al my hart to wysdome; Wisd. Sol. (STS) 62.
Alexander him consalit to do nocht sua And for his saik he sulde the veyage ta; Hay Alex. 2328.
Thomas of Rossy protestyt that he swld enter in na pley anens [etc.]; 1461 Newburgh B. Ct. fol. 6b.
Thar leyff thai tuk … Sanct Jhone to borch thai suld meyt haille agayne; Wall. iii 336.
John Carkatill and Nicoll Hanna tuk instrument that thai, as twa juges wes redy and suld be redy to gif thar deliverance in this mater; 1485–6 Prot. Bk. J. Young 9.
Quhen the Romanis and Sabynis war makand thare prouisioun … quhilk of thame suld invaid vthir sonest … , Tullus rasit … his army [etc.]; Bell. Livy II 258 (BM).
The said James ansueret and said … hie suld harl tham throu the fyir; 1570 Lanark B. Rec. 50.
He thairfoir … cheiset ane counsall … quhais counsell he suld use and that he suld do na thing without thair advyse; Leslie 62.
ellipt. Thus his haill mynd … Was playnly set to wyn out off bondage Scotland agayn … He woude he suld, or ellis de tharfor; Wall. xi 304.
(b) Quha declarit his will that thaj sould find cautioun and souertie that thaj in no tyme thairefter sould wreat to the kingis moder; Diurn. Occurr. 186.
Quhilk gif he wald do he promeissit … to mak the said erle mutuall support and sould stand his freind leillellie; Pitsc. I 21/3.
The Queyne of Ingland directit Sir Johnne Foster, … desyring him to mak sum incursions aganis them of Scotland syde and she sould hald hand upoun hir syde that thay sould not escape; Hist. Jas. VI (1825) 146.
And that he ansuerit he repentit it and sowld mend for it; 1603 Dundonald Par. Rec. 30.
Sche start to a sting and said she sould hang him; Carmichael Prov. No. 1690.
1652 Lamont Diary 50.
And that if they sould be pleasit to accept of his service … he sould oblige himselfe to macke … ane knock … which sould [etc.]; 1672 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 278.
(c) And said thai sald exampill tak of her soverane teching; Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 507.
(d) That nethere I nor ony othere in my name … woolde or schulde … intromytte or medle witht [etc.]; 1518 Elphinstone Mun. 191/1.
They declarit boiht to me that they schwld do na lese nor is in ther poweris therto; 1545 Douglas Corr. 160.
Lyk as she opinlie awowit he shuld never be a husband to hir, and a blankatt should never cover thame; 1607 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 59.
b. As he had hecht before thame to, That has he did sa sulde thai do; Leg. S. Prol. 127.
That God walde noucht at thai sulde pas Out off that closure; Wynt. i 612.
He promittit … that we suld onuexit be; 1456–70 Liber Aberbr. II 106.
The ferd … said the child lord sall be lerd Within foure ȝeris our sciens all … The sevynt … Said in a ȝere … The child suld all the cunnyng haf That him self had; Seven S. 57.
Thou hecht vmquhill … Of thame suld [1553 schuld] cum … The worthy Romanys; Doug. i v 18.
God gaue his maledictioun On to the erth … That it suld barren be; Lynd. Mon. 1332.
Thay thankit him … Sayand to him, that his grace suld be sure Of thair laubours; Rolland Seven S. 372.
Scott ii 36.
And he assured hir that … quhosoever mareit hir suld not haif hir with his kindnes; Leslie 240.
The wrangus calling of Christan Nykqueyn … missaell carlingis geit … and that scho suld brak hir bak; 1571–2 Inverness Rec. I 212.
When he [sc. Saul] had sworne be the leving God that Jonathan sould die; Knox II 437.
The reductioun … was appoyntit be the Estaitis wpoun ane … intentioun thatt na money sewld be … wnder the fynes [etc.]; 1593 Cochran-Patrick Coinage I 264.
c. In direct speech, expressing a past intention.
At the Blakfurd as at thai suld pas our A squier come … Till Doun suld ryde; Wall. iv 309, 311.
Quhen thir thevis war enterit in barras, quhare thay suld have fouchtin aganis thair nichtbouris, thay wer all takin be armit men; Bell. Boece II 261.
3. In statements of past prediction, where the events predicted are seen as independent of the volition of the protagonist: Was, were about to; was, were going to.
Corresponding to sall in sense A 6.
(a) Scho … bad him till the batell sped For he suld wictory haiff but dred; Barb. iv 277.
Anchyses schawis Eneas … the lynage that suld [C. sal, Ruddim. sall] fra hym discend; Doug. vi xiii heading (Sm.).
Congall … aduertist the king of Pichtis he suld be of conforte … quhil his cuming quhilk suld be haistelie; Boece 262b.
Christ likewis, befoire he suld die, … chargit that; Nisbet I 2.
(b) Albeit … sche wold … absteyne from fordar dealing in practisis yit therby this quene shuld remane in greitar dangeir than before; 1586 Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 49.
In noun clauses complementing verbs or equivalent expressions of b. Telling, learning, understanding, c. Knowing, thinking, believing.
b. Nero of wit ner cuth ga Quhene he harde this warld be fyre Suld losit be; Leg. S. ii 156.
And sayd that owre a yhere he [sc. King John] Kyng off Ingland suld noucht be; Wynt. vii 2360.
He began his regne at iustice and equite quhilk signifijt to the pepill of quhat goverment he suld be thareeftir; Boece 250.
Quhat berne sould bruke all Bretane be the see The prophecie expreslie dois conclude [etc.]; Scott i 194.
Thus I ouirdraif fra day to day To spy quhen court sowld gone away; Bann. MS 265a/58.
Assuring me weill that your mony sowld becum schort befoir this secund provisioun sowld be at your lordship; 1584 Laing MSS I 50.
I said to him vithin ten dayis I swold heire [etc.]; 1585 Gray Lett. & P. 46.
God did foirknaw & hath fortald that his seruants sulde be persecut; Fowler II 31/1.
Quhen Machabie … vndirstude … how schort sulde be thair tyme quha descendet of him [etc.]; Dalr. II 22/14.
(b) We … did sie The verye sings … that lowe shuld captiwe thé; Fowler I 29/70.
c. Bot ȝe … wyst nocht quhat suld efter tyd; Barb. i 127.
In burch I wyst weill I suld de; Ib. iv 211.
The sammyne ȝe wend thai [sc. dragons] suld nov Haf done to me, that ilk suld thai Haf done til ȝow; Leg. S. x 180.
I gert cry … the trewis to be kepit traystand that it suld be sua done on the tother part; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Thynkand thai sulde be parcynere Off mede and payne that he sulde bere; Wynt. ii 1008.
He grat oure hym, for He kneu weil the payn He suld haue; Liber Plusc. 386.
Sa to hym thus … His derrest moder promist ws not that he … sa faynt a man suldbe; Doug. iv v 100.
Nor in my mynde ymagyn mycht I nevir For my departing … Thou suldist [Sm., Ruddim. suldest, 1553 suldelst] kaucht sa gret dyseys; Ib. vi vii 84.
Soud; Stewart 20992.
And he belewit fermly that he swld be of good mynd in fwrdering of the peax; 1545 Douglas Corr. 160.
Now mony vsis sosserie, … Seikand to knaw how all sulde be; Lauder Minor P. ii 35.
The Hamiltonis thinking that he had bene als wickit as thai and sould to his awin avancement put doun the king … thay held thame quiet for ane seasoun weaning that vther menis actioun sould be thair promotioun; Buch. Wr. 26.
We trowit … thay … suld haif tyrit of all thair tyrannie, Bot now allace the contrare we may se; 1570 Sat. P. xiii 180.
Lipning that nane sould haif interruptit hir educatioune [etc.]; 1596 Crim. Trials I ii 379.
d. In a statement of the result expected from fulfilment or non-fulfilment of a condition expressed by an accompanying sentence or clause.
Corresponding to sall in sense A 6 d.
Sanct Edmwnde … in custum had … That quha-se-euire vald almus crafe For luf of Sancte Johne suld hafe; Leg. S. v 594.
I put the cace I had bene deid … And syne [etc.] … Thocht thow had found my figure lyand swa … Thow suld for feir on kneis haue fallin doun; Henr. Fab. 1453.
Thinking gif thai honourit not the doar thai sould not be knawin as counsallouris of the deid and wald tyne the gloir; Buch. Wr. 33.
The gouernour … haid guide hoip of better to follow heirvpone thinkand weill of this present discorde put to rest … he sould mair eassielie repres all iniureis within the realme; Pitsc. I 22/35.
Ane beey … quhilk ye tuk and desyrit the guidwyff to put under hir kirin and she sould get her proffeit againe; 1629 Black Orkn. & Shetl. Folklore 77.
4. In noun clauses complementing expressions in past time of a. Wishing, requesting, disdaining, etc., b. Doubting, fearing (that something) should, would, might (come about).
i.e. in which the wished-for or feared outcome was uncertain.
a. I wend sum tyme … Gud sonnis haf had of thé … To … confort me, & that thai eftre my day Suld bruk my kinryk; Leg. S. xxxiii 178.
Al that ware honeste men Ȝarnit he suld thare barnis ken; Ib. xl 482.
The ondantit Danys thar dyd pas The flude … Havand disdene a bryg our it suld go; Doug. viii xii 136.
The king … prayit thai suld be of gude mynde towart him; Boece 85.
That he wissit thay sowld newir cum within … this hewine agane; 1588 Burntisland B. Ct. 8 Oct.
I hoped be this moyan sulde follow that [etc.]; Dalr. I 1/13.
That scho hoipit in God that nothing sould grow in that ȝaird; 1629 Justiciary Cases I 135.
That upon the desyre of few elderes … he sould marie divers people in a bairne; 1649 Dingwall Presb. 138.
b. & for the nycht he thocht at thai Suld nocht haiff sycht to hald the way; Barb. vi 52.
He hyme bethocht That in na maner tha mocht Lange hald the towne na it suld be Tane be force; Leg. S. vii 475.
The king … sair can dreid That he sould die thair; Alex. i 3261.
He bade his sone [sc. Icarus] … Hald … Noucht tyll hey for dowt the ayre Sulde melt away his fethrys fayre; Wynt. ii 1340.
Becaus he fearit the Duches of Burgondye … suld invaid his cuntrey, as sho did eftiruart; Leslie 74.
Soulde; Fowler II 68/1.
He had ane kniff and … they wer feart he suld have strikin thame thairwith; 1623 Dunferm. B. Rec. II 141.
5. a. In clauses of purpose dependent on past tense verbs or equivalent constructions, as future in the past: Should, would.
(a) To pas In Ingland for to bryn and sla … That thai that lay segeand the toun … Suld be sua dredand … For thar childer [etc.] … Thai suld leve thar sege; Barb. xvii 514, 519 (E).
He thoucht … For till distroy so cleyn Scotland That nane suld be thar in liffand; Ib. xviii 240 (C).
Quhare he techit men to lef syne & quhow to God thai suld syn wyn; & for to serwe God mare sud pay, Warld[l]y t[h]ink he lefyt ay; Leg. S. xiv 58.
For thare to God let me thé se That thu suld hele na thinge fra me; Ib. xviii 912.
And at all this covenand beforspokyn suld lelely be kepit bath Alexander and John beforsaid bodely made athes; 1388 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 295.
Wynt. v 5056.
He thame thocht til haue closit about In sic maner that nane sould chape away; Hay Alex. 3536.
His der neuo that tyme with hym he tuk … For he na tyme suld be fra hys sicht He luffyt him with hart and all hys mycht; Wall. iv 19.
Ib. v 143.
Mawessie scho bad nane vther That lentrune suld nocht mak hir lene; Dunb. (OUP) 198/15 (M).
Quhilk … At thai ne suldyn [Ruddim. sulden, Ruthv. schulden] sik myscheif behald Fell ded to grond; Doug. xi viii 100.
Thocht I wald na langar ly in May Les Phebus suld me losanger attaynt; Ib. xii Prol. 281.
To provide that atanis he suld nocht haue mony aduersaris be ambassiatouris he requirit thare … amyte; Boece 281b.
Ȝit tha keipit all this thing, Ȝit unreveillit to Duffus the king, Or it sould lat him for to convales; Stewart 35779.
Sould; Pitsc. I 153/6.
1581 Sat. P. xliv 101.
O Phœnix, why was thow so moued … For to forget thy heauenly hewes … ? And syne in hewe of ashe that they sould bee Conuerted all: and that thy goodly shape In Chaos sould, and noght the fyre escape? James VI Poems I 54/236.
(b) Schulden; Doug. xi viii 100 (Ruthv.) (see (a) above).
To hald in the Inglismen … that thay should not ishe in the cuntrey quhill [etc.]; Leslie 203.
Pherniherst … sent Balcleuch to take some midis, that no bloud shuld be shed; Bann. Memor. 224.
b. In clauses of purpose, where the purpose holds generally without limitation to a particular past time: May, might.
(1) Sa that thai may knaw him for a knycht … halder of lawe and justice … that quhasa has ado thai suld draw till him for help; Hay II 43/22.
Syne foundit ane fair place … That all that wantis harbery Suld haue gestning; Rauf C. 972.
Yit [do]is it [sc. the Gospel] not require our workis for ony sic intent that we suld be … sauit be thame; Nisbet I 4.
Sic men bene put in memorie That deith suld not confound thair glorie; Lynd. Meldrum 8.
[He] left Him behind His word … Quhen Antichrist wald thé blind, That thow suld geue him na eir; G. Ball. 159.
That thou sould haue na cause … to accuse me … I haue set downe [etc.]; Fowler II 34/13.
To the clark that the shireff suld not prejudge the toun and the fischaris, 2 s.; 1635 Peebles Gleanings 201.
(2) Kyng Eolus … Temperis thar ire les thai suld at thar will Beir with thar byr the skyis … quhen euer thame lest blaw out; Doug. i ii 14.
I have nocht as yit delyverit your lordshipis letter … awayting upoun the event of our negotiation lest utherwayse my dealing with him sould be sinisterly interpreted; 1586–7 Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 167.
Les nor I sould seeme to be tedious; Fowler II 41/13.
6. In dependent adverbial (conditional, temporal, etc.) and relative (usu. appar. restrictive) clauses, denoting a future contingency in the past.
Corresponding to sall in sense A 9.
(a) Thai … held thaim in a nuk preue Quhill that the nycht suld passit be; Barb. xvii 94.
And sad thame alswa quhen at he Suld sit in sege of maieste Thai twelf suld set with hym self; Leg. S. Prol. 131.
Quhat he was suld Criste betraise Vith his tetht he wald haf refyn sone; Ib. i 24.
Ib. xxvii 1466, etc.
Quha suld off Burgoyne he sayd be duk He suld noucht to that custwme luk; Wynt. viii 596.
Gol. & Gaw. 902.
That he had leuir the dethe of the deand sinnar than that he suld returne and leue; Winȝet II 63/6.
To be deliuerit to the said woman quha sould occupy the place of the quenis grace of Ingland; Diurn. Occurr. 103.
That nyne horsis sould come … ladyenit with meill … and quhen the saidis portis sould haue opynit to lat in the said meill [etc.]; Ib. 240.
Sic men … as suld haue suppressed all oppressioun; Pitsc. I 47/4.
Haveing tedderit hir kow … quhill she sould have spoken with James Spence; 1616 Rogers Social Life III 301.
Wherewith the laird … was content upon conditions that Maister George sald suffer all pursuit of law to sleipe until that day … upon condition that letters of advocation suld nocht be raisit against him befoir that day; 1616 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 16.
We aucht to have bene speciallie … cited befoir ony such thing suld have bene agreit; 1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I 335.
At which rate thai sould pas ay and quhill it sould pleis the lords … to tak forder order for thair passing or not passing as thai suld find expedient … whiche is as thai sould find the countrey to abound of his maiesties awin proper coyne; 1632 Ib. 352.
Permissioun … to … erect tuo or mor chops as he suld think expedient; 1658 Aberd. B. Rec. IV 174.
Inhibiting James Windweek … to slay more fisches till his boat sould tak als many [etc.]; 1660 S. Ronaldshay 34.
(b) To be ane chanon becaus quhen others shood weeip he wold sing; Ferg. Prov. MS No. 1680.
Som … attrebute to the penknyves the lenth of tym befor this should com to pass; P. Gordon Brit. Dist. 113.
For accomadatione of such gentlemen … as schould be present at the … lauriatione of ther schollars; 1661 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. IV 2.
7. In a statement relating to the past where sall in senses A 10, 11 or 12 would be used in present time.
I hop that nane that is on lyve The lamentacioun suld [1571 can] discryve That that folk … maid; Barb. xx 292.
Til hyme grath takine gaf scho thane, Quhare-by he suld that mane ken; Leg. S. xxiv 250.
For tho it mocht nocht etyne be One dry land with ony beste It suld in the se … Be eteyne; Ib. xxxvii 370.
And that he [sc. a knight] suld have mare raddour and drede to do mys or oucht that suld be agayne the lawe ever mare in tyme to cum; Hay II 43/24.
The lyoun in wax that suld his condet be; Wall. xi 912.
Thar is na clerk … That suld the tane knawe be the tothire; Seven S. 2444.
Thir folk … For favour nor for feid wald found him fro … No greif nor grame suld grayth thame so agast; K. Hart 48.
And quhen I gottin had ane grome … Fra I had preveit his pitht the first plesand moneth Than suld I cast me to keik [etc.]; Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 81.
Quhen scho had ischit the chalmer of al persouns that na man suld iuge quhiddir he wald leif or de [etc.]; Bell. Livy I 91/11.
The fourt pairt of this sermon was how herasie sould be knawin; Pitsc. II 60/3.
All things fel out so far furth that in a armye of 20000 thousand combattars ye suld not have marked a 2000 fuitmen; Fowler II 101/2.
Bot quhen God saw … that preistes eftir certane ȝeiris … sould gyue thame selfes ouer to vice … , … sum he inflamet quha sulde gyue ouer the warlde; Dalr. I 106/29.
II. As a modal verb, the p.t. suld is used in expressing a modal qualification of a notion otherwise expressed by the present tense of the main verb.
8. In statements of presumed fact, where the speaker accepts the presumption as true: Is understood or known to be, appears to be, evidently is.
Only in early verse, and only with be.
(a) I am borne of Massony That ȝouris suld be of antecessory [F. Neis sui de Mazonie et nouris de vostre aire]; Alex. ii 2888.
Tyatyra … That is off Lydys a cyte, And chymys off that lande sulde be; Wynt. i 1084.
Fra thine thai [say] swlde lyand be … The kynryk off Frawns; Ib. 1319.
Blessyde Bretayne beelde sulde be Off all the ilys in the se; Ib. 1335.
Ib. 1391, 1395; ii 863.
Rypheus down fell ane the maist iust man was Amang Troianys … Bot other ways the goddis thocht suldbe; Doug. ii vii 116.
(b) Yhe sall be this chapitere se Qwhat the Mynowtaure schuld be; Wynt. ii 1250 h. of ch.
Madem, is trew … of Sir Gawan, wich that shuld be lost? Lanc. 2750.
9. In statements of presumed fact, indicating uncertainty or that the speaker does not commit himself as to the truth of the alleged fact. Chiefly in reported speech, with the verb of the reporting clause in either the present or the past tense.
a. Along with the infin. of the main verb, standing for its past tense. b. Along with the perfect infin. of the main verb, standing for its pluperfect tense.
a. (1) The stalwart stour lestyt wele lang That men mycht nocht persave na se Quha maist [at] thar abowe suld [C. mycht] be; Barb. xiv 204.
I heir thé tell ane great farly, How that ane man allanerly Agane sa fele suld hald battale [F. Conment se puet j homme a tant de gent meller]; Alex. ii 4925.
Quhen thai presumyt he suld be werray ded Thai gart [etc.]; Wall. ii 252.
To have producit … certane charteris and evidentis … quhilk suld declare that the said landis war fee and heritage and na wedsett; 1482–3 Acta Conc. II cxxvi.
Sone eftir Erll Gilcrist tuke a suspition of his wife … at sche suld commit adultrie; Abell 84b.
It is schawin to me that my Lord of Lenox suldbe miscontentit with Mr. Steward; 1548 Misc. Bann. C. III 410.
Vantyng that his pen sould be worth ten thowsand men; Buch. Wr. 53.
It was alledgit that my lord of Arrane in his mirienes sould oppin this consperacie; Pitsc. II 174/28.
Thair was ane wreitting set vpone the kirk dore that my lord Bothwell witht his houshald sould murdres the kingis grace; Ib. 192/14.
[He] declairit … that scho, Effie McCalȝan and Donald Robesoune sould be thre of the doaris of itt; 1591 Crim. Trials I ii 245.
In saying that he sould frequent the company of a lemman among the furies [= fairies]; 1670 Kingarth Par. Rec. 57.
He denys that he ever said such a thing but that it was aledgd that he sould say that James was the cause [etc.]; Ib. 58.
(b) Complaints given in against Agnes Heburn … that she should resett one James Hetherwick … who is a common stealer … of sheep; 1699 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 37.
(2) Anna his sister, … Schir Lothus wyfe quhilk to him sould succeid, Gif all be suith in storie as we reid; Stewart 26753.
b. In my sleping a fell visioun me tauld, Till Inglismen that thow suld me haiff sauld; Wall. xi 362.
It semys nocht to be suth that he suld conques in his tyme xxx kinrikis; Asl. MS I 191/29.
Ȝour … fenȝeit writ … in the quhilk ȝhe mak ȝow to schaw … that certane of our kingis suld haf maid homage vnto ȝour kingis of Yngland; Ib. 197/9.
Jhone Person … deponit he hard James Cant and Jok Curll saye that Wolle Turnbyll suld have bostit the balye; 1522–3 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 67.
It is murmuryt hyr that ye sould a spolkyn with Gorge and Archebald Douglas in Ingland; 15.. James V in Misc. Spald. C. II 193.
Sould; Pitsc. II 310/7.
The common opinion wos that he … sould heawe past furthe of the countray; 1611 Reg. Panmure I xxviii.
It being referd to the probatioun of the wittnesses they could not clearly affirm that he sould have said such a thing; 1670 Kingarth Par. Rec. 58.
Ane fyne … for his laying on of ane ces wrongouselie vpon the said burgh when he sould have beine ane collector; 1680 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS 17 Jan.
(b) Complaining vpon Isobell Smythe for that she should haw sklanderit thame; 1615 Fraserburgh Kirk S. fol. 62a (25 Oct.).
c. With the verb of the reporting clause in the present tense, standing along with the infin., for the present tense of the main verb.
Bachus, Neptwne [etc.] … Thai feyhne that thir sulde goddys be; Wynt. i 1502.
Mony notable clerkis … sais that it sulde be ane of the hie lignie of France the quhilk suld sett remede in all this thingis; Hay I 3/26, 27.
And the vord of the erll of Lenox is that he suld be at Cragfergus schipand men and vitallis; 1545 Corr. M. Lorraine 146.
The prophecie expreslie dois conclude The Frensch wyfe of the Brucis blude suld be; Scott i 196.
That quhilk ye profes with your maister Caluin, … nocht that He [sc. Christ] sould be on the earthe quhair ye ar bot that ye sould be lifted wp to the heavin quhair he is; 1580 Cath. Tr. 45/19.
d. With the verb of the reporting clause in the past tense, forming, with the infin. of the main verb, a future past.
Wyst I … fore certanete That sawlis ay suld lyfand be, Ful fayne I wald myn self sla; Leg. S. xxi 222.
That euirie man traistit that he suld de; Hay Alex. 2751.
Madem, word was at Brochty thre dayis passit that this arttalȝery suld away; 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 243.
Appar., in direct speech, standing, e. With the infin. of the main verb, for its past tense, f. With the perf. infin. of the main verb, for its perfect tense, with the added notion of surprise or wonder.
e. The se it-self suld it with-draw & that relyk til al men schaw; Leg. S. xxi 895.
f. But allace the death was ouer honorabil that suld preuentit the gallous; Fowler II 30/13.
g. In indirect speech following predicates of instruction, injunction, agreement or consent, forming, along with the infin. of the main verb, the equivalent of the present subjunctive of the main verb.
Item that na man sall bruke the libertie [etc.] … Item na burges dwelland a landwart sould have lot nor cavill with burgesses dwelland within burgh; Item na templair sall intromet [etc.] [L. Item quod nullus gaudeat libertate burgi [etc.] … Item quod nullus burgensis rure manens habeat lot neque cavil [etc.] … Item quod nullus templarius debet se intromittere [etc.]]; Acts I 340/2.
Me think that sould nocht be Withoutin straik that I sould schape to fle; Hay Alex. 3456.
It hes bein proponit to me to consent that my sone sould be deliuerit in A handis; 1568–9 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
This precept I wald your grace suld nocht forȝeit; 1569 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
Quhat vald ye nou that ane pure man … sould do in this caice? Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 148/14.
It is condiscendit … that the provest [etc.] … sall convein togidder … and suld pas, accompaneit with sum spaidis, to pas to the mercheing of the loynes; 1596 Glasgow B. Rec. I 179.
The magistrattis and counsell condicendis that the lytle hous builded be Bessie Lowrie … sould be casten doune; 1670 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS 13 April.
h. Appar., in expressions of conditional undertaking or intention, in the third person, lacking the certainty of A 4 or A 5 b.
With future, and future (perfect) in the past, reference.
And in ane dissimilit westment he com to the … fathir of the lady at he suld haif mareit; Abell 125b.
I … hes bene vrgit ernistlie be the berar Elspet Leyis and the man that suld marrie hir to gif my testimoniall of hir behaviour; 1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 104.
The 10 els of nou skarlitt satin … sould bei an ueiskoitt, and the noue quheitt saitin sould bei an ueiskot; 1649 Wemyss Chart. 232.
10. In expressions, in present time, of duty, obligation, propriety, entitlement or expediency: Ought to, should rightly, properly or advisedly. a. In expressing what is right, due, just or proper for a person to do or be.
This and d below pass into one another.
(1) To the kyng … Of foure thingis he sermone made: … first that he suld nocht irke Til honoure God; Leg. S. xxxiii 329.
Of worship men suld lelely Speke and deme; Alex. ii 4144.
For trewly the knychtis ar nouthir ordanyt to labour cornis [etc.] … na ȝit he suld nocht dresse nane insicht in housis; Hay I 114/3.
And suppos he raid on a better hors na I did me think I suld nocht leve him his hors; Ib. 155/14.
And quhen ony gret ourset is lik to cum on the bordouraris thai think the inland men sulde be redy in thair supple; 1456 Acts II 45/2.
He that offendis his prince … suld outher be summond or of his awne will compeire befor his … prince be iustice; Irland Asl. MS 11/5.
Thir ar the fourty dayis That every man sulde wilfull pennence dre; Dunb. (OUP) 13/2.
We suld dant the body onder the spreit that it sal noth lewe as it desiris bot efter the wil of God; Gau 22/18.
Ȝoung men … fra all drink inebriative thay suld aluterlie abstene; Boece 380b.
I thynk thay sulde thynk mekle schame Off Christ for to tak thare surname, Syne leif nocht lyke to Christianis; Lynd. Mon. 5386.
That he fal on sleip quhen he suld erast walk; Winȝet I 6/13.
It suld be ȝe, Mother, suld me instruct … It suld be ȝe … That to all vertewis suld ȝow indeuoir; 1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 199, 214.
For the difference is sa great betuix how we liue and how we suld liue; Fowler II 111/17.
Ȝe ken, or at leist suld ken, that I euir … put my body in auenture for Scotland; Dalr. II 186/23.
The maister nochttheles suld nocht leif, bot suld cast over samekill as he sall see neid; Bisset II 243/5, 6.
(b) The delay of our hamecome stands al anely in thaim that sowlde persue for vs for we haue commondit with … the … Kyng of Ingilland … and we haue foundyn [etc.]; 1416 Douglas Corr. 234.
Sic is thair weird, thairfoir quha sould thame wyte To serue thair beistlie … appatite; Dunb. (STS) lxxxiv 20. My lords, … Ȝe sould annull all this pluralitie; Lynd. Sat. 2871.
An ald man sould be wyse; Hume Orthog. 28.
Ane man sould nocht marie tua wyfes; 1631 Justiciary Cases I 156.
(c) Yet, notheles, he sud not be haistye in beleving; Fowler II 117/11.
(d) A quene sald manerit be; Bk. Chess 605.
And gif ye salus your brethir anlie, quhat sald [P. schulen, shul] ye do maire? Nisbet Matth. v 47.
(e) And I scal kep lawte … to my scaid lord … as a trow serwand scwld do; 1501 Moncreiffs 58.
(f) A man that is accused of an crime And wold defend his cause, shulde he take syne For aduocat … His accusars companion? Norvell Meroure 7b.
None shuld the treuth with stand; Fowler I 124/169.
He that speakes the thing he should not, hears the things hee would not; Ferg. Prov. No. 311.
He shuld not be dischargit since he and his airis must be lyable to manage the rentis of the lands; 1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 377.
Sympathie requires that I should look sad; 1661–5 W. Guthrie in Sel. Biog. II 74.
(2) For all knychtis ar and suld be as a cors; Hay II 30/3.
Thai [sc. heralds] knaw & suld knaw all the ordinans & office of armes; Loutfut MS 5b.
(3) Sche aucht and suld beir the armes … as fallowis, azur thre beirheidis [etc.]; 1561 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 502.
b. In expressing that it is right, just or proper for something to be, to be done or to operate or come about in a certain way.
Not always easily distinguishable from B 11 below.
(1) Na ȝet thi lyppis suld nocht be Opnyt to pray the trinite; Leg. S. xxxv 147.
Learys sulde be lytille alowit wyth ony sic worschipfull kynge as ȝhe ar; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Archnes … Als weill leuis that suld be done As it that is nocht for to do; Ratis R. 312.
Qwhar it is deliueryt that the mysgouuernance of the reaulme … sulde be imput to the kynge; Acts I 210/2.
The quhylk day Schir Jon of Stanron fand a borch that the pendakyll swld nocht be declarit quhyl the pryncipail war excludit; 1461 Newburgh B. Ct. 6b.
Ane doolie sessoun to ane cairfull dyte Suld correspond and be equiualent; Henr. Test. Cress. 2.
All beistis … Quhom the law levis ete Or quho suld be no manis meit; Colk. Sow i 125.
For the law sais that quhar a mater is begunnyne it suld be endit ther; Loutfut MS 110b.
Quhen curage lakkis the cors that sowld mak kene; Dunb. (STS) xiv 38.
At ȝour hie croce quhar gold and silk Sould be, thair is bot crudis and milk; Ib. (OUP) 201/23.
For lane, tha sa, suld ay cum lauchand hame; Stewart 42469.
Gif we will mak murning Sould be for our offence; Maitl. Q. 81/34.
[She] ansuerit … that this new law was nocht gude, and that the auld fayth suld cum hame agane; 1576 Crim. Trials I ii 56.
Whyte hands which suld weire sceptars of estate; Fowler I 191/11.
His antiquitie of possessioun sould not turne the verytie in abuse; Ib. II 43/9.
Certane witche wyfes, quha rather sulde be callet deuilis in the lyknes of wyfes; Dalr. II 22/13.
That the dure … opinand to the said wind … suld be closit and na passage had thereto be the said Welche … becaus … he has na rycht therto; 1602 Prot. Bk. J. Foular I i 170.
Hospitalitie sould be keiped be all men for cause of charitie; Skene Reg. Maj. ii 81b.
(2) That the arreist maid vpoun the said Thomas … schip and gudis … aucht nocht nor suld nocht be lowsit vnder cautioun; 1540 Edinb. Chart. 212.
Twa merk land … that he aucht and suld be kennit thairto as vse is; 1551 Prot. Bk. R. Lumsdane 18b.
The inquest gif Johne Brovne … aucht and suld haue fouyr dawirk of petis; 1554 Prestwick B. Rec. 62.
Sould; Balfour Pract. 217.
[The rigs] beand baith on ane cavell aucht and suld be equall; 1607 Melrose Reg. Rec. I 35.
(3) To dispute … quhilk … of thir twa thingis suld have the maistry; Hay I 149/33.
c. In expressions of what a person is entitled to or deserves.
(1) Certis thai suld weill hawe prys That in thar tyme war wycht and wys; Barb. i 21.
All sik as he Suld haue worshep and cherising; Alex. ii 1793.
He mon of nede be partenere Off qwhat kyne blame that I sulde bere; Wynt. i Prol. 62.
Thow suld noucht bere sa fare a knyff; Ib. viii 2043.
Ib. v 2216.
Thai [sc. an assise] … determynyt that the abbot & the hous of Melros suld hafe in Hassyngton … thre plew of landis; 1428 Liber Melros 520.
The sam day Alexander Mitchyson fand a bourtht that John of Ky[n]hard sowlld be nay ballȝhe on fawt the crafft that he owssis; 1471 Lindores A. 165.
He suld haiff payn, that saikles sic ane sleuch; Wall. viii 1379.
The panis that I suld tholl for my synnis; Rois Garlandis 97.
Homage to Edward Langschankis maid thy kyn … Thay suld be exilde Scotland; Kennedy Flyt. 412.
Quhairfoir I think … He suld haue place amangis the laif; Lynd. Meldrum 44.
Thai that ar all the wouke in labouris … suld haif rest … to … gadder with the laif to thank and loif God; Hamilton Cat. 68.
To se ane vthir haif the cure That suld be myne; Scott xvi 7.
Sould; 1583 Reg. Privy C. III 597.
Hir half of the moveables and insight she suld have off the house; 1640 Black Bk. Taymouth 94.
(2) Bot that he and his eris awth and sowd browk fre the lawest of the se and up to the hiest … of the said grownd … of Saba; 1509 Rec. Earld. Orkney 83.
(3) Bot gyff he saulde hym halely All hys awantage … That for as eldest hys sulde be; Wynt. ii 202.
d. In expressions of what is advisable, prudent or desirable to do or be or be done.
How princis sud atour all thing tak kepe to thair hele; Hay II 114/9.
Caulus was grathand vp his gere As wourthie man sould do in tyme of were; Id. Alex. 3501.
Thi counsalouris suld be men of wisdome, luffand and dredand God; Irland Mir. I 13/30.
Contrare suld be helit with contrare; Seven S. 1104.
I think … your grace and counsale suld nocht lichly thir sayingis bot heir tham; 1547 Corr. M. Lorraine 194.
The said reuerand fader aucht nocht to haif hir compellit … but suld persew be way of actioun [etc.]; 1559–60 Soc. Ant. XI 523.
Qui cultus habendo Sit pecori, … quhat travell suld be taken to store cattell; Buch. Comm. on Virgil Georgics i 3, 4.
A gevin horse sould not be luked in the teith; Carmichael Prov. No. 112.
A strong theif sould have a stark tow; Ib. No. 183.
Ib. No. 1529.
At which rate thai sould pas ay and quhill [etc.]; 1632 Aberd. Council Lett. I 351.
A man sould not bourd with his masters; 1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 146.
We suid make an act of transportability; Pitcairne Assembly (1752) ii iii 26.
e. In indirect questions after verbs or their equivalents of asking, telling, knowing and the like.
(a) Fore giff he [sc. the Prior of Coldingham] suld oni thynk do tyll byschop we can nocht wytt qwat he suld do lesse than mak hym obedienc; c1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21.
Gif the lord may nocht knaw the first day quha has the lyklyar, gif thai suld [4269/155 quhethir gif thai aw to] cum again on the morne [etc.]; Hay I 98/19.
As gif he may sett ane [sc. a champion] for him gif that man suld be quhat kyn a man that him list; Ib. 267/5.
So weill thay ken Quhat tyme and quhen Thair menes thay sowld mak than; Dunb. (OUP) 194/12.
Sex men … to fynd and decid quhat ilk man suld supple and help; 1522 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 64.
Gif Vortigerne … suld be restorit … or gif the sonnys of king Constantine juste heretouris suld be brocht fra Armorik; Boece 274b.
I haue schawin ȝow cleir The way … Hov ȝe ȝour spiritual hirdis suld chuse And how thai hirdis thar lyffs suld vse; Lauder Off. Kings 359, 360.
I wait nocht quhy ye suld cast away yourself [etc.]; 1569 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*.
I answer … whether heirfoir suld we haue recourse to an vniuersall or particular kirk? Fowler II 41/39.
Let then thy hert discern quho best doth merit, If subtile fraud, or faith, sould thé inherit; Mure Early Misc. P. i 144.
And it being putt to the woice this day quhither or not the said act suld holden inteir at this tyme; 1675 Inverness Rec. II 263.
(b) But whethir thai Shold flee thai wist nocht; Troy-bk. ii 827 (D).
f. In statements set in past time.
He tuk awisement with his men On quhat maner thai suld do then; Barb. vii 534.
A takyn … to mak thame kend Quhat lord thai suld ches to be kyng; Wynt. vii 227.
The Kyng off Frawns thai sayd forthi Suld late off Scotland rycht lychtly; Ib. ix 1466.
And he say that he understude nocht that he suld pas be see till sa fer a haly graf; Hay I 178/31.
In Ingland thai send Of this gret striff how thai suld haif ane end; Wall. i 52.
Quhairof I hovit now in dowt, Gif I sowld luve, or lat it be; Dunb. App. iii 5.
Dalr. I 88/10.
Than the kyng inclynyd nowcht To that, as he than suld and mowcht; Wynt. vii 2280.
Of broustaris … [It is charged] at thai put nocht furth thar ail wande to certify the cunnaris [pr. tunnaris] of the ayl as thai solde; Acts I 333/2.
That God wald him inspyire Me to intreit as sould ane trew husband; Maitl. Q. 209/33.
The customers … suspected the muskets … to have past for a lesse custome then they sould; Rothes Affairs Kirk 170.
— Quhowbeyt I rassafit never a charge that mycht be obbeyt nor sould do, as I schew your grace; ?1549–50 Corr. M. Lorraine 321.
The tailȝouris … to pay thair dewities … siklyk as thai swld do; 1554 Holyrood Chart. 293.
1581 Glasgow B. Rec. I 84.
h. Also with the perfect infin. in reference to perfect time.
Quha that luwe wald per drwry, He suld have chosyn this lady; Wynt. vi 182.
Till restore … that thai before Had and suld hawe had off dett; Ib. vii 2277.
For lak of it that suld bene hir supplye; Kingis Q. §15.
To the master houshalde for the Dwke off Ross exspencis, quhilk the comptrollere sulde hafe payt him; 1489 Treas. Acc. I 118.
Bot be richt thay suld hayf callit thayme the errour and begeline; Gau 3/10.
To haif herd letters direct … upon thame or ellis to haif allegit ane ressonable cause quhy the samin suld nocht haif bene gevin; 1550 Grey Friars II 11.
Tha places quhilk sould bene befoir, this apostat hes placit behind; and tha quhilk sould haue bene placit behind [etc.]; Fowler II 46/5, 7.
The workmen wer employed in vther busines quha suld have falloued furth that inventioun geven thame; Ib. 177/30.
To quhome the kirk lyuengs aucht and suld haue bene destributed; Dalr. II 163 marg.
Sex bollis meill quhilk com in be sey quhilk suld bein first lovit to the toune; 1604 Inverness Rec. II 26.
Becaus the same suld haif bein sufficientlie biggt be the said Walter Scott befoir Michalday last; 1608 Inverurie B. Ct. 1 Nov.
That he hed spendit hir geir that suld helpit to interteinye thair famulie … and thairfor waild nocht marye him; 1619 Perth Kirk S. MS 5 Jan.
Thomas Meinȝes, quha sould haue furnished … 40 soldieris, hes not givin fyftein; 1627 Bk. Carlaverock II 92.
And instead that he sould have baptized James, he called it John; 1665–7 Lauder Jrnl. 127.
11. a. In general statements, not limited to a particular occasion, of what is appointed or ordained or what is the normal practice. With a main verb infin., taking the place of the present tense of the main verb, with the added notion of what is expected or normal: = is to, are to, is or are expected or supposed to, normally does or do. With be: = normally is.
There is some overlap or ambiguity with prec. sense.
(1) Than sall cum furth the prince … that suld mak him knycht; Hay II 42/23.
And than suld the squier hald up his handis to the hevyn … and thare suld the prince have the suerd redy of honour; Ib. 43/2, 5.
This popular suld stand befor the king … And at his belt suld hyngand be a purs; Bk. Chess 1563, 1568.
Jowis … laking the sennonis that suld force the body; Asl. MS I 314/12.
Altar landis in Fowern. Wilyame Dwthe for ane altar land suld pay xx s.; 1544 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 21.
For quhair as twelff gild keling and aucht gild ling suld mak the gudling and was evir in use [etc.]; 1576 Orkney Oppress. 40.
The gallon sould conteine twelue pound of water; Skene Reg. Maj. ii 56b.
Res mobiles furis convicti ad vice-comitem pertinent … wherof he sould make compt in the Eschequer; Ib. (Latin) ii 116.
Whether a lyifrent tak suld fall vnder the gift of a simple escheate or not; 1617 Acts IV 545/2.
(b) The lords should have twell pennies of the pund of all decreits anent liquid soumes; Hope Major Pract. II 21.
(2) Wantande nathing of bewte, That in a woman suld fundyn be; Leg. S. xxxiv 24.
A gret bane thai say has he In that stede quhar hys teth sulde be; Wynt. i 750.
And this diffinicioun of Sanct Paule suld be wnderstand that the faith is a gud qualite; Irland Mir. II 11/11.
The forme of Dephyne … Suld be a juge intill a chiar sittand; Bk. Chess 690.
Vnder the pane of punising of him with siclike punitioun as thai sald be pvnist; 1511 Crim. Trials I i 74.
Quhairof the 3d pairt extending to 2000 men aucht and sould be cled with attounes and haberchounis [etc.] … as thair lawis beir; Descr. Isles 439.
Homage suld be made in this maner, that is, the maker therof sall [etc.]; Skene Reg. Maj. i 42b.
The taisters of aill sall be challenged first that [etc.] … Apprysers of flesh sould be challenged and accused that [etc.] … Baksters sould be challenged [etc.]; Ib. 150, 150b.
For these be diphthong soundes, and the sound of a voual sould be simple; Hume Orthog. 11.
Behynd the voual thei make noe consonant sound, nor sould be written; Ib. 17.
That quhair … be diuers actis of parliament … it is expreslie … statute … that the measour … quairuith all clayth … is or sould be met in all tyme thairefter … sall contene [etc.]; 1625 Justiciary Cases I 29.
b. specif. In use in legal formulations of what is ordained or permitted by law.
Some examples in a may rather belong here.
Cf. sall in sense A 3 b (1).
(a) Ane alien merchand sould not have lot or cavill with a gild-brother; Balfour Pract. 78.
Albeit the hydis be cuttit in pieces the sellar thairof sould pay toll thairfoir; Ib.
Na barker sould bark ony hydis bot thame that [etc.]; Ib., etc.
Siclike the … tutor of law sould be preferrit to the tutor dative that gif thair be ony tutor of law lauchfullie servit and admittit the tutor dative sould na wayis be admittit; Ib. 115.
How meikle gudes ane merchand sayling suld haue. Item it is statute … that na merchand … passe ouer the sea in merchandice bot he haue [etc.]; Skene in Acts (1597) i 5b.
Ilke craft suld haue ane deakon. Item it is ordaned that … of ilk sindrie craft … be chosen a wise man … the quhilk salbe halden deakon; Ib. Acts (1597) Table.
(b) Actions of mute or pley once brought in befoir the chamerlane … should not descend to ane inferior court therefter; Hope Major Pract. II 29.
c. In a particular instruction, of something that is appointed to be done.
A ȝongmane … maid ladismane of a schip and bringis hir to the place quhar sche suld be deliuirit; Ship Laws c. 21 (Harl. 2).
The 4 stemm … suld heir be imprented; Dalr. I 260/14.
12. Where the statement is a logical consequence of the circumstances or other considerations stated or implied in the context: In consequence ought to, should logically, must. With reference to present and future time.
Often with admixture of B 10.
(a) Storys to rede ar delitabill Suppos that thai be nocht bot fabill, Than suld storys that suthfast wer … Hawe doubill plesance; Barb. i 3.
Be cause he wes the worthyeste … Thare-fore suld God mare plesandis hafe In til his blud; Leg. S. vii 497.
Me think o resoune yhe sulde erar put blame … to the doarys of the saide trespas … than me; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59.
Chevalry may nocht be up haldyn but grete costis … and tharfore, thare suld na man … desyre to tak the ordre bot he war a lorde [etc.]; Hay II 39/33.
Suld no man traist this wrechit warld for quhy Of erdly ioy ay sorow is the end; Henr. Praise of Age 25.
Hwmblely he said, ‘Ye suld disples you nocht; This ye desyryt’; Wall. xi 269.
Allegit be the said Andro that the said landis pertenit to him be reson of tak … and that the gift of liferent made to the sade Johne the Broise suld be of nane avale because [etc.]; 1482–3 Acta Aud. in
Acta Conc. II cxix.
Quhen ony preis of hors-men come abone the said fowseis, the lofting suld brek, and … the hors-men suld … be revin on staikis; Bell. Boece II 388.
Hereapoun suld follow gif Saxons be force war nocht resistit thai suld [etc.]; Boece 262b.
Lynd. Mon. 2334.
Thair is na ressone … quhairfor it suld be thocht that the vordis of our saluiour … [sul]d be spokin be ane … similitude; Q. Kennedy Breif Tract. (ed.) 116/13, 14.
Nathir sulde ony mervel heirof, quhen [etc.]; Dalr. I 117/11.
Yea the authors of this chimer by the self same gyges ring suld be inuisible to thair inuisible flok; Colville Paraenese 42.
(b) Protestit that sene the abbot … herd … the disputacioun … & allegeit na thing aganis the grond richt tharof that tharfor he sould neuir be herd in that cause in jugement eftirwert; 1520 Fife Sheriff Ct. 171.
Sa he searchis out all golenȝeis … to caus thame beleue thay vordis of the testament sould be vtheruyse vnderstand nor thay var simpillie proponit; Hamilton Cath. Tr. 62.
Sowld; Montg. Misc. P. lii 21.
Ther sould be for everie sound that can occur one symbol … This reason and nature craveth; Hume Orthog. 13.
Na declinatour aucht to be proponit aganis him; at the leist, na kinreid sould be ony caus to declyne him; 1617 Crim. Trials III 422.
(c) Becaus as he hes alredie mellit with the moneyes … so shuld he be decernit to continew thairwith; 1633 Aberd. Council Lett. I 376.
b. Where an authority or argument is cited in an accompanying prep. phrase.
Be this clerkis autoryte A garland as a crowne sulde be Wndyrstandyn … , A takyn off wyrschype; Wynt. iv Prol. 10.
The said James Schoriswod … protestit that the said parsone suld tyne his benefice, conforme to the lawis; 1561 Crim. Trials I i 411.
For be the law of this realme … ilk manis last will and desire sould be frank and fre; Balfour Pract. 218.
c. In the apodosis of a hypothetical sentence.
(a) Certis giff he gert serff ȝow weill The gilt spuris … He suld in hy ger hew ȝow fra; Barb. xvi 605.
He suld weir yrn schone Suld byd a manis deid; Bann. MS 134b/5.
Ane callit Allexander Hair. … ‘Gif thow be ane hair thow sould be speidie’; Pitsc. II 24/29.
Quhair he suld haif ane kyll … he suld haif ane horse to help in wytht his thyrle; 1582 Laing Chart. 259.
(b) Hir to behold thare was no gentill hert Than he schuld haue compassioun of hir smert; Quare Jel. 100.
d. Also with perfect infin. in reference to perfect time.
And sene thire strangearis savit the toune … thai suld nocht be werray equite and ressoune bene punyst bot richly rewardit; Irland Mir. I 114/20.
He suld bene [M. suld be] swift that gat him Throw speid; Christis Kirk 143 (B).
For the nobilitie of his birth … he suld hawe bene nixt efter the quene maist honourabilly ressauit; Buch. Detect. (1727) 29.
For thow suld first o death me kild, my debt by age wes dew; Fowler I 83/171.
Quhilk if then it had sounded as now we sound it he sould rather have written it with [etc.]; Hume Orthog. 12.
Considering the same to be a fort for defence … of the kingdome and therfor sould not bein employed against the collective body of the kingdome; Rothes Affairs Kirk 113.
e. With reference to past time.
And be swilk custwme as was than … The rycht off that successyown Suld hawe determynatyown; Wynt. viii 560.
That sen thai had nane armyng na irne … thay had gold and silver yneuche, thai suld mak thame armouris of gold and silver; Hay I 56/3.
And than hir freindis did conclude, Becaus scho micht do him na gude, That scho suld take hir leif and go Till hir cuntrie; Lynd. Meldrum 1461.
f. As future in the past: Would have cause to.
& all his menȝe confortyt war For thaim thocht weille … That thai suld less thar fayis dreid Sen thar purpos sa with thaim ȝeid; Barb. viii 121.
g. In a dependent clause introduced by that or na, which states an inevitable consequence of the state of affairs described in the preceding main or superordinate clause: Must inevitably or perforce, cannot or could not but.
With reference to present or past time.
(1) Landis … That he put to swylk thrillage That thai that war off hey parage Suld ryn on fute as rebaldaill; Barb. i 103.
Bot he wes nocht sa fayr that we Suld spek gretly off his beaute; Ib. 382.
Sa mony a cumbly knycht That it semyt that … Thai suld wencus the warld; Ib. xi 141.
Sa costly aray Scho had, that I suld irk to say; Leg. S. xxxiv 26.
Alexander … dulit to-gidder fast aikis grette … And with thai chenȝeis linkit thame so fast That quhare ane ȝeid all suld toggidder ga; Hay Alex. 2997.
So secret was the thing That thai on sat that vnder bannysing … thair suld no man revele; Bk. Chess 495.
And ȝit gif the trew citienaris … war recouncelit [etc.] … thai war na dout bot … sik terrouris and draidour suld be amangis our aduersaris that our wallis suld be biggit incontinent; Winȝet II 5/11.
Shameles foole, whair doth foly force thee that thou sould be so immoderat? Fowler II 20/37.
(2) And he war tane suld na ransoun Saif him na he suld hangit be; Alex. i 3015.
13. a. Is or are, was or were, compelled or constrained to.
In clauses of explanation.
James off Douglas wes angry That thai langar suld ydill ly; Barb. iv 341.
My self left Beroes … Lyand seyk at hame and ful ennoyit wight That scho alane suld want this ryal syght; Doug. v xi 100.
b. In a clause introduced by the collocation (the, a) caus quhy or quhareby, in prec. senses.
Thai wer chargit to haif comperit … to haif allegit ane ressonable cause quhy the samin suld nocht haif bene gevin; 1550 Grey Friars II 11.
Neither in us … was thair any caus quhy Thou souldest have gevin unto us sa joyfull … a delyverance; Knox II 85.
Sen nouther of his parentis wer ignorant of the causis quhairby the mariage suld be voyde; Buch. Detect. (1727) 14.
1600 Aberd. Council Lett. I 87.
14. In prec. senses in rhetorical questions.
(1) Quhy suld I mak to lang my taile? Barb. xi 142.
Bot fra Hys wyll quhen that we wryth Quhy sulde He Hys gracys kyth Till ws? Wynt. i 622.
‘Quhy suld we slay,’ he said, ‘our awyne?’; Ib. v 2773.
Quhar to suld I her off lang process mak? Wall. xi 311.
Now lufferis cummis with larges lowd, Quhy sould not palfrayis thane be prowd? Dunb. (OUP) 127/46.
He is the rute of my remembrance rycht … Quhy suld I not do seruice for his saik? G. Ball. 60.
Quhy sould he me forsaik? Maitl. F. 361/50.
Quhy sowld I luve bot gif I war luvit? Montg. P. iv 1.
Quhairfoir suld they be reput as theauis? Fowler II 51/2.
(2) Hou suld thai than be godis … That ar mad & ma mak na thing? Leg. S. xxxiii 406.
And gif the pape has na lordschip here, how suld he mak were than apon the Emperour, or juge him? Hay I 110/26.
Thai haue no craft; how suld thai liff? Gud Wyf & D. 299.
How sould he kyth mirakil and he sa euil? Prestis of Peblis 415.
How suld he leif and his trew fallow deid? Bk. Chess 972.
How sould ony gentill hart indure To se this sycht on ony creature? Dunb. (OUP) 40/34.
Of brokkaris and syk bawdry quhou suld I write? Doug. iv Prol. 186.
Ib. xii xiii 204.
How suld I lufe and fra his treuth remufe? G. Ball. 59.
(3) Quhar suld thow [sc. the jasp] sit bot on ane kingis croun? Henr. Fab. 108.
(4) Ha, quha suld haue firme esperance in this Quhilk is allace sa freuch and variant? Doug. Pal. Hon. 184.
Quhome suld I serue bot him that did me saue? G. Ball. 60.
What suld I lyble of this lowne? Not all the paper of this towne … May had the half that he hes done; 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 1008.
(5) Suld I presome this sedull schaw, Or lat me langouris be lamentit? Scott vi 33.
Suld ladeis than be lakkit Thocht few of thame be gud? Ib. xxxiv 133.
Suld our embassadour gea borrow And want or ever he wyn ower Tweid? 1584 Sempill Sat. P. xlv 636.
Suld I not heate these harmefull hands … Which shott the shafts of love [etc.]? Fowler I 152/1.
b. ellipt. What suld (one say) moir?
What suld moir? efter brakfast the marquess [etc.] … makis thame reddie to go; Spalding I 171.
15. In a statement of past necessity: Were obliged to, had to.
They could gett no man nor maisteris … quhill at last they sould send for Androw Wode … and to that effect he sould be weill furnischit with men [etc.]; Pitsc. I 226/17.
16. In the apodosis of a hypothetical proposition (expressed or implied), where the hypothesis (and therefore its consequence) is marked as unreal or uncertain, whereas sall in senses A 4, 5, 6 or 12 would be used if the hypothesis were accepted.
Cf. also B 12 c.
(1) Suld I tell all thar affer … Thoucht I couth I suld combryt be; Barb. xi 205.
Mar myscheff may fall ws nane Than in thar handys to be tane For thai suld sla ws I wate weill; Ib. xii 289.
The whilk name war nocht likly it suld haf war it nocht the bischapis; ?c1400 Reg. Episc. Aberd. I 248.
Swa suld I dulle hale yhoure delyte And yhe sulde call it bot arane … Gyff I sulde tell thaim halyly; Wynt. ii 882.
For and he de as he suld de, he suld think that he suld pas to mare joy na [etc.]; Cr. Deyng (STS) 169.
Walde ȝour ladischip gar the twa ȝoung men … cum agan … thai sulde be rycht weill cheryst; c1466–80 Letter from Lord Hamilton MS.
This auarice be grace quha vnder-stud I trow suld leve thair grete solicitude … To gader gold; Henr. Orph. 554.
Few knawis all thir costis … , To pike thame vp perchance ȝour eyn suld [Sm. suld, Ruddim. wil] reill; Doug. iii Prol. 35.
I … wald wische all the nobilitie knew that I know … I traist thay suld nocht be so arche to put remedie to their inconvenientis; 1570 Misc. Bann. C. I 50.
Gif we gae doun about … The streim is thair sae stark, … It suld be ydle wark; Montg. Ch. & Slae 1532 (E).
If ȝe bot sau me in this winter win … I trou thair suld be tears or we tua shed; Id. Sonn. lxvi 8.
And I wald wische that ȝour lo. wald … come … and thaireftir I suld meit ȝour lo. in Leith; 1609 Acts IV 421/1.
If we suld be restranit from … fischeing on the sabboth day these fischeis suld escaip thame far up the watteris; 1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I 335.
(b) Sen thow war into this stour … Thow sould vs venge richt weill, perfay; Alex. (c1580) i 947.
War I chargit with nane bot thé, Thy wordis sould thow sone lat be! Ib. 2810.
[He] for oure dede sould mak sic doloring That he sal nevir into the erde haue ioye; Hay Alex. 3531.
Howbeit with bost thair breistis wer als bendit As Lucifer … Hell sould nocht hyd thair harnis fra harmis hynting; Dunb. Flyt. 8.
The erd sould trymbill, the firmament sould schaik … To heir quhat I suld wryt; Ib. 9.
Ib. 13, 14.
Wer I ane king it sowld be kend I sowld not spair on hir to spend; Lynd. Sat. 206, 207 (B).
Sowld; Ib. 3256.
For gyf my lord governour wald byd me cum … I sould be rady … alls soyn as sould ony uder; ?1549–50 Corr. M. Lorraine 321.
Gif kingis wald mes to Rome hens dryue, … Suld be the meane to haue belyue Ane end of mes; G. Ball. 212.
Quhill we be baitht rootted out … throw the quhilk all lawis and justice sould be contempnit and everie man that pleissis sall put hand in the kingis awin persone; Pitsc. I 36/9.
Had I mo lyfes, tham sould I hazart too; Mure Sonn. v 14.
(c) Set thai war wisare fere than he Suchuld his part ȝhit commendit be; Ratis R. 1713.
For if it leful were Confessioune to me, I shuld it here; Lanc. 1427.
Gif I wald treate this argument at sic laser as [etc.] … I shulde enter in ane patent campe; Skeyne Descr. Pest 16.
Being dead … My memorie shuld thé forgett, my toung suld speik no more Off thé; Fowler I 278/117.
(d) Agamenone … Put ageyne Anthenore in stryve Wher sche shold be and sche one lyve; Troy-bk. ii 1042 (C).
A lyoun … Of siluer ȝe se shold [B. schold]; Howlat 415 (A).
(e) Would God she mought see the inward partes of my harte where she should see [etc.]; 1586 James VI in Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 61.
(f) It was judged reasonable that the said Agnes shud come here … to cleer herself, in case of giving the Lord's supper it shud be a stumbling to the Lord's people to see her at the table under such an ill fame; 1699 Cramond Ch. Aberdour 37.
(2) How far suld then my ioyes and glaidnes growe, Gif pittie anes culd from your fairnes flowe? Fowler I 152/13.
Gif the enmeye were incamped vpon yonder hill … Quhow suld we with saftye … assayllȝe thame? Ib. II 109/11.
b. With reference to past time.
Horsmen mycht nocht him assaile, And giff futemen gaiff him battaile He suld be hard to wyn; Barb. vii 539.
Proclamatioun was maid that quhasaever culd bewray the murthereris of the king suld haue twa thousand pund; Buch. Detect. (1727) 156.
That if sche wald not … follow thair adwise, that thai suld remayne without all blayme whatsoewir suld fall owt; 1586 Rait & Cameron King James's Secret 30.
Thai laid befoir his eies how grittumly al Catholikkis suld be obleist vnto him & how far his auin name thairby sould be aduancit; Fowler II 24/14, 15.
Assuring him that geve he sould travell any further to deturne the king from sik decreis … he sould feill thair universall indignatioun; Hist. Jas. VI (1825) 228.
He sould nocht refuse to go to the gibbet for it, provyding they … sould ga the sam gett; Melvill 313.
The said Johne Connighame said I sould no gang and I wer hangit; c1610 Lanark B. Rec. 121.
Johne Dickson acknowledged he sould prove verie unthankfull if ever [etc.]; Calderwood VII 620.
She tells him that ther neuer wes that discorded with her that ever sould thryve; 1661 Elgin Rec. II 295.
c. With the perfect infin. in reference to perfect time.
(1) Hade he bene … Rytht lyk as syk a kyng suld be He suld haue gert ws honorabilly Haue bene demanyt; Troy-bk. i 79.
Gyf so war now … as than hes bene Ne suld I nevir [etc.] … Nor … Mezentyus … Suld na wys … haue killyt so feill corps; Doug. viii ix 62.
Thar is no owder newes … or els I sowld haff wryten sik is I hawd knawen; 1533 Douglas Corr. 141.
He soulde haue bene lyke Deiphoebus Had feinȝeit fortoun fauourit him to ring; 1567 Sat. P. iii 25.
For I will assuir ȝow … houbeit … my husband haid nocht bene debtfull to ȝow gif it had bene in my possibilitie ȝe suld haue haid it; 1574 Reg. Morton I 79.
Giff we had bene present … we sould have insistit [etc.]; 1581 Ib. 127.
Thare sold haue na wardlie tourne stayit me … bot it hes plesit God to visit me with ane extreme fyfher; 1591 Ib. 172.
Yit had he and his cumpany bene als mony and als habill, they suld have gottin a meitting; 1599 St. A. Kirk S. 893.
Had I wittin that I wat ye sould have not gottin that ye gat; Carmichael Prov. No. 783.
(b) I haffe lossyt my gooddis that I shuld haff leyff apon in my age; c1515 Adam Williamson in
Doug. (Sm.) I xxvi.
For kepping of the victuallis whiche should have cumed to us; Knox I 460.
It were a sin to look sad … for in so doing I should make his heart glad which God would have made sad; 1661–5 W. Guthrie in Sel. Biog. II 74.
(2) So wttraly it suld beyn at his will, Quhat plessyt him, to sauff thi king or spill; Wall. xi 1377.
Than Galiene perchance micht found remeid And at that time he [sc. Ypocras] suld not sufferit deid; Rolland Seven S. 5725.
The longer that I live I seuld ben involvidd in the great[er] care; 1584 Gowrie P. 42.
For if … honesty might mouit thé … thou suld not causit vther mens honours to cum in hazard; Fowler II 30/25.
Alexr Lokart … ansuerit that … gif he hed knawin it hed beine offensiue … he suld nocht done it; 1623 Perth Kirk S. MS 8 Sept.
Iff ye had given me ane pynt aill nothing then sould ailled you; 1661 Elgin Rec. II 297.
(b) That had hir hen in thair pot that shoe should peyit the rent with; 1685 Kirkintilloch B. Ct. 137.
d. Where the hypothesis is a negative (expressed or implied).
i.e. Something would happen, would have happened, also, would not have happened, if some event had not intervened.
(1) Syne schaw it to my complices eftirwart. I wat thai will say, ‘He that suld hawd ws Is gane for euir, gude Duncane Lawdus’; Duncan Laideus Test. 153.
Ane pirate Inglish ship … hes spuilȝeit … my haill guidis and geir … and haill vittuallis quhairupone I and my kuppagne suld have leiffit; 1573–4 Cal. Sc. P. IV 683.
Fred of the cage whair shee suld bene enclosd; Fowler I 198/6.
And be the dyvers schapes of the beastes that suld haue borne … thame in, the sight had bene … wonderfull … bot … some arrysing letts empesched this conceate; Ib. II 179/2.
That his … father … sould have been execut … had he not [etc.]; 1636 Moray Synod 39.
(2) And gif he had not sein the judgement sait … he suld never haif gottin ane sicht of that mercy sait; Rollock Wks. I 335.
17. a. In the protasis of a hypothetical proposition indicating that the supposition, though conceivable, is uncertain, also expressing hesitancy or modesty on the part of the author, also, rarely, that it is inconceivable: Were to, might.
For further examples see B 16.
(1) Barb. xi 203; Wynt. ii 883; etc. (see B 16 (1)).
It micht be preifit preiudice bot gif thow suld compeir; Rauf C. 497.
Gif it suld hapyn the Lord Forbes … to cum to the said tovn … that … all the nychtbouris conveine and stope thame to haue entres [etc.]; 1530 Aberd. B. Rec. I 131.
Never the les I … wald not deny Thé and I sulde de; Arundel MS 253/440.
[She said,] Of thir knichtis my chose if I sould have, Clariodus I chuse; Clar. i 1547.
Suld; Rolland Seven S. 350.
Bot becaus xi being addit … giff ȝe sowld abstract thairfra 30 for the moneth excressent of that ȝere, nather sowld the new-moones returne to the same dayes as before nather [etc.]; King Cat. h vii.
At which tyme thy verteous … resolutions wer pernicious enmeyes to thy attempts … gif thow suld fallow theme; Fowler II 131/18.
Evin as if vee ver valking amidds a gret court of ducs [etc.] … and suld imagin vee did not see any of thame; Colville Paraenese 42.
Giff they call any ane vther ane knaif or lowne … or els sould gif ane vther ane cuf on the halfit, thay sall pay [etc.]; 1613 Conv. Burghs II 429.
But geving suche misfortun did require that theis sould come in lite, ȝit do but this for me [etc.]; 1631 Red Bk. Menteith II 129.
(b) The number was so hudge … as none culd hawe tham pend Suppose he shuld in prose and verse thame prease to comprehend; Fowler I 80/94.
If to be victorious should betide him, They should some yearly pension provide him; Adamson Muses Thr. 31.
Although a man should crie never so lowde to his fellow [etc.]; 1639 Sc. Ant. III 133.
(2) If I sould judge, the Frensh sound is neerest the voual sound as we pronunce it in mule; Hume Orthog. 11.
(3) For surely I thocht … that althocht knawledge suld bene gottin, na man durst haue said it was evill done, seing the hand-writtis; Buch. Detect. (1727) 160.
b. In a relative clause with hypothetical meaning.
Ask leif at the lord yone landis suld leid, That we myght entir in his toune; Gol. & Gaw. 48.
Dunb. Flyt. 9 (see B 16 (1) (b)).
I meruel not a lytill quhat spreit sould haue mouit thee that [etc.]; Fowler II 37/5.
Airlie crookis the tree the good kammock sould be; Ferg. Prov. MS No. 134.
Ane intollerable corruptioun that laik persons … sowld brook the places of … ecclesiastick dignities; 1614 Fife Synod 78.
c. In a concessive clause with hypothetical meaning: Were to, might.
Set thai suld hang hym be the hals, All swth he sayd; Wynt. vii 2371.
He will … rewenge him all suld he de; Loutfut MS 15b.
And insufficient also for to dyte Thocht I suld leve ane hundreth ȝeir onlyve His nobilnes … till discryve; Stewart 51445.
And drink ane quart in Cowpar toun … Thocht all the nolt sowld rair; Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 30.
Thocht all hir kin suld haue bein deid Sche wald haue bot sweit Willie; Christis Kirk 27 (M).
Howbeit I suld be slane, He sall haue lufe for lufe agane; Lynd. Meldrum 923.
Na pedderis pak scho will ressaif, Althocht hir travell scho sowld tyne; a1568 Sempill Sat. P. xlvi 34.
Captane Adamsone will nocht lat thame want Bedding, howbeit thay sowld lig all togidder; Id.
Ib. xlvii 92.
d. In statements of preference in a hypothetical situation.
Me leuer war … Wery and woundit with thé be, Than ony … man sould se Me … eschew the ficht; Alex. i 350.
I had lever consent that I Sould tyne all richtis … Na leif my feris; Hay Alex. 3476.
Or thai thar lawd suld loys … Thai had far levir lay thar lyfe in wage; Doug. v iv 131.
e. In hypothetical comparisons and contrasts, introduced by lyk (as), as gif, etc.: Were to, might.
It war lyk all thing suld brast … wndre that blast; Troy-bk. i 415.
Oft he turned appartly, Richt as it war ane baittit bair, Quhan the houndis byte sould him sair; Alex. i 2854.
Stent ȝour burgh as the support of the quenis lands suld releif the burrowis for ane feyrd part of the taxt. I beleif simplie that [etc.] … nochtheles stent ye … as it sald come to ane feyrd part; 1557 Aberd. Council Lett. I 3.
Bann. MS 157b/20.
Lyke as eird vnto eird never go sold [: mold, gold, wold]; Merser Maitl. F. 411/14.
Lyike as this warld and thay sould euer left; Maitland Maitl. Q. 76/56.
That he sall neuir be tryit howbeit his offensis wer neuir sa manifest quhilk is alsmekil in effect as gif he sould do quhat him lykit; 1584 Acts III 360/1.
For whils my wrechted plight suld move the very haggard stones And sensles bloks with me to waill … They which … had cald them selfs my nerest friends … Thay stand stone still; Fowler I 292/52.
18. In the apodosis of a conditional sentence with a. present, b. past, reference, which states a condition upon which an outcome expressed in the protasis depends: Must, was or is obliged to.
a. Of syn gif thou wald have deliverance Thow sulde it tell with all the circumstance; Dunb. (OUP) 13/28.
Veill sould ȝe luif this glittous ladie deir, Gif ȝe in court be myndfull to remaine; J. Stewart 228 §114.
b. Than hes he send thame till Sayand tha sould … All kynd of armour … cast by … sa tha wald saue thair lyfe; Stewart 30305.
19. In noun clauses (normally introduced by that) and indirect questions. With present and past reference. a. Dependent upon expressions of emotion or attitude, also of perception.
In some, but not all, examples appar. adding the notion of uncertainty or hypothesis absent from the alternative expression by the indicative mood of the main verb.
(1) Bot off gud Cristole off Setoun … That he suld dey war gret pite; Barb. v 173.
Pryde … Said in his eir that shame was great That he sould outher for lufe or threat Forȝet his fatheris deid sa sone; Alex. ii 10446.
Sall neuer lord lauch on loft … That I for liddernes suld leif; Rauf C. 785.
Gud Maister Walter Kennedy In poynt of dede lyis veraly, Gret reuth it wer that so suld be [M. he suld de]; Dunb. (OUP) 180/91.
And has banisht divers of thame … quhilk is gret schame that sick thingis sald be hard within this realme unpunisht; 1529 Rec. Earld. Orkney 59.
Displesit wes the nobillis … That sic ane man … Sould thame prevaill; Stewart 26084.
I brak my heid vpoun ane know of reme; That I suld hurt my self I had dispyte; Lichtoun Dreme 21 (B).
I beand bot ane yong woman … fearing my said brother that thar sudd ane gret inconvenience follow heirefter … wes compellit [etc.]; 1565 St. A. Kirk S. 234.
I meruell … That sic ane leirnit man as ȝe Sa lychtlie suld disdaine [etc.]; 1573 Davidson Sat. P. xlii 67.
I ame suith the more offendit that we … sould be haldin as moking stokis; Pitsc. I 36/2.
The Erle of Arrane was weill contentit that my lord of Angus sould haue passit his bussienes in the toune at his plesour and to depairt quhene he list but molestatioun; Ib. 282/20.
Be it far from vs that so ignorant of this benefeit we suld be; Fowler II 59/14.
Whairfor be loathe that once It sould be sayd or sene That thow sould breck that band; Garden Elphinstoun 1026, 1027.
It seimes hard to us that there sould be such jealousies and suspitiones thus interteined of us; 1674 Edinb. B. Rec. X 207.
(b) Wald ye, my lord, that I shuld mak a manifest leising for your pleasour; Bann. Trans. 57.
I am struck with amasement to think that my lord Marischal should in the least countenanced him; c1660 Honours Scotl. 109.
(2) Oche and wallaway! That euer I sould byde to se that day! 1567 Sat. P. iii 5.
Allace that euer the toung sould hecht That [etc.]; Maitl. F. 364/143.
(3) Schir Rolland had greit ferly, and in hart kest Quhat that suld betakin that the king tald; Rauf C. 403.
All fowill ferleit quhat he sowld be; Dunb. (OUP) 163/63.
(b) God wot What this shude men; Lanc. 522.
(4) Me hath levere thole peyne of ded … Thane such trespas ageynes me … put shold be; Troy-bk. ii 352.
(5) & the maryneris persaiffis be thaim quhen the tempest suld cum; Loutfut MS 31b.
(6) It wer pietie thow suld in this mydding Be buryit thus; Henr. Fab. 82.
It is pietie I suld thé find, for quhy [etc.]; Ib. 85.
The … terys Sched for dysdeyn he suld swa leys hys pryce; Doug. v vi 99.
Dreding scho [sc. the ship] suld haue perist; Ib. vi v 121.
I am veray sorie ȝe suld conceave sic ane opinioun of me; 1574 Reg. Morton I 79.
(b) How he jelous walkis … Suspecting ay his riwall foe … shuld thrust him owt; Fowler I 56/230.
b. Dependent on expressions of rightness, justice, appropriateness, legal ordinance, etc.
Me think that sould nocht be Withoutin straik that I sould schape to fle; Hay Alex. 3457.
And that it was not necessair that W. Lord Hereis [etc.] … sould mel thairwith; 1568 Q. Mary in Facs. Nat. MSS III lviii.
That it is aganes the lawis of haly kirk that thow souldest be ane preist and marie ane wyff; Pitsc. II 133/2.
An letter … quhilk quhan thay had perused thay thocht it expedient that I suld answer thairto; Fowler II 13/5.
It was not contrar vnto his wil that thou suld sua haue done; Ib. 31/3.
It was thoght gud the More suld supple that rovme; Ib. 189/35.
He hes merit bettir … nor that your maiestie suld put him ut of his forbears rank; 1593 Misc. Spald. C. I 5.
Therfor it wald seim fitest that the samyn [sc. devaluing of coins] sould be done be litill and litill to the end [etc.]; 1632 Aberd. Council Lett. I 351.
It is most necessar that some particular persone sould be appoynted [etc.]; 1649 Acts VI ii 717/2.
(b) 1699 (see 16 (1) (f) above).
The Session … thought fitt that now there should be a leet made; 1703 Rothesay Par. Rec. 176.
20. a. = A 6 b above.
All lusty womanhede … quhom this warldis gladnese from his hicht Schold sone avale; Quare Jel. 217.
b. In the apodosis of an (implied) hypothetical proposition, with a verb of liking or enjoyment in the first person: Should, would.
I am desird by these honorable subscribers to tell you I shud be glad of your company here; 1700 Laing MSS II 1.
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