A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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Rut(e, Ruit, n. Also: rwte, ruth; ruite, ruitt, ruyt(e, rwit(e; rutt(e; rout(e, routt; root(e, roott; rote. [ME and e.m.E. rote (a1175), roote (1362), north. ME rotte (Cursor M.), rute (c1400), late OE rót, ON rót.]

1. The underground stock (of a tree or plant); that part of a plant which is, normally, under the earth's surface. Also in fig. context. Also coll. or coll. pl., applied to the branches of a root. (1) A gret tre … it was, & at the rut of it syne Thar sprang a wel; Leg. S. xl 539.
As quhen the rut of the tre ore herb is infekkit ore rottin; Irland Mir. I 86/20.
Phebus red fowle … Amyd the wortis and the rutys … Pykland hys meyt; Doug. xii Prol. 157.
Ane porte maist … convenient to harbery schippis … now … stoppit be glar and rutis of wedis; Boece 55b.
Thome gaue hir out of his awin hand ane thing lyk the rute of ane beit; 1576 Digest Justiciary Proc. I 24.
He was haldin and stayit be the stobe and rute of ane trie; 1612 Crim. Trials III 243.
(b) Vnder the ruyt of a heich tre; Doug. xiii iv 68.
The wird sisteris … Saw revinis ruge at this rat be ane rone ruite; Montg. Flyt. 282 (T).
Stirps, the ruit of a trie, or herb; Carmichael Etym. 10.
For tua aixes for cutting of the ruittis of the stank bussis; 1625 M. Works Acc. (ed.) II 169.
(2) Now in the rwte is set the tre Bathe frwyt and floure all lyk to bere; Wynt. vii 468.
A grene tre fra the rwte wes sawyn. … This tre may happyn for to get The kynd rwte [C. rutte] and in it be set; Ib. 545, 550.
Ouer ron and rute thay ran; Henr. Fab. 1001.
K. Hart 89.
Now spring up, flouris, fra the rute; Dunb. (OUP) 4/41.
And thareftir that the wod was cuttit … of the saidis landis the stokkis and rutis being revin out the saidis landis was plentwis; 1536–7 Sc. Hist. Rev. VII 360.
Rank at the rute [sc. name of dance]; Compl. 66/23.
As the gers that wallowis rute and blaid; G. Ball. 95.
He sall haif brute, as tre on rute … To burge and schute; Scott xxxv 9.
Thocht rute be pullit frome the leawis greine; Pitsc. I 376/22.
Quhair ance it fixis the rute it spredis the selfe sa … wyde, that [etc.]; Dalr. I 45/16.
(b) This plesant plant … Stuid on ane ruit of semelie sickernes; Maitl. Q. 225/50.
The wird sisteris … Saw revinis ruge at this rat be ane rone ruite; Montg. Flyt. 282 (T).
(c) As in the tries and plantes in the wintar seasone quhilk nochtwithstanding the cauld frost and snaw, having the rutt fast in the ground, is ever growing ather within or without the erde; Melvill 366.
fig. Than springis rutis of resone That beris the froyt discressione; Ratis R. 1152.
That I wald mak to plant his rute agane; Dunb. (OUP) 25/14.
I say it [sc. friendship between Scotland and England] begouth to faill at the rute, Kyng Henry the Sevint; Lamb Resonyng 21/18.
Frome a corrupt rute or stock must neids spring … wickit frutis; 1553–4 Knox III 383.
Quhat ellis is it bot to plant but rutis of ordour; Winȝet I 7/10.

b. In the phr. to tak (rive, pull, draw, cut, etc.) (up, doun) be (with) the rute (rutis). Also fig. (1) He … bad his newo … with the rute it [sc. a herb] hale wp tak; Seven S. 739.
Fowlis … raif his erbis vp be the rute; Rowll Cursing 22 (B).
As from the soyll vprent was the first tre By the rutys [etc.]; Doug. iii i 53.
The mekil kosch fyr tre … Vp by the rutis rent; Ib. v viii 58.
Euery planting that my fader of heuen has nocht plantit salbe drawn vp be the rute; Nisbet Matth. xv 13.
All our wodis … to be keipit … and geif onland townmen cuttis or ryffis up be the ruttis to be inditit thairof; 1540 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 223.
Forrestis be the ruttis vprewin; Lynd. Mon. 3461.
This herb … Stoup doun agane and pull vp be the rute; Ib. 5670.
A noxious … weed, necessare to be plucked up by the root; Review Bramble's Faire Warning 8.
(2) Cut the auld clene and quite doun be the rute; Rolland Seven S. 1525.
(3) Than gart he … hewe this gud tre by the rute; Seven S. 345.
That no persounes … pull or spoyle any of their neighbours peise aither be codd or ruite; 1669 Salmon Borrowstounness 87.

2. The root of a plant used as a food, medicine or the like. Also fig. For quhilk thair tennents sald somer meill, And leivis on rutis undir the ryce; Dunb. (OUP) 190/31.
Levand in the somer on milknes, rutis of herbis, and beryis; Bell. Boece I 46.
There maist delegat refectione vas acquorns, vyild berreis, … rutis & eirbis; Compl. 144/36.
Eikand thairwith as tyme seruis, the granis of juniper or the rute of valeriane; Skeyne Descr. Pest 21.
For tuithe aik tak pellodrommy rwit and put betwene thair gumis; a1595 Misc. Spald. C. II xxx.
Becaus witchcraft can nocht be accomplischet as witchcraft bot be characteris [etc.] … poysonet herbis, ruittis, vennemous oyles; 1622 Crim. Trials III 514.
And the bloudston … uithe Dockter Arnots stone that is for the ueimen in trauall, uithe the drad routt lais in the lokkit shotill of my kalbinett; 1649 Wemyss Chart. II 232.
Ther is no bread … bot ceader bread which is mead of the routs of tries; 1685 Dunlop P. III 16.
Ther is purtatos … and many mo routs which I can not now neame; 1685 Ib. 17.
fig. The rute is bitter scharp as ony breir; K. Hart 560.

3. Applied to a plant or herb. The quot. from Elgin Rec. may properly belong to 2 above. Sa Galiene … To pull the rute lawlie he did inclinde; Rolland Seven S. 5677.
The herb gude to give the cattel against the rute that thay cal trifoly; Dalr. I 36/3.
Thei careit ane certane feill … and tuik out certane ruittis … vpoun Sonday wes aucht dayis; 1596 Elgin Rec. II 43.

4. a. That part of the thumb-nail that is embedded in the finger, or of a hair in the body, or of a tooth in the jaw. b. sing. and pl. That part of the tongue by which it is joined to the floor of the mouth, or, of the ear, by which it is joined to the head. a. The thoum aw to be messurit at the rut of the nayll; Acts I 309/2.
The emprys … be the rutis raif hir haire; Seven S. 278.
Man's heart on earth is like a tooth in the jaw, the deeper roote it hath [etc.]; Boyd Last B. 197.
b. Claret wyne … reddis the rutis of the tong, and gerris a man speke clerely and redly; Hay II 141/15.
The ravyns sall ryve na thing bot thy tong rutis; Kennedy Flyt. 374.
He sall be takyn to the mercat croce of Edinburgh and his toung cuttit out at the rute; 1600 Crim. Trials II 335.
The ane haid his lug cuttit from the ruitt with a resour; 1652 Nicoll Diary 100.

5. The bottom or base of a wall, building, etc. iiij syil ruttis of aik; 1543–4 Prestwick B. Rec. 59.
When we war at the trie [at the top of the wall], we had fyvescoir of faddomes to the rute of the wall; 1571 Bann. Memor. 107.
That na thing remane within the clois about the rute of the tour bot the dur thairof; 1579 Reg. Privy C. III 189.
Aught syll ruites aucht sylle cropis; 1633 M. Works Acc. (ed.) II 351.

6. Applied to the ancestry or lineage of a person, family, etc.; a progenitor; a person's origins. That na man sal thi rutis ken In-to the land of levand men; Ratis R. 1513.
Wynt. vii 561.
And Adam was rut of all oure nature; Irland Mir. I 86/21.
With ane … Quha was the ruite quhair of I did spring; 1567 Sat. P. iv 5.
God hes dryit vp the roott of proude nations and hes planted the humill amangis thame; King Cat. 130.

b. A descendant. Fle, ȝe aduersaris, ourcumin be the lioun of the tribe of Juda, rute of Dauid [etc.]; Arundel MS 247/267.
The plants of their parishes being the rootes of meere Irish; Lithgow Trav. x 435.

7. The origin, or a source, of some quality, virtue or vice. Predicated of a non-material, also a material, thing. Common in the phr. rute and ground (foundament), ground and rute. (1) Wertew floure and rut is of noblay; Ratis R. App. 176/2.
O wilfull pryd, the rute of all distres; Henr. Thre Deid Pollis 33.
As the flesch and body of Adam was the rute, fontane, ark and kest, of all oure corrupcioun; Irland Mir. MS fol. 246b.
Nyxt efter him com cowatyce Ruit of all ewill; Dunb. (OUP) 151/56 (M).
Boece 516b.
Quhairon to luke was rute of all remeid; Rolland Ct. Venus i 96.
Thay rosis redolent, Ruit of regard, and fontane musicall; Ib. ii 87.
[The Papacy] Ressauit the realme of Italie … That wes the rute of thare ryches; Lynd. Mon. 4413.
Thre of the gretast ydolis … ȝe, and rute, top, and body of all vtheris ydolis; Winȝet I 12/7.
Ruite; 1567 Sat. P. iv 119.
Rwite; Maxwall Commonpl. Bk. fol. 3a.
Money … (quhilk Sanct Paule callis the ruit of all evillis); Bisset I 27/10.
pl. Outrag … is in rutis fals and fell. … The first of thaim is succudry [etc.]; Ratis R. 299.
(2) The air venoms … rynnis to the hart that is g[r]onde & ruth of lyf; c1420 Liber Calchou 449.
Efter veritee and lautee the quhilk is rute and ground of all … gracis; Hay II 87/10.
Alsua the faith is rut and foundament of all Cristianite; Irland Mir. II 50/33.
Sua is vnbeleif the grounde and rutte of al ewill and all ewill werkis; Nisbet III 324/10.
The lwiff that man hes to hyme selff is the rwit and grund of al sine; Gau 20/18.
The perfyte ground and rute originall Of this storie; Rolland Seven S. Prol. 120.
O wrechit infernall crewall element Depairting ground and rut of euery wo; Bann. MS 227a/2.

b. Predicated of a person. Of Aueryce tempile bene thay [sc. priests] And of yharnyng the rote perfay; Troy-bk. ii 406 (C).
King Dauid, cheif rute [Arund. chois] of all renovne; Contempl. Sinn. 374 (Asl.).
I fynd thame rute and grund of all our greif; Lynd. Dreme 880.
Haill, the rute of consolacioun; Lang Rosair 288.
That wemen ar … The verray rute and speciall inuentioun Of all falset; Rolland Seven S. 3065.
He is the rute of my remembrance rycht; G. Ball. 60.

8. A source or cause (of some condition, process, action, etc.). To remove and draw out the wikit rutis of wrang and ewill deidis; Porteous Noblenes 171/17 (Asl.).
And sene the werkis and operacioun … proced all of a rute, that is, the liberte of the man; Irland Mir. II 123/10.
This forsaid inquest desirit to heir the rut of the plee; 1530–1 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 111.
Ȝe may understand of quhat rute the foresaid murthure procedit; 1542 St. P. Henry VIII V 231.
Rather than leif ony rute of breache; 1562 Q. Mary Letter 5 Jan.
Hir majestie wald nocht that ony rute were left behind, quhilk mycht engender ony new displesour or grudge betuix thame; 1564 Reg. Privy C. I 291.
Swai thatt all ruite and occasione of grief and displesor … mai be remowit; 1569 Misc. Spald. C. III 243.

b. Applied to a person: An instigator. The secretarie … was suspected to be the route of all sic enterpryssis; Bann. Memor. 3.
Beseiking God to grant your lordship the honour … to cut off the ruttes and headis of the Iles rebellioun; 1615 Melrose P. 238.

9. The basis or foundation upon which anything rests; that which provides (a person or thing) with a firm basis for growth or development. For hye parage and ancien honour ar the first poyntis of the rute of knychthede; Hay II 37/12.
This was a word … Fra the verraye rute of humanite And gentilnes; Bk. Chess 297.
In thé is rute and augment of curage; Doug. Pal. Hon. 82.
The monastik lyfe … hes the grund and deip ruitis in the Scriptuir; Winȝet I 127/20.
Land and money … Quhilk is the ground staine of thair queir And rute of all thair pryde; G. Ball. 201.
Wit quhat ȝe do, And mak thame fast in the ruit gif thay cum to; 1572 Sempill Sat. P. xxxviii 102.
Ȝit sall our love rest fixed in this ruit; Fowler I 241/55.
The ruites of the Pelagian hæresie … began … to invade our natione; Dalr. I 210/1.

b. In the phr. remufe fra the rute, ryfe vnto the rute, pull (rug) up or rive (pluck) out be the rute (rutis). Cf. 1 b above. Thai suld remove fra the rute all successioun of the tyran … togiddir with all his freyndis; Boece 193.
Albeit mony … hes laborit to … pull the samyn [images] mercyles vp be the rutis; Winȝet I 12/2.
Quhen the determinationis of the eldaris ar rugit vp, as it war be the ruitis; Ib. II 22/14.
Quhill dethis rege vnto the rut me ryfe; Bann. MS 221a/19.
To pluck out be the ruites thir same abuses; Dalr. I 230/18.
Bot rigour ryvis the hairt out by the root; Montg. Sonn. lv 12.

10. The essential part of anything. With syk gude governaunce mannis nature begynnis agayn to revert and all tree herbe and beste the vertu begynnis to cum in the rute; Hay II 132/36.

b. fig. The rute (rutis) (of (a person's) hart), etc., the bottom of one's heart. See Hart n.1 4 for further examples. I sall a ragment reveil fra rute of my hert; Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 162.
A hache is happinit hastely at my hert rut; Ib. 224.
Bot still remane at the ruitis of my hart; Rolland Seven S. 9661.
Vp, helsum hairt! thy rutis rais, and lowp; Scott xv 1.

11. To tak rute (in), to festin (one's) rute (rotes), to become (more, or less) securely established; to establish oneself. In prestes is not new Yf that of ould it seyd for trew: Inne the which Dame Aueryce Festened hyre rotes; Troy-bk. ii 396 (C).
Than the tirane [sc. mortal sickness] fessinis [pr. sessinis] rute and slayis sonest; Skeyne Descr. Pest 15.
Na heresie … hes taken rut, entered anie thing deiplie [etc.] … mikle les to haiff growin upe; 1583 Melvill 155.
Quhilk opinione tuke deipar rute in thair hartes eftirwarde; Dalr. II 473/23.
The word of God … had takin little rwit in thair harts; 1662 Dumfries Council Min. 10 Nov.

12. In certain special phrases, predicated of persons to indicate that they are supreme examples of certain qualities, types, etc. Crop and rute, for other examples (also, once, in adv. use) see Crop n. 1 b and c. Rute and ryne, see Rind n.1 2. Thow crop and rute of tratouris tressonable; Dunb. Flyt. 73.
Scho was … Baith crop and ruyte and hed of sik myscheif; Doug. xii x 116.

13. attrib. and comb. See also Rute-fast adj. (1) To prevent the setling or roote-taking of ony suche pernitious Franshe humour thair; 1610 Reg. Privy C. IX 578.
(2) Some trees, when their root-branches are cut … will yeeld … an acid liquor; Sinclair Hydrostaticks 266.
(3) Persued … for cutting of young root-grown trees; 1685 Corshill Baron Ct. 169.

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"Rut(e n.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 26 Sep 2021 <https://www.dsl.ac.uk/entry/dost/rute_n>



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