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A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700)

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First published 1937 (DOST Vol. I).

Againis, Aganis, prep. Also: againes, agaynis, -es, -ys (ageynes), agayns; aganys, aganeis, agannis, agense. [ME. agaynes, ageynes, aganys, agains, etc., f. agayn, etc., Again adv.]

1. Over against; facing.1375 Barb. iii. 233 (aganys thaim arayit). 1386 Rotuli Sc. II. 85/2 (the est Marche of Scotland aganis Ingland). 1533 Bell. Livy II. 199/29 (the montanis stude sa hie aganis him). 1549 Prot. Bk. J. Cristisone 101 (aganis the tovne of Skipparty).

b. In the direction of, towards; so as to meet or encounter.1375 Barb. xiv. 420 (aganis thair wittale ryde). 1456 Hay I. 56/35 (come agaynis Rome to destroy it). a1500 Rauf C. 32 (his steid aganis the storme straid). c1520-c1535 Nisbet Matt. viii. 34 (went out aganis Jesu).

2. In hostility or antagonism to.(a) a1400 Leg. S. iii. 70 (God with tham is agains ws). 1409 Exch. R. IV. p. ccix (agaynis all dedelik persounis). c1420 Wynt. iv. 2130 (mony faucht agaynis othir); viii. 6414 (the folk of Tevidale ware agaynys hym). 1456 Hay I. 123/9 (thai ar agaynis him). 15.. Clar. v. 2340 (he in feight againis him stude). 1563-1570 Buch. Wr. 35 (thair mynd bent agains god). a1578 Pitsc. II. 8 (raisit ane armie againes the gowernor). 1614 Crim. Trials III. 305 (he hes hard the Earle invey againes Roberte). 1641 Acts V. 398/1 (to go againes them in all hostile maner).(b) 1375 Barb. i. 573 (aganys him to brawle or rys); vii. 12 (thai ar fele aganis twa). a1400 Leg. S. iv. 173 (aganys thé hafand invy). 1438 Ayr Friars Pr. Chart. 49 (aganes al erdly men). 1456 Hay I. 194/2 (ilkane aganis other). c1490 Irland Asl. MS. I. 9/1 (I have synnit aganis ȝour hienes). 1533 Bell. Livy II. 94/7 (the ire of Romanis aganis the Veanis). c1552 Lynd. Mon. 5395 (France aganis Ingland, Ingland aganis Scotland). 1556 Lauder Off. Kings 238 (speking aganis godds wourd). 1622-6 Bisset I. 96/7 (that lauchfull procese be deducit aganis thame). 1626 Bk. Carlaverock II. 78 (agense his majestie's improbatioune). 1649 Misc. Spald. C. V. 382 (letters of horning aganes the stenters).

b. (In weakened sense, passing into): With regard or reference to. 14.. Acts I. 26/2.
The burges sal clenge hym … agaynis hym at has ado with hym and he agaynis the burges
1567 Sat. P. v. 118.
Thocht sum againis yow faill, … With Godis grace it sall preuaill
1591 Misc. Spald. C. II. 218.
Vnder all hiest pane … quhilk ye may incur and inrin aganis our Maiestie
1622-6 Bisset I. 51/23.
We have removed all suspitioun … aganis ȝow

3. In opposition or contrariety to; adverse to.a1400 Leg. S. i. 334 (agains his will). c1400 Troy-bk. i. 514 (agaynis kynde). 1400 Red Bk. Menteith I. 170 (agaynes the law of halikirc). 1456 Hay I. 198/21 (agaynis God and gude faith). c1450-2 Howlat 58 (aganis natur). 1462 Peebles B. Rec. 143 (wrangoysly and agaynis the law). a1508 Kennedy Flyt. 305 (aganis bayth natur and gud ressoun). c1550 Lynd. Meldrum 1775 (aganis hir hart). 1562-3 Winȝet I. 14/22 (aganis rycht). 1581 Burne Disp. 24 b (aganis the promesis of Christ). a1605 Montg. Sonn. xvi. 2 (it is aganis my will).

4. In anticipation of, in preparation for; before, by.a1500 Henr. Fab. 2026 (to get sum fische aganis thir fasting dayis). 1488 Treas. Acc. I. 147 (aganis the Coronacione). c1500-c1512 Dunb. xxvi. 8 (aganis the feist of Fasternis evin). 15.. Clar. v. 13 (agains his wadding day). a1568 Scott i. 8 (aganis this guid new ȝeir). 1603 Moysie Mem. 78 (aganis his wyfes comming). 1600-1610 Melvill 663 (againes eight o'clock in the morning).

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"Againis prep.". Dictionary of the Scots Language. 2004. Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd. Accessed 28 Sep 2022 <>



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