DSL - DOST Quhilk, adj. and pron. Also: quhillk, quhilke, qvhilk, quhylk, qwhilk(e, qwhylk, quhilque; qhuilk, qhuylk, qhwylk; qhilk; quilk, quylk, qwilk(e, qwylk(e, qvylk(e; quihilk; whilk(e, vhilk, uhilk, vhuilk; quhelk, qwhelk, qhuelk; queilk; quholk; wealk; qu(h)ik(e, quhic, quhyk, quheke, qwicke. [ME wilk(e (c 1200), wylk (1424), ME and e.m.E. whillc, whillk- (Orm), whilk(e (14th c.), whylk(e, north. ME quhylk (14th c., Cursor M.), east midl. and north. ME quilc (Gen. & Ex.), quilk (Cursor M.), also quelk (c 1375, Cursor M.), ME also hwælch (c 1200), weche (1387), whech(e (15th c.), qweche (1418), and wulc (a 1200), whulch(e (Layamon), hwuch (c 1200), woch(e (c 1200), whuch(e (14-15th c.), etc., and see [QUHICH(E] adj. and pron., OE hwilc, whence also late OE hwylc, and OE hwelc.]
In modern editions no doubt freq. representing the abbreviations qlk, qk, qulk, qlke, or qilk.
I. In interrogative use, requiring a choice or a specification to be made. 1. adj. Which, what (person, thing, or group of persons or things). In a. direct and b. indirect speech.
a. Quhilk thre thingis are maist sufficiand To lele lufe? Alex. ii 2527. `Twa ... mon be befor me thar.' `Quhilk ij ar thai?'; Wall. xi 1277. Now quhilk penny of the thre Wes best bestowit, say e? Colk. Sow i 13. Quhilk place is this, my frend, quod he; Doug. i vii 73. To quhilk other fortres sall we speir? Ib. ii vi 52.
b. In quhilk place of thire thre He wes, e sal nocht wit fore me; Leg. S. xxxiii 31. I sal quod the angel tel thé On quhilk men the feynd has pouste; 14... Edinb. Univ. MS La. ii 318. Wes nane sa sutell couth se Quhilk gome suld gouern the gre; Gol. & Gaw. 698. Than (said I) Father, gyf e can, Quhilk four bene thay, schaw me, I pray ow; Lynd. Mon. 1983. Trow e to ly lurk and do na mair To se quhilk syde sall haue the victorie; Maitland Maitl. F. xviii 26.
2. pron. Which person or thing or group? Which one or ones of a pair or number? (Requiring a choice or specification.) In a. direct and b. indirect speech.
Also quhilk that, and, only in
[DALR.], also inflected as pl.
a. (1) uninfl. Quhilk is he That thi bowrche wyll thare-off be; Wynt. v 1130. Quhilk is the sted of thi duelling? Ib. vii 1535. Quha was farest or fowlest of ws thre? Or quhilk of ws of kin was gentillar? Henr. Thre Deid Pollis 44. Be wryt or word quhilk likis yow best till haiff? Wall. vi 378. Quhilk hald ye for the best? Ib. viii 972. Dunb. Tua Mar. W. 530. Quhilk of our hard poweris wrocht sic thyng? Doug. x ii 29. To quhilk of the heavines was the Apostels lifted? 1580 Hay in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 45/21. Q. How many things learned o of this ...? A. Twa. Q. Quhilk is the first ... Q. Quhilk is the secound? ?a 1627 Catechism in S. Leith Rec. II 280/1.
(2) inflected Quhilkis be tha just causis? Lamb Resonyng 7/5.
b. (1) [They] gud tent suld ta Quhilk of thame had of help mister; Barb. xi 452. Wemane, awysis ow Quhilk of thyre twa e wil tak nov; Leg. S. xx 243. Emynedus ... asked quhilk was Gaudefere; Alex. ii 3298. Dyomedes byrdes ... gud knawlege haue Quhilk is a man of Latyn land Besyd a Grek; Troy-bk. i 5. Smelinge ... makis the knawleginge quhilk is weil-smeland suet odore And quhilk is stinkand aire vnpure; Ratis R. 155, 156. He gert inqueyre Off all tha men that wyth him were Quhilk luffit peramourys; Wynt. viii 6719. Thai suld ... determane lely qwhilk of the said parties has ful richt; 1425 Soc. Ant. II 386. Quhat maner man, or quhilk of goddis, lat se, To move batale constrenyt hes Ene; Doug. x ii 7. Thir two brethir ... kest cavillis ... quhilk of thame suld kis thare moder first; Bell. Livy I 121/17. Pitsc. I 154/16. Ane kewill being cassin, quhilk of the twa grounds beginis to pay thair pultrie; 1628 Misc. Spald. C. V 224. --- Quhilk that happynit the lak, Couth na leid say; Gol. & Gaw. 919.
(2) Afoir I declare quhilkes ar proper to Scotland, I wil [etc.]; Dalr. I 2/12. Ib. 8/28, 30.
II. As compound relative in indefinite or generalised use. 3. adj. Whichever (one or ones); whatever, any ... that.
Ane band was maid betuix Romanis and Albanis und[er] thir ferme condicionis: off quhilk peple the cieteanis war wictorius that samyn people sal regne [etc.]; Bell. Livy II 251. Maitland Maitl. F. clxxiv 50.
4. pron. Whichever person or group of persons of two or more (persons or groups). Also b. Whichever (of two or more alternative choices).
With and without that or at following.
(1) I may haue spekyng with quhilk of thaim that yhe will send; 1400 Red Bk. Menteith I 170. And quhilk of the forspekaris that [etc.] ... sall pay v lib. to the king; 1455 Acts II 43/2. To bring ... the said rentale to the said day quhilk of thaim that has it; 1478 Acta Conc. I 14/1. 1480 Ib. 71/2. 1530-1 Edinb. B. Rec. II 45. Quhilk of the saidis parteis at faillis to vtheris ... sall pay [etc.]; c 1532 Breadalbane Doc. No. 43.
(2) That quhilk of us happinis to be warnit sal comper; 1476 Reg. Great S. 310/2. For quhilk of thaim is mansuorn sal haue thre enemys aganys thaim; Loutfut MS 2b. Cheis him, he said, quhilk of thame he had lever ... with him in battell go; Stewart 39362.
b. At qwhilk of the thre places ... hym likis that the day sal be haldin; 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 35. I haf ordande hym ... to se ... Inglande ... [and] our lande & quhilk plesis hym best to raman theron a her or twa in his hamcummyn; c 1466-80 Letter from Lord Hamilton MS. How wourschipful Wavane had wonnin him on weir, To wirk him wandreth or wough, quhilk war his wil; Gol. & Gaw. 1199. He sall ... be deliuerit in evin handis or ellis in the wardanis handis at the will of the parteis quhilk thai had levir; Harl. MS 4700 260a.
III. As compound relative pron. in definite sense (or with ellipsis of the antecedent). 5. That which; also, those whom; what.
(1) Syne in that breth oft-tyme thai brew Quhilk eftirwart ful sare thai rew; Consail Vys Man 46. I haiff no land bot quhilk the king gaiff me; Wall. xi 87. Thow wald I did quhilk is our hye a mys; Ib. 478. Ene dyd na thing ... Bot quhilk the goddis commandit hym beforn; Doug. i Prol. 427. [To] do be slicht and polecye quhilk he mycht nocht be force; Boece 190. Now monarchies ather ar hereditaire or newe, vncouthe, and quhilk haith not bene sene afore; Fowler II 71/11. A word impersonal is qlk in al formes of speach keepes one face; Hume Orthog. 32. Bisset I 219/14.
(2) Na men he tuk bot quhilk he hydder brocht; Wall. xi 321.
IV. The simple relative.
Two important studies of the relative pronoun in Older Scots are S. J. G. Caldwell The Relative Pronoun in Early Scots (Helsinki, 1974), and S. Romaine Socio-Historical Linguistics (Cambridge, 1982), chapters 3-7.
6. adj. The quhilk and, espec. in later use, quhilk: Which. In non-restrictive, esp. resumptive, use, as in 8 and 9 below.
Sometimes inflected when qualifying plural, and occas. also singular, nouns.
Qualifying designations of a. things, b., less freq., persons.
a. uninfl. (1) The qvylk payment sa made I will at the landys be haldyn eftyr the tenovr of the ald charterys ... in the wytnes of the qvylk thing to this presens I haf set my seyll; c 1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1. The forsayde Jon askyt me wes that the conclucyoun of myne ordenans to the qwhylk askyng I ... answeryt that ... yha; 1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 7. Whilke; 1386 Rot. Sc. II 85/2. Qwhylk; 1387 Edinb. Chart. 35. The qwylke forsayd personis has eyvynly departit tham in tua, and in the wetnes of the qwilke thyng [etc.]; 1388 Bamff Chart. 22. Apon the qwilk our lorde the kynges grant the said Schir Thomas ... requerit me ... to make hym ane instrument; 1390-1 Acts I 217/1. Qwylk; 1391 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 3. Qwhilke; 1397 Acts I 208/1. Qhwylk; 1400 Maxwell Mem. I 138. Go he And ... kendile gret lyght, Of the quhilk lyght kendlit [etc.]; Troy-bk. ii 478. For the quilk request ... at the quilk acord; 1401 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 8. Qvhilk; 1402 Ib. No. 9. Qwylk; 1407 Bk. Carlaverock II 418. Of the whilke sowme I hald me well payid; 1413 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 364. Qwhylk; 1422 Stirlings of Keir 208. The quhilk gauyle sall contene in brede [etc.]; 1425 Soc. Ant. II 387. The qwylke assyse was thir personis [etc.]; 1425 Liber Melros 544. Quhilk; 1428 Ib. 519. The quhillk pensioun; 1431 Reg. Great S. 45/2. The qwylk day; 1432 Ayr B. Ct. 28 July. The quhilk day; 1438 Ib. Qhuilk; c 1439 Cop. St. A. 177. The quhilk Mononnday the courte affermyt the said Will. comperit; 1440 Aberd. B. Rec. I 395. A labourare ... broddit his ox ... the quhilk ox spak ... quhy broddis thou me? Hay I 64/28. Ib. 60/7, etc. [The shot] farrar in vpoun thair vangarde spred The quhilk vangard ane duk Betin led; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 1376. The qwylk mes; 1481-2 Misc. Spald. C. II 324. The quhilk opinioune apperandly Arestotill held; Irland Mir. I 31/3. Bk. Chess 39. For the quhilke crime he put him in the baillies wil; 1507 Edinb. B. Ct. Bk. 29. Qhuilk; 1507-8 Rec. Earld. Orkney 80. In witnes of the qwhelk thing; 1511 Wemyss Chart. 129. Vndre the quhilk byg iland in the see Ane coif thar is; Doug. viii vii 111. Id. Direct. 123. Quhyk [ed. quhylk]; 1518 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 48. I grant me ane weman of the quhilk kynd I cannocht denude me; Abell 23b. In Parliament haldin ... the xv daye of Marche [etc.] ... The quhilque daye ... Gavin archbishop of Glasgow ... schew that [etc.]; 1542 Reg. Episc. Glasg. 559. Ane bulget of blak ledder ... within the quhilk bulget was contenit this geir following; 1546 Aberd. B. Rec. I 238. Quhylk ... quilk; 1548,1549 St. A. Baxter Bks. 3, 4, etc. The quhilk argument is sa cleir and manifest; Burne Disput. in Cath. Tr. 126/5. 1585 Inverness Rec. I 303. Sen the quhilk tyme that mater hes sleiped till now; 1607 Facs. Nat. MSS III lxxxvii. 1612 Orkney & Shetl. Ct. Bk. (ed.) 17. On the south east syde of the halff pennie hous, of the quhilk hous Williame ... tuik doune ane dovet; 1615 Aberd. B. Rec. II 322. The qlk day; 1655 Stitchill Baron Ct. 1. The whilk day; 1691 Crail Squaremen 2. The wealk day; ?a 1700 Ib. 1.
(2) The qhuylk toftis haldis of lenthe achttene fal lang; 1388 Bamff Chart. 22. The qwilk lettres; 1389 Liber Melros 449. The qwhilk skathis our lege lorde ... has paciently tholyte; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59. In to the whilke landys; 1413 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 643. Of the quhilk sevin synnis; Hay II 55/35. Bk. Chess 2018. The quhilk xv ellis cost vi li. ii s. gs.; 1503 Halyb. 270. Doug. xii ii 83. Off the quhilk demandis the xxv day of Julij ... wes assignit ... to reassue ane ansuer ... to the whilk day the maist pairt of the nobilitie wes writtin for; Diurn. Occurr. 145. At the quhilk wordis the great bisschope kendelit sua [etc.]; Melvill 718. The quhilk sex dayes being bypast and nae peyment maid; 1641 Kirkcudbr. Min. Bk. 165.
(3) The dome of qwhilk decrete the forsayde Sir Patrick ... graciously deferryt; 1385 3rd Rep. Hist. MSS App. 410/2. In witnes of qwhilk thing ... we haf set oure seal; 1408 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 221. Be the occasioun of whilk withdrawing of liberte fra hir; 1439 Acts II 54/2. Considering that whilk thing was done of gude ele; Ib. Quhilk interruptioun maid be the said bailye is weill knawyn tyl [etc.]; 1470 Liber Aberbr. 108. In hell of corporall fire is huge heit Quhilk fire ... sall indure; Contempl. Sinn. 1234 (Harl.). Quholk daye it is assigned Will Scott till acquhit hym lachfully; 1507 Dumfries B. Ct. 2a (1 Dec.). Dunb. (O.U.P.) lii 215. Quhilk Nylus ryver ... Hys large skyrt onbrede spred; Doug. viii xii 91. Thys is our passage, quhilk way we mon wend; Ib. ix vi 31. A multitude of commonys of birth law, By quhilk resson thar namys ar onknaw; Ib. 84. Quhilk hous nocht beand haistely deliverit my lord governour ... wil pas [etc.]; 1543-4 Corr. M. Lorraine 57. [He] ingerit him self to offer the brynt sacrifice ... to quhilk office he wes not callit; Winet I 21/17. For quhat veritie culd Johne Knox schaw for his lauchfull vocatioun (quhilk ane article specialie he cheseit out of sa mony to confute [etc.]); Ib. 57/35. Aganist quhilk place war bent aucht cannounis; Knox II 60. Whilk; 1585 Warrender P. (S.H.S.) I 179. Thrie grait lights! ... (of quhilk sort I wat nocht giff ther was manie scores in all Christiandome); Melvill 139. So soone after as scho reveilit it scho died, quhilk death was wrought be your deid; 1633 Orkney Witch Trial in Reg. Privy C. 2 Ser. V 553. In his ward for nine or ten weeks, in all whilk space he never got libertie to take the aire; Row 387. Exceptand fourtein kings foot towards the toun wall quhilk foote contening eleven inches and ane halfe; 1657 Moses Bundles, Misc. P. MS (Edinb. City Chambers), Bundle 39, No. 1642. Quhilk sowme was givin wp [etc.]; 1674 Kirkcudbr. B. Rec. MS 9 June.
(4) Whilk lands lyis in the saide burgh; 1425 Soc. Ant. II 386. For to haf ressauit ... twelf pundis ... quhilk twelf pundis [etc.]; 1439 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 143. Of quhilk gudis he gyfis habundaunce to wys men; Hay II 79/37. Stewart 25902. Quhilk malis [etc.] ... are liquidat in the said decrete; 1546 Blackfriars Perth 216. Thocht all quhilk argumentis ... faillit, it [etc.]; Buch. Detect. (1727) 80. Quhilk infirmityes notwithstanding sal na way preiudge thair saluatioun; Fowler II 39/3.
inflected (1) And to the wytnes of the qwylkis al and syndry in thir endentyt lettrys contenyt tyl ilke parte ... I hafe put my sele; 1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 7. Of the qwhilkes erledom and lordshipe ... the said Schir Malcolms wyf is verray ... ayre; 1391 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 163. The qwhilkis commissions ar interchangit; 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 35. Quhilkis; 1397 Acts I 208/1. 1398 Ib. 211/2. Qwilkis; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58. The qwhilkis indentours; 1418 Liber Melros 502. Qwhylkis; Ib. To the qwhilks al thyngis to be fulfillit; 1424 Dumbarton B. Rec. App. ii 2. In witnes of the quhilkis thyngis; 1438 Ayr Friars Pr. Chart. 49. Whilkis; 1439 Acts II 54/2. The quhilkis twa thingis makis all the gudenes of the felde in bataill; Hay I 112/13. Of the quhilkis landis the said William wes in liferent; 1494 Acta Conc. I 361/2. 1500 Edinb. B. Rec. I 81. The quilkis thre dayis being runnyn; 1502 Acta Conc. III 177. The quhilkis wordis befor said; 1527-8 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 92. The quhilkis sowmis of money [etc.] ... to put to proffit to [etc.]; 1560 Stirling B. Rec. I 75. Vpone the quhilkis refuisis ... Mr. Johne raquirit instrument; 1587 Prot. Bk. J. Inglis 46 (4 May). For the whilks causes ...; 1668 Culross II 161.
(2) That ... a grete message sal be send in France the qwhilkis message sal be chosyn be [etc.]; 1398 Acts I 211/2. In witnes of the qwhilkis thing I hafe put to my seale; 1399 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 41. For the quhilkis statutt discharging the saidis dekyne [etc.] ... suld [etc.]; 1558 Inverness Rec. I 27.
(3) Qwylkis foresutht myle & croft; 1497-8 Newbattle Coll. (Reg. H.) Somerville. Quhilkis all this crwell goddes ... Had ... Into wyld bestis schap ... translait; Doug. vi xvi 39. jm scheip, ouis, scheip and wedderis ... quhilkis gudis [etc.]; 1517 Grant Chart. 63. Quhilkys statutis; 1531 Edinb. B. Rec. II 55. To quhilkis lessonis in the law salbe ordiner auditoris all the aduocattis [etc.]; 1579 Acts III 180/2. James VI Poems I 68/36. Except the discharge and acquittance ... whilks acquittances [etc.]; c 1603 Sc. Hist. Rev. XL 111. Quhilkis thingis I think sould not heawe beine done if [etc.]; 1611 Reg. Panmure I xxviii. Quhilkis visionis the people thocht to be prodigious tokenis; Spalding II 232.
b. uninfl. (1) The whilk forestar sall [etc.]; 1388 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 294. The qwylk bischap mad hym rycht resonabil demaundes; 1390 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 21. To the quilk lorde I geiwe ... my schipe; 1506 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. 248. The quhilk Anchemolus was that ilk ... Defowlyt hys faderis bed incestuusly; Doug. x vii 68. The quhilk Eirle Maliseus first [etc.]; 1554 Misc. Bann. C. III 78.
(2) The qhuylk men the gret ath swere that [etc.]; 1388 Bamff Chart. 21. The qwilke foure layd the lande wyth lyne [etc.]; Ib. 22. The qwylk ayris faylyeand peraventour; 1396 Sc. N. & Q. 2 Ser. I 96. Qwilke; c 1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 53. Qwhelk; Acts I 357/2. The quhilk barnis thai slew all haley; Hay I 58/16. The quhilk sancts; King Cat. 33.
(3) He sal bring thaim to the schireff of the schire quhilk schireff sal [etc.]; 1487 Acts II 177/1. Quhilk king us bring unto his ryng; Dunb. (O.U.P.) ii 19. Quhilk Butes, to vnderstand, Fra Bebrycy com [etc.]; Doug. v vii 20. Quhilk Christell ... micht nocht brouk [etc.]; Maitland Ho. Seytoun 18.
(4) Our Prynce Dawy ... Thre dochtrys had ... Off quhilk thre com Bruce, Baloune and Hastyng; Wall. i 47. The names of quhilk fyftein advocattis ... followis; 1604 Acts Sederunt i 37. Quhilk tua ... leichted aff ther horse; Melville Mem. 13.
inflected (1) The qwhilkis persones sal be chosyn; 1398 Acts I 211/2. 1509 (see (2)). Off the quhilkis lippir sum hes speciall freindis ... quha resauis thame; 1582 Glasgow B. Rec. I 93.
(2) Quhilkis personis ar to say, Henry Gariocht, Andro Leslye [etc.], ... the quhilkis persons bure [etc.]; 1509 Rec. Earld. Orkney 84. Quhilkis personis acceptit the said charge vpone thaim; 1559 Edinb. B. Rec. III 32. Quhilkis personis sall sycht [etc.]; 1570 Inverness Rec. I 195. 1631 Justiciary Cases I 163. --- Women ladin with sin, quhilkis women ar led with sindry lustis; Winet II 28/23.
c. ? Followed by (redundant) indef. art. ---
Thare was ane ancyant cite hecht Cartage, ... Of quhilk a land Juno ... As to hir special abuf al otheris maid; Doug. i i 25.
d. Followed by (redundant or correlative) that. ---
In the quhilk tyme that Romanis war at hereschip in Brigancia; Boece 140b. The quihilk day that Robert Arthur is enterit mester ... hes receuit his duety; 1566 St. A. Baxter Bks. ii.
7. pron. Introducing a restrictive relative clause, i.e. one which is necessary to identify fully the antecedent as a member of its class by restricting or defining its possible range of reference: That: who, whom; which.
Sometimes inflected in plural and, occas., in singular use.
a. With pron., also absol. ordinal num., antecedent, of persons and things, as subject or object of a verb.
uninfl. (1) As he the quhilk pretendis to weld the ryng [etc.]; Doug. xi v 82. Now wander and wa be to thame all thair lyvis, The quhilk ar maryit with sic vnhappy wyvis; Lynd. Sat. Proclam. 96. In Christ tha byde nocht ... The quhilk ... Dois nocht imbrace his wourd [etc.]; Lauder Minor P. i 52.
(2) Of that quhilk Caulus said; Alex. ii 7527. That quhilk the prophete spak afore; Winet I 51/12. Vnles the Spirit of the Lord Jesus quicken that quhilk is dead; 1567 Conf. Faith in Acts (1597) ii 5. He beginnis to hait that quhilk before he loued; Ib. Les nor that be restorit whilk is tane auay; Hamilton Facile Tr. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 234/22. We avoue that quhilk we knaw; Hume Orthog. 31. For selling of that quhilk schoe had then amongst hir handis; 1656 Glasgow B. Rec. II 346. --- Quhat it was in liknes of Faudoun Quhilk brocht his men to suddand confusioun; Wall. v 219. Throu helpe of Him quhilk deit on the tre; Kennedy Pass. Christ 52. He quhilk passit dwne he is the same quhilk passit vp abwne; Gau 49/29. Off all kingis Fergus was first quhilk in Albion tuke thay armes; Boece 45. This kirk quhilk my aduersar insinuatis to be it quhilk he callis papistical; Winet I 59/4. To preche ... ony thing to ... Catholiks, by it quhilk thai hef resauit; Ib. II 31/10. Na thing of thair awin almaist euir produce thai quhilk thai intend nocht to schaddow oure also with the wordis of scriptuir; Ib. 64/11. If all be trew quhilk was reported; Rothes Affairs Kirk 200.
(3) Mony vthirris quhilk war apon the forsaid assis togyddir; 1428 Liber Melros 521. Thai quhilk [Sm. quilk] bene gendrit of goddis, may thidder attayn; Doug. vi ii 111. Thay quhilk sais to thair broder wordis of ir; Gau 15/11. He sal cum and dume thayme quhilk thane sal be liffand; Ib. 51/34. Thay quhilk had murtherit a king; Buch. Detect. (1727) 83. Concessiue conjunctiones ar they quhilk grant somquhat to quhilk the latter sentence did or would withstand; Rudiments fol. 30a. --- Thai beyn alsso within on pyt turment Quhilk at thar bredir envy held; Doug. vi ix 162. Nocht only thai braik this command quhilk stelis, ... bot also [etc.]; Hamilton Cat. 98.
inflected (1) Al playntys the qwhilkis ar rysyn in burgh ... aw to be determynd within the burgh owtane tha the qwhilkis pertenys to the kyngys croun; Burgh Laws c. 6 (B).
(2) Al thai the quhilkis ar destitut; Acts I 12/2. A thousand fers folkis assemlyt he: Thay quhilkis with rakis ourturnys euery bra ... And thame alsso dwelland in hillys he; Doug. vii xii 49. Sum otheris schotis dartis [etc.] ... At thame quhilkis on the barmkyn hed remanys; Ib. xii x 64. Bell. Boece (M) II 145. To lat thaim abid at hame, quhilkis has na knaulege [etc.]; 1531 Crim. Trials I i 155. Those quhilkis come of Sethis blude ... Suld nocht [etc.]; Lynd. Mon. 1199. For sum ar quhilkis fra hand aluterlie blawis away; Winet II 53/9. That ye and euere ane of yow quhilkis hes intrommettit of the saidis crops [etc.]; 1568 Liber Coll. Glasg. lxxx-iii. Vnto those, quhilks it ... riftingly he speuis forth against me; Fowler II 27/26.
With noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb, b. personal and c. non-personal.
Examples of the quhilk (is after c 1500 are rare in this use, apparently occurring only in verse and at a distance from the antecedent.
b. uninfl. (1) Till this woman the quhilk I spak of ayr; Wall. iv 704. Thir campiounis twa The quhilk befor Wallace hapnyt to sla; Ib. xi 204. Ib. vi 579. All kyngis and quenis thare salbe kend, The quhilk sic lawis did defend; Lynd. Mon. 5801.
(2) Gif thare war a man becumyn blynd, quhilk othir tymes had bene a man of were; Hay I 234/23. A mane he says quhik al his fantasy Has geffyne to vice ... A wyfe he sal hafe purte til hir name; Bernardus 215. The bauld Graystok was slayne, And mony man quhilk wes off mekill mayne; Wall. v 970. To ane wif be the kingis command quhilk chasit hame ane of the kingis deir; 1504 Treas. Acc. II 433. Thys Ocnus was the ilk man quhilk expres Of Mantua the cite dyd he wall; Doug. x iv 96. The verray instrument Quhilk wald haue him supportit; Rolland Seven S. 5727. Ane capitane quhilk desyris to vinqueis his enemeis suld ... use subtilitie; 1570 Misc. Bann. C. I 50*. I confess that thair is no God quhilk I sould [etc.]; ?a 1627 S. Leith Rec. II 286/2.
(3) Than we ... sal infefte ... the said Marc ... his ayris or assignais quhilk sal happin to be vexit in the tyme [etc.]; 1454 Douglas Chart. 383. Thre or four sindri persons quhilk war suspect of the law; 1482-3 Acta Conc. II ciii. The deid of synnaris is endles dampnacoun Quhilk levis in syn; Contempl. Sinn. 587 (Asl.). K. Hart 34. To the gunnaris quhilk kest the gunnis the day of the justing; 1507 Treas. Acc. III 393. For the thre kingis quhilk war befoir denude Out of this clan; Rolland Ct. Venus iii 800. I haue heard of some men, quhilk at the latter houre ... hes burst forth with horrible blasphemies; Hume 128/168. For the chairges of the Irlandmen quhilk wes with the Spayngyerts; 1589-90 Edinb. B. Rec. V 16.
inflected (1) Quhen the kyngys foure war dede The quhilkys Abraham swa perswyde; Wynt. i 487. And wit[h] all syndrie officiaris the qwhilkis has had entermettyn ... fra [etc.]; Acts I 329/2. All vther personis the quhilkis takis vpoun thame to hale the said ... infirmitie; 1497 (c 1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 71.
(2) Thare is diuers personis quhilkis huntis the dere; 1518 Glenartney Doc. Thir Danys quhilkis fled to thair schippis gaif ... gold to Makbeth to suffir thair nobillis quhilkis war slayn at this last ieoparde to be beryit at [etc.]; Bell. Boece (M) II 149. To foure men of Selkirk, quhilkes kepit nyne oxin fra [etc.]; 1547 Armstrong Hist. Liddesdale I App. lxxxiii. I will nocht our lordis and ladyis rehers quhilkis for the trewth wes miserablie murdreit; Lamb Resonyng 35/8. All persones quhilkis had defylit them selfis in adulterye; 1560 Digest Justiciary Proc. C. 12. The youth and persones quhilkis salbe committit to his chairge; 1583 Edinb. Univ. Chart. 90.
c. uninfl. (1) Sa that he hald thayme in fre blancheferme ... for the self peny the qvylke is nemyt before; c 1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1. In fourme the qwylk eftir folowys; 1387 Edinb. Chart. 35. Al richt and claime the qwilk thai ... has had; 1393 Reg. Morton II 192. The ten markis worth of land the qhwylk is callit [etc.]; 1400 Maxwell Mem. I 139. 1402 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 9 (see 8 c uninfl. (1) below). Out the land the qwhilk was qwhilum ... Fergous Wilsonnis liand betuix the landis the qwhilkis war quhilum John Barbauris; 1417 Charter (Reg. H.) No. 249. Dark as rock the quhilk the sey vpcast; Doug. Pal. Hon. 157. ow appeir nocht haif red ane vthir tractat ... the quhilk is ... prentit ... the  eiris of Christ; Lamb Resonyng 5/18. I pray ... sic iustice be done ... The quhilk may gar the rasche busk keip the kow; Maitland Maitl. F. cviii 47.
(2) Certane endentarys and obligacions the qwylk I ordaynyt thaim to sele; 1385 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 7.
(3) And I dissave hym under that assuraunce quhilk I hecht him; Hay I 164/16. The guse is ded quhilk the gret eggis lent; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2300. And all vthir claith quhic is within vj quartaris; 1477 Edinb. Chart. 141. To vyrk furcht the vob ... quhilk he hes begoundin, and geif the tother vob hayme agane; 1535 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 150. Ilkane idil word quhilk men and wemen speikis; Hamilton Cat. 111. Allegeing ... that thing to thame quhome e cal papistis quhilk neuir ane of thame ... thocht anis in mynd; Winet I 77/8. He felt the begynnyng of that plaig qlk thairefter sa inquietit hym; Buch. Indict. 39. For ilk tuelff lespound butter quilk was pait of auld, fyvetene lespund; 1576 Orkney Oppress. 86. it sall I biet the low, Low quhilk combuirs my ardent douce desyre; J. Stewart 20/202. Vnder all hiest pane ... quhilk ye may incur; 1591 Misc. Spald. C. II 218. Schedoth institut nor prescryue no reull ... vhilk is vnholy; Colville Paraenese 28. Quhilk; Melville Mem. 4. Quhilk; Hume Orthog. 7. Whilk; 1630 Spalding I 381. That text quhilk they would seeme to prove their errours by, quhich text of theirs, being compaired ... ; 1638 Dickson in Sel. Biog. II 21. Ane oung quoyak calfe whilk did eat ane beat of lint unto ou; 1643 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 174. The horse whilk would suffer no man to ryde upon him but Alexander; Row 431.
(4) For iijcxxiiij Swithin burdis quhilk eid to Strivelin; 1501 Treas. Acc. II 82. Seik nocht to ken thai thingis quhilk ar abone thi capacitie; Hamilton Cat. 6. According to that grite favouris quhilk at all tymes ... I have fundin at your hand; 1565 Facs. Nat. MSS III lvi. Heir beginnis the historie and cronickillis of Scotland quhilk was left onwrettin be ... Maister Hector Boes; Pitsc. I 1/2. I ... recommend the berare ... and his honest actionis unto your honors protection quheke he hes to suit in England; 1585 Cal. Sc. P. VIII 107. Whilk; James VI Poems I 42/23. Quhilk; Melvill 320. [Claim for] propertie and posessione, kyndaus [sic] and gud vill qlk scho in anievayis haid hes; 1611 Rec. Old Aberd. I 50. The bones quhilk they dig vp when they hock the grave; 1659 Rothesay Par. Rec. 14.
inflected (1) All the landys ... & possessyovnys the qvylkys scho has ... with in the kynryc; 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 34. Qwhilkis; 1398 Acts I 211/2. Qwhilkis; 1400 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 7. Burgh Laws c. 6 (B) (see a inflected (1) above). Al costis [etc.] ... the qwylkis he or thai sustenys; 1447 Newbattle Coll. (Reg. H.) Somerville. Quhat plesans is in feistis delicate The quhilkis ar geuin with ane glowmand brow? Henr. Fab. 233. Of the landis the quhilkis ar now prisit to the sade Schir Alexander; 1499-1500 Acta Conc. II 389.
(2) Tha landis qwhilkis lyis in debate; 1418 Liber Melros 502. All accyons qwilkis he hasse ... to the forsaid William; 1429 15th Rep. Hist. MSS App. viii 10. The kyndis of divers condiciounis of influences of the hevin quhilkis ... steris all naturale thingis [etc.]; Hay II 108/6. Thir ar the thewis in party Quhilkis fullis oysis comonly; Thewis Wysmen 474. The throwgang and passag quhilkis is now wnbiggit; 1486 Prot. Bk. J. Young I 13. In the honour of the ... panis quhilkis our salluour ... thollit; Dewoit Exerc. heading. I have insert in the hinder end ... maist kyndis of versis quhilks are not ... brokin; James VI Poems I 68/56. Seing the tua partes quhilkes now ar vnder the impire of Ingland ar called [etc.]; Dalr. I 3/20. [The] luiff fawor and effectioun quhilkis I beir to him; 1605 Douglas Bequest IV 22 May. For the richts ... quhilks they have to the ... fischings; 1642 Melrose Reg. Rec. I 133.
(3) For his kyndnes of the tact quhilkis he set him of the landis of Culcabok; 1566 Inverness Rec. I 144.
d. With possess. noun or pron. antecedent, as subj. or obj. of a verb.
Willamys dochtyr, scho wes plesand, The quhilk be conqwest wan Ingland; Wynt. vii 620. Because he mariit without his consent quhilk is his ourlord; 1482-3 Acta Conc. II cvi. The remanent of thair frendis quhilkis war murdrist be [etc.]; Bell. Boece (M) I 77.
As the obj. of a preceding preposition. With e. non-personal and f. personal antecedents.
e. uninfl. The howse, in the qwilk Ion of Hornedene indwellyt; 1423 Haddington Corr. II 229. That unhapp cummys to thes lands of quhilk the king is a barne; Hay I 297/7. Calchas ... Wes keiper of the tempill ... In quhilk Venus and ... Cupido War honourit; Henr. Test. Cress. 108. Quhen he ramembers thay wordis with the quhilk he prayis; Gau 83/21. The long is ane figur of quhilk the lynth dois dubill the breid; Art of Music 1b. [She] placit the trwff in that same plaice owt of the quhilk scho twik it; 1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 145. [To] be execut at the mercat croce of the heid brught ... of the saidis baillereis and steuartreis within the quhilk the saidis personis duellis; 1597 Acts IV 139/2.
inflected Of all othir landes [etc.] ... with the apportenancez of the qwhilkes ... hir spouse deid vestiit; 1381 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 4. Thre thingis I pray thé nemmin heir Of quhilkis sum men in errour are; Alex. ii 2526. The said princes ... has ripely examinit ... the motyuis be the quhilkis the foresaid personis war stirit to withdraw the foresaid liberte fra hir; 1439 Acts II 54/1. Irland Mir. I 90/3. Than Jesus began to say repreef to citees in quhilkis ful mony virtues of him war done; Nisbet Matth. xi 20.
f. uninfl. Of a nobil man to the quylk I am of kyn George of Douglas, Erle of Angous; 1397 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 33. Suithly e ar the twa in the quhilk God ... spiritualy biggit to him a hous; Arundel MS 285/196.
inflected He may at his lykyng gerre calle his officeris to the qwhilkis he hes giffyn commissioun and accuse thaim [etc.]; 1398 Acts I 210/2. Attoure thare was neuer pepil in quhilkis avarice ... gat later intres; Bell. Livy I 10/15. That ye ar of this prophetis, of the quhilkis S. Paull makis mentione; 1573 Tyrie in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 29/3.
g. Governed by a following preposition, chiefly one coming after the verb.
(1) Befor he hafe his fraucht of the gudys the qwhylkys thai ar in debate fore; Ship Laws c. 27 (B). Againe that tyme quhilk I spack of to ow; 1587-8 Cal. Sc. P. IX 541. Send with John Ogiluy to Flanderis the bres quhilk the armes wes on; 1591 Wedderb. Compt Bk. 166.
(2) The tym was past by Off the promes the quhilk at he was bund; Wall. xi 947.
h. Followed by that, at.
To translait in Inglis leid Ane romains quhilk that I hard reid; Alex. ii Prol. 22. Syndry unlawis amerciamentis ... and deuteis quhilk at the saide Thomas is infallyn or inroun in oure courtis; 1459 Laing Chart. 37. A thing I behald Quhilk that the goddis anis on me tald; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 307. Thir ar the resonis throu the quhilkis that ane lord or ane lady may ... forfet thair tenend; Harl. MS 4700 fol. 281b.
8. pron. Introducing a `descriptive' relative clause: Who, whom; which.
i.e. a non-restrictive relative clause dependent on the antecedent and adding descriptive or necessary explanatory information concerning it (albeit the antecedent is fully identified in itself).
In some examples the distinction between this and the following sense is difficult to make.
a. With pron. antecedent.
O thou, ... quhilk governys rewlis and steris Baith goddis and men be thyne etern empyre; Doug i v 10. Thow quhilk direkkit the Troiane dartis so; Ib. vi i 110. Eschapit nane bot sa mony as wer at the deliuerance of Sweno, quhilkis wer bot ten men in novmer, by the marynaris; Bell. Boece (M) II 149. Ane of thame said, quhilk namit was Craton, To his fellowis, sayand [etc.]; Rolland Seven S. 383.
b. With personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb, also in the possess.
uninfl. (1) In God fermly til trew, The quhilk in substance bot ane is [etc.]; Leg. S. vi 389. Ib. ii 338. Til wr lufd cosyn Dame Mergaret Steward ... the qwilk we fand suiornand in the castel of Temptaloun the qwilk we haff nov in ward; 1388 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 12. The sevynd Clemont ... Made Maystyr Waltyr Traylle byschape, The qwhilk wes his famylyare; Wynt. ix 551. Till a man cumyn fra the kyng to passe in the illis xij d. the qwilk is cald Betoun; 1429 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXXI 145. Hay I 37/10. That ane king Nicolas ... was cum to littill Armenie ... The quhilk was king of Percie and of Mede; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 673. Off ald Rukbe the quhilk we spak off ayr; Wall. vii 745. Ib. ix 8. We ar forbyddin be the Lord, The quhilk hes geuin ws lybertie Tyll eait of euery fruct and tre Quhilk growis in to Paradyse; Lynd. Mon. 913. Geue Christ, the quhilk hes me redrest, Be on my syde; G. Ball. 172.
(2) In honowre of the ordrys nyne Off haly angelys the quhilk dywyne Scrypture lowys; Wynt. i 2.
(3) Our souerane of Scotland his armes to knawe, Quhilk sall be lord ... Our braid Brettane; Howlat 374 (A). In the tyme of the Emperour Constantyne, quhilk was the first that dowit haly kirk; Hay I 11/35. Quha was blythar than the nobill quene Quhilk thus desauit wickidlie hes bene; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 200. Wall. ii 289,etc. Seven S. 617, etc. To gif to Cipriane de Rege, quhilk com fra the Legait; 1501 Treas. Acc. II 100. A respitt to Johne Flegeare, for the refe of ane mattok fra umquhill Robert Hude, quhilk had stollin the same fra him of befor; 1508 Reg. Privy S. I 253/2. Ane husband, quhilk Sycheus hecht, had sche; Doug. i vi 67. Ane Romane knycht, that was standard amang the statiounis ... inquirit ane cieteane of Veos, quhilk was standand on the wall nocht fer fra him [etc.]; Bell. Livy II 166/2. Ane cavell quhilk was never at the scule Will ... keip ane bischops mule; Lynd. Sat. 2863 (Ch.). Sen the deces of Thomas Colwill of Pemont quhilk decessit in the feild of Fawsyde; 1548 Boyd Fam. P. No. 26 (6 Aug.). To ... Snauldoun heroauld, quhilk passit to [etc.]; 1555 Treas. Acc. X 299. With you that haif wissit me to be ane Kentys man, quylk in a maner is ane centaure; ?1576 Buch. Wr. 57. Hume 11/7. Sett upone Georg Cloustouns rige be the said Georges man quhilk was making on his corne; 1595 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. I 220.
(4) Tak witnes of the feindis infernall, Quhilk huntit war doun fro the hevinly hall; Henr. Fab. 597 (Bann.). [To] rid with Robert Huyid and Litile Johne, quhilk was callit, in yers bipast, Abbat and Prior of Bonacord; 1508 Aberd. B. Rec. I 439. To Johne Turnour [etc.] ... quhilk callis the hurle cartis; 1530 M. Works Acc. (ed.) I 43. Thay suld invaid the victouris quhilk wery war and irkit in fecht; Boece 45. Sum of campiounis and of knichtis ... Quhilk vaileandlie did stand in stour; Lynd. Meldrum 19. I leif vnto thé Deyne Dignitie ... With greit attendance quhilk he sal not mis; Duncan Laideus Test. 167. [To] have present money to the paiment of the men of weir quhilk alreddy wantis a monethis pay; 1571 Cal. Sc. P. IV 52.
inflected (1) [The] wemen ... The quhilkes frome gyrnes of ded Ware eschaped; Troy-bk. ii 999.
(2) Or ellis of virginite, The quhilkis mast dygne is of the thre [virtues]; Leg. S. xxiv 10.
(3) For efter the condicioun of the peple quhilkis ar sum wele, sum evill inclynde, sum wald [etc.]; Hay I 211/27. Of the eschete of Nevin McKilroy [etc.] ... quhilkis was justifijt in the justice aris of Wigtoune; 1466 Acta Aud. 4/1. Nixt hir raid ... Twelf damisellis ... Quhilks semit of hir counsell maist secre; Doug. Pal. Hon. 222. Vther sindry infinitt pepill come with him on thair auentouris, quhilkis had bot small insycht at hayme; Bell. Boece (M) II 271. That the cruel Inglis men, quhilkis ar boreaus ande hang men [etc.] ..., that thai ar [etc.]; Compl. 27/8. Thair clerk seriand and dempstar quhilkis ar the principall memberis of court; c 1566 Fife Sheriff Ct. 406. Pitsc. I 24/29. Nor it to curious folks, quhilks carping dois deiect thee; James VI Poems I 66/2.
(4) Of art and part of the slauchter of umquhile Dyonyse of Hammyltoun quilkis was slane on Mydsummer evin; 1496 Acta Conc. II 38.
possess. As schiref principale ... to quhilkis iurisdictioun the maist pairt of the saidis complenaris are subiect; 1573 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 761.
c. With non-personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb.
Also, in accounts, with the `antecedent' following the relative clause.
uninfl. (1) Of the landis of the Cragtoune the qvhilk is callyt Cragmaile ... the qvhilk is nw the saide Katerinys; 1402 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 9. That fest fell on Palm Sonday, The quhilke before Pasch fallis ay; Wynt. ix 2716. Liber Plusc. I 395. His lusty payne the quhilk I spak off ayr; Wall. vi 18. My goldin chene, the quhilk is callit ane collar; 1506 Orkney & Shetl. Rec. I 250. Doug. iv ii 2, etc. Vnder hir toung thow lay Of qwaiken espin leif The quhilk betaiknis wound; Dum Wyf 38. Than Alexander quha was laitlie deposit Fra his kingdome the quhilk he suld haue josit Hard tell [etc.]; Rolland Seven S. 9721.
(2) The steppis he saw ... The quhilk neirhand ane thousand ware; Alex. ii 475. A gra gon and a red bonet, the qwilk scho coft at John Smayl; 1458 Peebles B. Rec. I 130. Quhilk; Wall. iii 92. To lern the Lordis prayer, the beleif and commandmentis, the quhilk he is ignorant and promiset to lern; 1566 Canongate Kirk S. (ed.) 91. Dum ceremoneis, the quhilk thame self hes maid, And wowis vaine, quhilk thay did neuer keip; G. Ball. 15.
(3) Burgone, quhilk was than callit a realme, and callit the king ryke of Burgoyne; Hay I 213/14. Thai think and wyllis al gudlynes, Quhilk in thar hart euir rutyt vas; Thewis Wysmen 232. This rewm, quhilk was in poynt to be tynt and vndone for falt of gouernance; Liber Plusc. I 336. The wrangwis withhalding fra him of a croce present cow, quhilk he deliuerit him in keping; 1484 Acta Aud. 138*/1. To the king quhilk he kest to the pure folkis x s.; 1508 Treas. Acc. IV 127. The king ... repressing his ire, quhilk eftirwart was to isch, sufferit the barouns depart; Boece 416b. I sau the vattir lille quhilk is ane remeid contrar gomoria; Compl. 67/7. e schal si my bel vhuilk is opne; 1568 Mary in Ellis Orig. Lett. i Ser. II (1824) 253. At the last Lawting haldin in Scalloway, quhilk is the heid court of the cuntrie; 1576 Orkney Oppress. 44. Whilk; c 1588 Cath. Tr. 256/20. Bot in this parleament quhilk rather we may say negleget nor foret this als is to be noted; Dalr. II 361/10. Excuse my hemlines, vhilk procedis of love; 1609 Rep. Hist. MSS, Varr. Coll. V 113. Going in our seller, quhilk was dungeon mirk; 1624 Misc. Abbotsf. C. 139. That ye ar mindfull of the old freyndship qhilk for many ages past hes beine inviolablie keipit; 1630 Aberd. Council Lett. I 311. The nixt Setterday qlk wes the thrid of July wes the sermon of preparation befoir the next Sabothe qlk wes the Communion day; 1641 Sc. N. & Q. i Ser. XII 59. His removeing from Melros ... , quhilk was at Lambass 1667; 1668 Melrose Reg. Rec. II 199.
(4) Fourti marke ... quhilk Wilyame the Haye, your fadir, wes oblisit to pay to us of the quhilk we quitcleme you ... be ... thir lettris, to the quhilk our seele we haf gert beput; 1422 Thanes of Cawdor 10. And al vthire maner of wykit werkis and wykyt folk quhilk was all bot ... afflixione of spreit in this lyf; Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 123. Ma than thre thousand schipis passit he thair Quhilk ilkane haid ane hunder men and mare; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 2576. The worschip, and the gret nobilnace, Off hym, quhilk sprang that tym in mony place; Wall. xi 268. Blak stanis, quhilk hes sa intollerable heit quhen thay ar kendillit; Bell. Boece I xxxvi. For litting of xij elnis blak quhilk wes raid vj s.; 1541 Treas. Acc. VII 448. Stey the tempests that ws all afray, Quhilk haithe our nighbours dround; Fowler I 229/11. Spalding I 3.
inflected (1) The landys before sayde the qvylkys the forsayde Alayne bocht fra the forsayde Thomas; c 1379 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 1. For als mykil as thair hes ben mony ... attemptatz done ... the qwhilkis ar vnredressit to this tyme the reformacion of the qwhilkis requer gret laiser ... the qwhilkis the said commissairs ne may noght ... at this tyme ... ger be refourmyd ... it is accordit [etc.]; 1398 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 38. Scho has ... assignit to the said Schir Alexander ... iiijm markis ... the whilkis war assignit to hir be the said thre estatis and for the same caus; 1439 Acts II 54/2. Voultouris, the quhilkis lyfis bot on dede caryouns of bestis; Hay I 41/26. Thir megir bellis ... in sound the quhilks excellis; Doug. Pal. Hon. 437.
(2) Quhen dome is gevin and richtwous iudgement Quhilkis clarkis callis iustice iudicatiue; Regim. Princ. 226 (Maitl.). Fle langour and ydilnes Quhilkis bringis disspar and hevynes; Consail Vys Man 234. Thy mirth refreschis byrdis in thair nestis Quhilks thé to prise and nature neuer restis; Doug. Pal. Hon. 79. To hir, jm corf keling quhilkis was gevin be my lord secretar; 1513 Treas. Acc. IV 489. The residew of the saidis gudis, quhilkis had na iuste awnaris, war sald; Bell. Livy I 256/2. Or this gret arttalery war had away quhilkis was thar haill hoip ... of deffence; 1548 Corr. M. Lorraine 243. Thair [at Leith they] maid thair mustouris, quhilkis extendit to iijc men or thairby; Diurn. Occurr. 231. Whilks; James VI Poems I 21/47. Vhilks; Montg. Sonn. xi 10. For printing of the thessus of the college ... quhilkis are dedicat to the magistrattis; 1641-2 Misc. Spald. C. V 106. The bukes of the Assemblie, all quhilkis I had preserved hole; Row 123.
d. With possess. noun or pron. antecedent, as subj. or obj. of a verb.
(1) Thar armes of ancestry honorable ay, Quhilk oft blythit the Bruse in his distres; Howlat 393 (A). Traste on na wys at this my wark be sich, Quhilk dyd my best, as the wyt mycht atteyn; Doug. i Prol. 265. My motheris mayd scho come and fetchit me, Quhilk lyis richt seik; Rolland Seven S. 2350.
(2) Manis saule is lyke ane bakkis ee, Quhilk lurkis still as lang as lycht of day is; Henr. Fab. 1638 (Bann.). As the obj. of a preceding preposition, with e. personal and f. non-personal antecedents.
e. Twa thowsand armyd men, Off quhilk aucht hundyr knychtis war; Wynt. ix 459. Horsmen of chosin men, of the quhilkis thair wes iij hundreth albernattis [etc.]; Leslie 211.
f. uninfl. (1) The dignitee imperiale in the quhilk was in thai dais Henry the thrid the quhilk at all his power sustenyt the fals pape; Hay I 24/34. In the perdicioune of the fif citeis, of the quhilk was Sodome and Gomore; Irland Mir. I 6/7. The heale and universale congregatioun unit togidder in ane faith ... to the quhilk Christ is the hede; Q. Kennedy Tractive 101. Christs halie Catholik kirk, out of the quhilk thair is na saluation; Hamilton Facile Tr. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 220/19.
(2) The ioy that lufe can geif, In quhilk we se thir luferis leif; Alex. ii 2498. [Fergus' banner] in quhilk wes ane reid lioun rampand; Bell. Boece I 18.
inflected Be thir our present lettres, to the quhilkis we haff appenssyt our sell; 1488 Red Bk. Grandtully I 171*. The werkis of grace be the quhilkis we life spiritually; Irland Mir. II 62/18. Sindry riche and precious hingaris, in quhilkis war the history of Hercules, maist curiusly wrocht; Bell. Boece II 497. Or throuch lettiris, to quhilkes thay haue applyet thair studie; Dalr. I 116/9. Be his scriptures, the declaration of the whilks he hes committit to [etc.]; Hamilton Facile Tr. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 230/35.
g. As the obj. of a preposition placed after the verb.
--- In the Lard of Vdnies handis for his landis of Chapeltoun quhilk no payment is maid of, iiij b.; 1574 Hist. Kinloss A. 96. Ganging about the coste of Anandale, quhilke the hiland seyes flowis till; Dalr. I 12/12. 55 lib., for Patrik Leith's man, quhilk he sould have payit for; 1650-1 Misc. Spald. C. V 175.
h. Followed by at, that, with personal and non-personal antecedents.
(1) Scho saw hou the Iouys ded Vith hyme that scho of body bare, The quhilk that scho saw pynit thare; Leg. S. Prol. 88. With trew Scottis quhilk all his freindis war; Wall. iv 108. I am your son the quhilk that ye Forsuth kest in to the se; Seven S. 2711. O wod blindnes, the quhilk that blind so maid The Iowis ene; Kennedy Pass. Christ 673. The freir, the quhilk that wes ane Inglisman; Stewart 57466.
(2) Be south Manwell quhilk that thai war betweyn; Wall. x 625. With clething ... Quhilk that he brocht with him our se; Seven S. 2422. To the fadiris, quhilk in the lymbe that lay; Kennedy Pass. Christ 1408.
(3) Syne ... Antheus and Lycas, Quhilkis that of Turnus first ward ledaris was, Persewys he; Doug. x x 46.
9. pron. Introducing a `resumptive' relative clause: Who, whom; which.
i.e. a non-restrictive relative clause which follows, or, occas., is parenthetically included in, that which contains the antecedent, relating a subsequent incident, or stating an additional proposition, concerning the antecedent, the clause containing the antecedent being already complete in sense without this subsequent clause; thus serving as a co-ordinating rather than a subordinating conjunction, equivalent to `And (for) the latter', `and (for) he, him, that etc.', initiating a new sentence.
a. With pron. antecedent.
uninfl. The balye sperit how thai fand of the fyrste tenement qwhilk ansuerit we fynd Williame Lame hafand ful rycht; 1425-6 Aberd. B. Rec. (S.H.S.) cxxxv, n. 3. And than the balye sperit of the tother tenement qwhilk ansuerit [etc.]; Ib. Iohne Mawpas till the king had it [Gib Harper's head] Quhilk he resauit [E. And he ressawyt it] in gret dayntee; Brus xviii 225 (C). He ... saw the forme of it [sc. a spirit], quhilk wes lyke ane litill bodie ... cled in quhyt lening; 1601 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 184. inflected Gif e affirm that he did sua, e faile our selfis, quhilkis keipis nocht ane iot of all thre; Winet I 89/26.
b. With personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb.
uninfl. (1) That I am gretly wrangit be the Duc of Rothesay the quhilk spousit my douchter and now [etc.]; 1400 Facs. Nat. MSS II liii. Off hym come Reyne that gat Boe, The quhilk wes fadyr tyll Toe; Wynt. i 1430. Gif the juge refusis to do the law evinly ... the party pleneand sall haf recours to the king the quhilk sall se rygorusly punyst sic jugis; 1424 Acts II 8/2. To geve thame [sc. the worthiest clerics] the maist notable ... beneficis ... The quhilk [Pope Urban V] gert alssua tak up the hedis of Sanct Petir [etc.]; Hay I 26/31. He ... arrestit him prisoner, the quhilk he askis to be adjugit till him as his prisounar; Ib. 231/4. Seven S. 575. Bot thair come ane starker na the dewil ..., Iesus Christ, the quhilk ... distroyit the kingdome of the dewil; Gau 48/21.
(2) The criouris ... salbe chosyn comonly of al the burges the quhilk salbe leil and of gude fame and thai sal suer fewte [etc.]; Burgh Laws c. 60 (A). [The king ... That bot [twa hunder] with him had] The quhilk thame weill gouernit ay [E. The-quhethir thaim weill confortyt he ay]; Brus iii 365 (1571).
(3) And send us this good with ane honest burges of your awin quhilk sall hawe saif conduyeit; 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 287. For thow may tell it till a frend Quhilk eftyr may be vnkend And chang his loue; Consail Vys Man 216. Thair suld no man ... His aduersar puneis at his awin hand ... Quhilk suld haif leif to mak lawchfull defens; Henr. Fab. 2683 (Bann.). The haill chaptour sale chois ane writar, quhilk sal be suorne to writ the falts and present thame [etc.]; 1491 Kennedy Aberd. Ann. II 4. He callit Willam his bastard son, quhilk grantit to gang; Asl. MS I 201/7. The Erle of Ergile is Generall Justice quhilk is nocht juge competent; 1533 Acta Conc. Publ. Aff. 409. Ane squyer ... saw this lustie sort, Whilke home is went, and of it maid reporte; Clar. iv 270. The said Erle Bothwell ... quhilk offerit himself reddy to underly the tryall; Buch. Detect. (1727) 99. And quhow sein the woman spak of God, that ewill spreit vaniest away ... quhilk scho saw nocht agane; 1596-7 Misc. Spald. C. I 100.
(4) The schireffis foirsaid gert cast wp the said inquest quhilk wes chosin & suorne in the schiref court ... of the quhilkis the names followis; 1517 Fife Sheriff Ct. 68. Quhilk alsua thinkkis nay scheyme to cal thayme selff vicars of Christ; Gau 104/6. Lynd. Mon. 2440. To the which rebellings ... his auen armye did associat themselfs; whilk ..., seing him so far spoyled of al mens favour, put him gallantlye to death; Fowler II 135/11.
inflected (1) To thre knychttis thane wes he tawcht ... The quhilkis ... Praide hym [etc.]; Leg. S. ii 203. Figuris off men he made alsua, The quhylkis he gart be craftis ga; Wynt. ii 428. With the power of othir thre kingis with thame, the quhilkis he vencust; Hay I 48/17. Thair salbe xxiiij of the best nychtburis of the towne chosing ... to soit one acctions belangand the ... comoun profit to the towne ... the quhilkis the namys ar under writting; 1503 Aberd. B. Rec. (S.H.S.) lxxxvii. This inquest ... fyndis Valter Scot in Hanyng [etc.] ... abyll and laufull to be burges, the quhilkis hes deponit [etc.]; 1529 Selkirk B. Ct. (ed.) 98.
(2) He bare first armes, and ... With-held the lordis sonnes of the land, Quhilkis seruit him with fute and hand; Alex. ii 370. Alexander Hepburne ... sperit at the sayde assyse gife thai war accordyt qwilkis ansuerit ya; 1425-6 Aberd. B. Rec. (S.H.S.) cxxxv, n. 3. Quhow e haif maid a hundreth thousand huris, Quhilkis neuir hade bene, war not our lychorus luris; Lynd. Test. Pap. 1064. [They were] Of nobilnes lineallie discendit, Quhilks thair gude fame hes euer defendit; Id. Meldrum 70. Than did sum lords lyft vp thair hornis on hie Quhilks did withstand our kingis authoritie; 1570 Sat. P. x 278. The ane half removit sall chuis the uther half thairof, quhilkis ar also chosin and dividit; 1593 St. A. Kirk S. 760.
(3) That thare be a dekkyn of craft of goldsmythis quhilkis sall exeme the said werk; 1489 Acts II 221/1. On the other pairt ... for myself [etc.] ... to the said nobill lord [the Earl of Huntly] ... quhilkis I promeis of lawtie, etc. to serue; 1586 Misc. Spald. C. IV 235.
c. With non-personal noun phrase antecedent, as subject or object of a verb.
uninfl. (1) The qwhilk skathis our lege lorde the kynge ... has ... chargit me til aske ... redresse tharof the qwhilk my deputis has askyte at dayis of marche & nane has gotyne; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 59. In till Wygtown he gert set A jwstry, the qwhilk he held but let; Wynt. viii 3188. Sertan sum of siluer and golde the qhuelk I deliuerit til hyme; 1451 11th Rep. Hist. MSS App. vi 26. Quhare thare was a dragoun grete and felloun, the quhilk held in lenth sex score of futis, the quhilk ... had slayn mony peple ..., the quhilk that consul of Rome faucht with and slew it; Hay I 48/21, 22, 23. Bot held the letter in his hand unred ... the quhilk had he red he had savit his lyf; Ib. 63/36. It is forbodyn ... that ony man suld be witnes in his awin cause, the quhilk he ingeris him to be that wagis bataill; Ib. 257/23. Qwylk; 1457 Peebles B. Rec. I 125. There is now a parlement to be haldyn at Edynburch ... the qwhylk wyll be off mony materis; 1468 Smit Bronnen I ii 1019. That ow has committit sic a tressonable ded ... the quhilk gif thow denyis I tak apon me to preif it apon thé; Loutfut MS 109b. The vangel is the ministratione of liff the quhilk rasis and quiknis our fleyit conscience; Gau 107/3. In the mene time come legatis ... desiring peace, the quhilk was grantit be Romanis mare for resting of thare ciete ... than [etc.]; Bell. Livy II 180/28. Skene Verb. S. s.v. Cro. The vhilk; Montg. Misc. P. iii 71. The quhilk; Ib. lii 45. The quhilk will be grait chairgis and expenssis to the said college; 1635 Glasgow Chart. I ii 356.
(2) The foresaid William sall restore [10 oxen etc.] ... to the foirsaid abbotis men ... the quhilk war wrangusly tane ... and it with the foresaid William resettit; 1389 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 18. Bot he gert all rawe be lewyde The twa handys and the hewide The quhilk he gert the fadyr se; Wynt. iii 833. Thay reknit mony foul ... sinnis in thayme [certain books] the quhilk mony guyd men ... kneu neuer of befor; Gau 3/20. The landis of Erroll, ... The quhilk his airis brukis it this da; Stewart 37092. The wordis of consolation, the quhilk he gaped for as a gorbet; Melvill 135.
(3) That ye ... len us a certain portioun of your propir guidis. ... Quhilk we sal gar be allowit to you; 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 287. Nochtwithstanding the letter of balere ... made til him be [etc.] ... quhilk thai decern of na vale becaus the gifar tharof is deide; 1466 Acta Aud. 3/2. Federa ... was sa lechorus that scho requyrit hir sone in law ... of luf, quhilk he denyet saying [etc.]; Myll Spect. 287/6. For Iupiter ... Maid him his butler, quhilk was hir douchteris office; Doug. i i 51. Ryding upoun ane meir, quhilk ... chancit to de; 1579 Reg. Privy C. III 215. Ane letter inclosit from Ester Wemes qwicke I haif noct resavit; 1584 Cal. Sc. P. VII 57. He pt. 6 sh. viii to the puir qlk was (given) that sam day to Magie Iak; 1591 Dysart Rec. 41. Ye man do a litill thing for me at this tyme, and I sall do als mekill for yow agane, quhilk is this; 1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 173. Whilk; 1602 Davidson Three Reformers 154. And I am effrayit to think of the feirfull consequence of it quhilk can be no les nor the ... ruyne of this poor countrey; 1638 T. Hope Diary v. For the said defunct 5 lib. 13 s. 4 d. whilk payes his wholle debtes; 1651 J. M. Beale Fife Schools 149. Another tyme he saw a whyte broddit book in his hand, quhilk he took out his hand and saw it printed at Rome; 1657 Aberd. Eccl. Rec. 140. He would read the sixth chapter of St. John to them, whilk, says he, is better than twa of it [his sermon]; Answ. Presb. Eloq. 79.
(4) He gaf thir lordis belyve the letteris to luke, Quhilk the riche emprioure ... Ressauit with honour; Howlat 296 (A). Dunb. G. Targe 18. The dependentis [are] the townes, quhilk he sal do his diligence in ingadryng; 1561-2 Ayr B. Acc. 134. The merle, the maveis, may be seine [etc.] ... Quhilk caussit me to stay; Montg. Ch. & Slae 6 (W).
inflected (1) Bot thare wes cyteis syndry That [etc.] ... The quhilkys in to Cyrus dayis Payid noucht [etc.]; Wynt. iii 893.1442 Aberd. B. Rec. I 7. For all cristyn folk ar callit sternis ... the quhilkis in the ... scismes beforesaid was all ... in obscuritee of scisme; Hay I 25/12. Anens the lyneyne betuix him and Margrat Stewart ... and the lyneyne stabes set betuix thame and the quhilkis teyne awaye and hes bigit apone his grownd the quhilk sho awcht nocht til adowne; 1499 Dunferm. B. Rec. I 101. Of the landis of Lukland and Hedderweik ... the quhilkis he did ather sel or vodset; 1611 Reg. Panmure I xxviii.
(2) Nyn thingis ar in armorie quhilkis ar nombrit ilkane be ane; Loutfut MS 12a. Extendin to thretten merkis quhilkis thai fund pait; 1535-6 Perth Guildry 199 (7 Feb.). The planetis aspectis and complexiounis ... Quhilkis ar thir four; Rolland Ct. Venus Prol. 10. Dyvers gret impedimentis ... quhilkis gif thay haid bene knawin to ws wald haif maid lett; 1569 Facs. Nat. MSS III lix. Skinnars and wther artisans ... begouth to teache the people, ... some Inglishe buikes, quhilks skairslie thay wnderstude thame selwes; 1580 Hay in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 37/11. Fra tyme that onis thy sell The vapouris softlie sowkis ... Whilks syne in cloudds are keiped closs; James VI Poems I 10/11. Iulius Cæsar reconed the yere to haiff 10 min. 44 secondis mair thane the iust cowrse of the sone, quhilkis in 134 yeres makis ane day; King Cat. in Cath. Tr. (S.T.S.) 203/22. As alsoe to pey the Provest his expenses deburst be him anent the said Mr. William, whilks sall be allowit to him; 1668 Dunkeld Presb. I 204.
d. With the antecedent in the possess. case, as subj. or obj. of a verb.
As oure singulare confidence is in oure said cosinaige, quhilk the Haly Gast ever kepe; 1450 Smit Bronnen I 880.
As the obj. of a preposition which precedes the relative, with e. personal and f. non-personal antecedents. Also g. with preposition following, usually after the verb.
e. Wyth twa thowsand armyd men, Off quhilk aucht hundyr knychtis war; Wynt. ix 459. And atour the saidis parteis has consentit to ches four personis [etc.] ... of the quhilkis thar names folowis; 1493 Dunferm. B. Rec. 43. The lauberaris ar ane notabil membyr of ane realme, vitht out the quhilk the nobillis & clergie can nocht sustene ther stait; Compl. 124/18. Than come Dame Dreming ... With sweyning nymphis ... Amangis the quhilkis befoir me thair appeiris Ane woundit man; 1570 Sat. P. x 13. Young berdles men, ... houngered, to the quhilk ... keall, pattage, and fische was giffen; Melvill 263.
f. uninfl. (1) xxxii mark off syluer off the quhilk he has payit hym xi mark in his hand; 1391 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 3. To the quhilk ye give firme credence in oure name; 1416 Red Bk. Menteith I 287. Thare ar monstrys mony sere Off the quhilk are nane sene here; Wynt. i 690. The fragrant flouris ... Ouirspred the leuis of natures tapestreis; Abone the quhilk ... The birdis sat on twystis and on greis; Doug. Pal. Hon. 21. Through force of the quhilk, the said haill lugen wes ... blawin in the air; 1567-8 Crim. Trials I i 492. For inlaik of the quhilk [medical assistance], ... the tirane ... slayis sonest; Skeyne Descr. Pest 15. The Duchemenis can [etc.] ... for the full of the quhilk thay tak [etc.]; 1576 Orkney Oppress. 49. Of the quhelk I haue boroet fra Adem Reye to laid our part that e wareit [etc.]; Skipper's Acc. (Morton) 6ab. He ... drew ane knyfe ... with the quhilk he strak [etc.]; 1615 Crim. Trials III 358. Whilk; 1640 Dundonald Par. Rec. 458.
(2) The Bauderane [etc.] ... Come in the chalmer, of quhilk the wall Of gold clenely was pantit all; Alex. ii 2035. Ane certane breid ... Thow aw the doig, off quhilk the terme is gone; Henr. Fab. 1184. Of stories olde the quhich I lat oure go ... Amongis quhilk we fynd [etc.]; Quare Jel. 383. Exercing vicis ever ... For quhilk allace I servit to be schent; Dunb. (O.U.P.) vi 22. Ane gret vessell wrocht full of butter [etc.] ... be quhilk thay saiffit thair liffis mony dayis; Bell. Boece I lvi. I resavit Marinus Scotus, of quhylk I thank you greatly; Buch. Wr. 57.
inflected (1) Till haff bene at kownt ... with ... my full brothir, off all my faddir eritage, off the quhilkis he hasse gyffyn me lele kownt; 1447 Rec. Earld. Orkney 189. Amang the quhilks ane swallow loud couth cry; Henr. Fab. 1734. In the quhilk tyme thar is xxviij wolkis; of the quhilkis thar is to be falkyte twa wolkis of the tyme of owle [etc.]; 1494 Treas. Acc. I 245. Doug. xi ii 23. That the sepulturis of nobill men wer haldin in reuerence, on the quhilkis wer engravit ymagerijs; Bell. Boece (M) I 67. The sklayttis, tymmir [etc.] ... upoun the quhilks he culd nocht continewally await; 1559 Aberd. B. Rec. I 316. Fowler II 57/37.
(2) It is spedefull ... to wit the propertee of the foundement of the bataill. Off quhilkis thare is twa [etc.]; Hay I 112/30. Justice and equitie; For laik of quhilks my heid dois wark and aik; 1572 Sat. P. xxxiii 77. With thir conditiounis of peace ... for quhilkes all, Henrie sulde pay nathing ... bot ane athe; Dalr. I 327/25.
g. (1) And thar apon to gif lettres wnder the kyngis grete seel owtakand remissioun the qwhilke he sal write to the kyng fore; 1398 Acts I 211/1. That he desyred na mair honour Bot Babilon, ... The quhilk his arning maist was in; Alex. ii 39. Ye confesst ... Sathan ... desired you to be his servant, whilk ye willingly condescended unto; 1662 Soc. Ant. XXII 221.
(2) The first is ingnorance of the wangel to the quhilk thay haiff giffine na cuir to ... bot to thair awne tradicions the quhilk thay haiff maid to hald wp thair kingdome [etc.]; Gau 104/9. And allegit thair was diuerse gudis and jowelis [etc.] ... wyth the quhilkis the saidis Margret Waus intromettit wyth and is omittit onput in [etc.]; 1562 Inverness Rec. I 80.
h. In accounts, introducing a clause which anticipates its antecedent.
Giffin to Andro Aytoun quhilk wes deliverit to him be Schir Hari Schaw vij li. x s.; 1501 Treas. Acc. II 83. Ib. 95, etc. Takin in my awin hand, quhilk I awancit and lenth, xxli.; 1565 Edinb. Old Acc. I 51.
i., j. Where the antecedent is a fact, circumstance or action stated or alluded to, or a question or request posed, in the immediate (chiefly, preceding) context.
i. As subject or object of a verb. j. As the obj. of a preceding preposition.
i. uninfl. (1) [I am] in grete auenture to be heely reprovit the qwilk is wele kennyt to me; 1405 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 58. Yhour men of Inglande ... has heryde Lawadyr dalle [etc.] ... the qwhilke at the makynge of thir letteris was tholyt & nocht don tharfor; Ib. No. 59. The quhilk to ou to do ... I commytte my full power irreuocabylye be thir letters; 1486 Maxwell Mem. I 198. Baith hous and all suld at his will be led The quhilk he hicht & richt so scho it wrocht; Bk. Chess 663. The quhilk gif I do is dampnacioun to my saule; Remembr. Passion 331. The quhilk he alutraly denyit; 1519 Fife Sheriff Ct. 150. To desire thi hienes lang on lyve the quhilk mott grant the gracious God; Bell. Boece (M) I 20. That Ihon Ryklynton [etc.] ... wes choissyn to be abbot off wnresson the quhilk thai all thre forsuk; 1536 Haddington B. Rec. in Mill Mediæv. Plays 250. Quhone that the ane the vther wraikis The quhilk will not be done lychtlie; Maitland Maitl. F. xcvii 83. The quhilk I did; Buch. Detect. (1727) 133. Imedeatlie the quhilk was done at his desyre; Pitsc. I 158/33. Bot ... our serwand vald nocht to me the quhilk had he done I suld haiff gewyn hym ane better counsall; 1580 Sc. Hist. Rev. XXI 142.
(2) He had bene deid, na war the brand Turnit ane lytill in his hand, Quhilk sauit him; Alex. ii 10129. And quhat profet has he of the remanent [sc. of his possessions] bot at ... [they] ar callit his, quhilk is gret vanite and afflixone of spreit, quhilk is an of the werst in the erde? Wisd. Sol. (S.T.S.) 259. Wall. ii 293. Quhilk gif thai slip than to pertene to the towne hac vice; 1503-4 (c 1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 98. Ordinand at nane suld be resaifit in thai religios placis to the abet bot Scottis men quhilk is kepit it in sum of thame; Abell 59a. Quhilk he objeckit and wald nocht do as yit ..., quhilk is grit hurt ... to me the want therof; ?1544 Corr. M. Lorraine 86. Iob ... trewlie did report, Quhilk I persaue now be experience, That mennis lyfe in eirth bene wounder short; Lynd. Test. Meldrum 3. Bot by all this, he purposit, quhilk was wors, My awin lady ... to defors; Rolland Seven S. 1635. And pairtlie quhilk was maist appeirand to be trew was the verie wraith of God; Pitsc. I 30/14. Quhilk was done; 1597 Crim. Trials II 25. Johne Dickie caist vp his sowrd ... and kepit the straik thairon quhilk cutit the staf; 1602 Dundonald Par. Rec. 26. That of his peitis sum ar markit and sum onmarkit quhilk wes thocht to be ane schift; 1614 Fraserburgh Kirk S. fol. 29a (13 Feb.). The xi of Julie Pitmillie randrit his spreit, quike was no litle greife to us all; 1617 Mar & Kellie MSS Suppl. 78. To bring this matter to some goode conclusioun whilk lookeing assuredlie your lordshipis will do we committ your lordship to God; 1626 Cochran-Patrick Coinage II 74. Three windows one for Kermuckes window within, another for [etc.] ..., quhilk in all maks 38 foote; 1654 Ellon Par. Rec. 143. Quhilk may be ... hazardsoume to old people and bairnes; 1677 Glasgow B. Rec. III 229. The tyke ... was ... interrogat, whither he wold take the Test ... whilk was asked again and again; 1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 304. Quhelk if he doe not; 1687 Craven Ch. in Orkney 118.
inflected (1) Bot he sais nocht ... that he bad Sanct Petir put away his suerd, bot bad him put it up in the scheth, the quhilkis signyfyis that he wald it war kepit for the tyme tocum; Hay I 111/24. And sayde thai iiij s. of anwell was the Rudis and nocht Our Ladis ... the quhylkys was fundyn of befor be the eldest and of the best [etc.]; 1459 Peebles B. Rec. I 134. Grant me tobe party in the keiping of thi commandementis and ... ay keip and cherice haill; the quhilkis betaiknis thi coit that wes nocht brokin; Remembr. Passion 463. The quhilk wrang the said Alane denyit: The quhilkis wes referrit to the inquest suorne in presens of the partyis; 1510 Glasgow Dioc. Reg. II 390.
(2) Knychthede suld defend all ... wrangis, ...; quhilkis gif thai do nocht ... thai ar contrarius to thair ordre; Hay II 33/23. I sal nocht corrup or hais not corrupit [etc.] ... quhilkis I sweir; c 1500 Halyb. xxiii. And this thow did in the Manis of Innes, in the Manis of Caddell, and in dyvers vtheris places, quhilkis thow confessis thy self; 1597-8 Misc. Spald. C. I 120.
j. uninfl. (1) To the qwhilk ... the kyng answerit saiand [etc.]; 1391 Acts I 216/2. To the fulfillyng of the qwhilk the erle of the Marche ... is oblist [etc.]; 1398 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 38. Of the qwilk we ar richt heli reiosit; 1424 Cambuskenneth Let. to Jas. I (Reg. H.). Yn the vittenes of the quhilk the said Wilyhame has procurit [etc.]; 1440 Antiq. Aberd. & B. IV 395. For the quhilk I besek our ladischip ... at he walde [etc.]; c 1466-80 Letter from Lord Hamilton MS. For the quhilk and his seruice, he sall haue dailie ... ane ait laif; 1542 Reg. Cupar A. II 208. Polwart Flyt. 710 (T). Be the quhilk [action] he is adiugeit be the said assysis to haif tint his burgesschip; 1588 Aberd. Council Lett. I 25. And in maner foirsaid thay haif committed manifest falset and for the whilk ... thay ... aucht ... be pwneist as committeris of thift; 1625 Justiciary Cases I 30.
(2) Thay disjunit airly ... with smal refectioun ... throw quhilk thair stomok was nevir surfetly chargit; Bell. Boece I lv.
inflected (1) In witnes of the whilkis this presentis lettres we wrate [etc.]; 1412 Facs. Nat. MSS II lxii. The quhilk letter of pouer rede the saide lorde constabil vp stude ... and saide that [etc.] ... apon the quhilkis he schiev his processe ..., apon the quhilkis the forsaide lorde ... requirit me ... to giff knawlagis [etc.]; 1436 Coll. Aberd. & B. 394. Anent the quhylkis we discharge yow of [etc.]; 1487 Reg. Paisley 272. Efter the quhilks; 1531-2 Dunferm. Reg. Ct. 52. On the queilks they tuk nott; 1540 Aberd. B. Rec. I 169. In the quhilkes na vther thing was fund, bot that quhilk did abrogate the hail autority of [etc.]; Fowler II 49/21.
(2) Thro quhilk rais a consuetude ... to burn the dede bodijs of quhilkis mony signis apperis ite in thir dais; Bell. Boece (M) I 127.
k. Where the relative pron. is the subject or object of a present or past participle or participial phrase, the participial clause constituting the equivalent of a finite adverbial clause of time, cause, condition etc., dependent on the following main clause.
uninfl. The quilk sworne, etc., determynd the said priour maynis ... to be fre ... of all men; 1433 Raine N. Durham App. 63. The fische, quhilk corrupting apon the sand, be pestilent fleure infekkit the are; Boece 431. She cumis to Epiak ... quhilke suddenlie invadeng sche esilie obteines; Dalr. I 163/29. Alledging scho was awand thé xx schillingis, quhilk being refuisit, thow promeist hir that [etc.]; 1596-7 Misc. Spald. C. I 95. Quhilk beand done; Bisset II 221/12. What is ane adverb. P. A pairt of orisone, vndeclinable, quhilk being set or cast to a verb [etc.] ... perfects the ... sense of it; Rudiments fol. 14b.
inflected The quhilkis [heirs] al failland ... to the neirest ... ayris of the saide Schyr Gilbert quhat evir thai be; 1408 Facs. Nat. MSS II lxi. The quhilks considerande and arnande the fredome of bath the burws to be suppleit; 1424 Dumbarton B. Rec. App. ii 1. Qwhilkis; 1426 Antiq. Aberd. & B. III 202. As the said adict mair fullelie proportis quhilkis beand red in jugement comperit Schir James Buchert [etc.]; 1562 Inverness Rec. I 80. Whilks [heirs] failieing; 1691 Nairne Peerage Evidence (1873) 132.
l. Where the relative pron. is followed in the relative clause by a personal or demonstrative or other pron. which pleonastically or in clarification reinforces the relative pron.
Here spekis the storye of Julius Cesar, the quhilk, for his mekle noblesse, thre worthi princis come till him; Hay I 60/16. Quhilk; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 283. The ferd conquest approchit fast Off the bastarde of Normandie Quhilk conqueist Ingland halelie Quhilk it amangis ow ringis thair blude; Steel Roy Robert 99. The quhilk passis humaine ingyne to comprehende the grounde ... of it; Compl. 21/36. Seuin wysest men ... Quhilkis in learning all vther thay preuaill In all wisdome [etc.]; Rolland Seven S. 232. His twa oung sonnis incontinent he sla The quhilkis his wife at ane burding them bair; Ib. 9964. Thay wil soner consaue the trew word, nor quhen thay heir it sung in Latine, the quhilks thay wait not quhat it is; G. Ball. 1. That he had ane lous man with him ... callit Makgregour quhilk he suspectit gif ony thing war in missing it wald be found of tymes throw his handis; Pitsc. I 197/23. They observed some what ... droped out of his mouth, quhilk the advocats on the other side said it was the Test; 1682 Lauder Observes App. iv 304.
m. Followed by at, that. Thar him befell Mony fayr poynt ... The quhilk that ar nocht writyn her; Barb. ix 661 (E). This Jarede gat Mawlaliale, The quhilk that gat Matussaele; Wynt. i 190. Schir Gawyne gais furth the gait ... The quhilk that held to the hall heyndly to se; Gol. & Gaw. 132. Ane buik of Inglys gros Clepand it Virgill ... Quhilk that he says of Franch he dyd translait; Doug. i Prol. 141. The chaist virgyn Sibil wil convey thé The rycht way thidder quhilk at thou sal tak By blude offerit [etc.]; Ib. v xii 129. James Stewart ... Quhilk playand that wes with his peiris all Than at the catche; Stewart 59525.
10. pron. In default of suprasegmental indications in speech or unambiguous indications from punctuation, there are many instances of ambiguity or dubiety between a. senses 7 and 8, b. senses 7 and 9, c. senses 7, 8 and 9.
a. uninfl. (1) Se one man the quhilk wald nocht Put Godis help in-to his thocht; Ratis R. 1516. Willham was wa he had na wappynis thar Bot the poutstaff the quhilk in hand he bar; Wall. i 402. The letter than him gaiff with outyn let The quhilk off lait fra Scotland was him send; Ib. xi 307. Scho ... haldys fra him a burdyn of lynt the quhilk the burne tuik away; 1512 Prestwick B. Rec. 44. Thus endit he the quhilk menswoir alhallowis Syne erdit wes; Stewart 40627. Vpoun a rever the quhilk is callit Tweid; Freiris Berw. 2 (B).
(2) Na meruell is ane man be lyke ane beist Quhilk lufis ay carnall ... delyte; Henr. Fab. 51. For the custome and dewiteis of his guidis quhilk he brocht hame in to Jhone Downyis schip; 1525-6 (c 1580) Edinb. B. Rec. I 227. Seyng ... that he quhilk was that day maist prowde ... was than destitute of frendis; Bell. Boece (M) I 121. Ane lettre of summondis ... to oure scheref in that part quhilk execute the samyn ij s.; 1537 Ex. Processes (Reg. H.) Culross v Crawmond. Sic haland schaikaris quhilk at Cowkelbeis grys Wan meikill pryce; Maitl. F. lxii 57. Augmentit with sindrie warkis quhilk was not befoir imprentit; 1568 Lyndsay's Works Title. To the bankores at the est end of the kirk quhilk was lows; 1583 Edinb. D. Guild Acc. 175. To receaue the inspreth of John Blaks hous quhilk he had boght; 1628 Dundonald Par. Rec. 256.
inflected (1) [We] stratly oblis our tenementis in the quhilkis we indwel ... til the abbot of Abirbrothoc; 1420 Liber Aberbr. II 53.
(2) Sanct Augustyne ... with mony othir quhilkis warrayd the inymyes of the faith; Hay I 17/6. The gud wyf schawis ... Quhilkis ar thewis of gud women Quhilkis gar women be haldin deir; Thewis Gud Women 3. That thir thre lordis quhilkis now hes the name of the kepping of the kinge and hes nocht in deid, thai [etc.]; 1521 Douglas Corr. 80. I maid it bot in mowis, To landwart lassis quhilks kepith kye & owis; Lynd. Test. Pap. 72. As thay of greiter gre Quhilkis ar vplyftit into authoritie; Rolland Seven S. 928.
b. uninfl. (1) A tenement in Anderston the qwylk wes Dauid of Cornalis; 1400 MacRae Early Sc. Texts No. 7. Now is endyt this matere The quhilk is Ratis Raving cald; Ratis R. 1801. And forgeff till him fourty poundez the quhilk suld hef bene paiit til us for the relefe of that land; 1422 Thanes of Cawdor 10. For the deliuerance of certane Inglisemen, the quhilke ar in yhour warde and keping, as yhe knaw; 1444 Aberd. B. Rec. I 10. Knychtis defendis the clerkis and kirkmen fra wikkit tyrane men, the quhilk, aganis the faith ..., schapis thame to derob [etc.]; Hay II 53/11. To pay ... the sovme of  markis ... efter the forme of ane instrument ... producit ... in the qk he band him to pay the saide sovme; 1482 Acta Aud. 108/1. First was made a sermone, in the quhilk thir heids war intreated; 1560 Knox II 144.
(2) First of ane cok he wrate, Seikand his meit, quhilk fand ane iolie stone; Henr. Fab. 62. Becaus he fillit ane laid of muik quhilk scho suld haiff don; 1597 Misc. Spald. C. I 178. For inlaik of wark and labour quhilk he vas astrictit to pay to thame; 1598 Brechin Test. I 165. Williame Patersone ... hes takin ... ane thrie quarter land uhilk wes possest be Williame Donaldsone; 1638 Cockburnspath Baron Ct. 22 Sept. Seven mark for sex ealls of broune cloth quhilk I delewerit to her to tak the leatster; 1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 157. Noo work this weik except half a darge quhilk wes wroght be some of the coaliers; 1680 Sheriffhall Coal Accompt 18 Sept.
inflected (1) To fourty markis worth of land in the qwilkes the forsaid Erle of Angous was obligit ... to gyve me heritably; 1379 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 2. For him and his ayris the quhilkis sal succede to the forsaid landis be verteu of the said taillie; 1408 Facs. Nat. MSS II lxi. The laif to banys the realme, the quhilkis ar fugitiue; 1510 Reg. Privy S. I 330/2. Mony prelatis ar now ryngand, The quhilkis no more dois vnderstand [etc.]; Lynd. Mon. 5355.
(2) Berand with hym the kyngly gyftis scheyn Quhilkis suldbe present to the ryall queyn; Doug. i xi 4. And strenthen your L. to do theis dewties ... quhilkis ar proper to your L. as a peer of the land; 1638 T. Hope Diary v.
c. uninfl. (1) Of the land that was conquest fra Alysunder Tayte ... the qhwylk is callit Castelbar [etc.]; 1400 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 48. That cherite is luf and dilectioun be the quhilk thow lufis God for him self; Irland Asl. MS 51/2.
(2) To pay ... xx libras of sterlingis qwilk he resayvit in payment for his resignacone; 1393 Slater Early Sc. Texts No. 28. I sall have lemmen at lyking, Quhilk sall of body douchty be; Alex. ii 3781. Sa was thair ane that spak last of all Quhilk till his name Aristotill thai call; Alex. (Taym.) (ed.) 106. With sych a wyght, quhilk trewly ... Knew neuer thre wordis [etc.]; Doug. i Prol. 151. For grathing of my lord governoures sweird quhilk wes gevin to ane Irrische man; 1548 Treas. Acc. IX 224. Scho ... came in thair presence, Whilke mirrour was of bewtie and clemence; Clar. i 1428. For takyn of ane sark fra James Stewart quhilk he tuk of hir bakquhen scho wes werand it; 1555 Peebles B. Rec. I 222. [They] tuick away sex great jeystes quhilk war allowet for repairing of the bridge; 1640 Aberd. Council Lett. II 230.
inflected For mending of fyve greit loks quhilks wer fylit and brokin with presoneris; 1554-5 Edinb. B. Rec. II 298. Ryming in tearmes and dyuers others whilkis ar forbidden in my owne treatise; James VI Poems I 17/38.
11. pron. a. In instances in which the antecedent is not certainly identifiable. ---
For us thynk it is lytill rewarde till vs till haue a suffysand man ... present, for yhe whilk we requer, syn we have [etc.]; c 1390 Coldingham Priory 60. We planely deny ... that the Kirk of God is decernit by personal successioun, a note conuenient to al Kirks, Grecians, Assyrians, Armenians, and Ethiopians: quhilkis the Pape hes condemnit in mony heads of heresie; Fowler II 43/21. That God may be glorified and learning propagated in young ones whilk is the grand pillar which [etc.]; 1673 Cullen Kirk S. 19 April.
b. In other irregular constructions. ---
He send for him message. Chargeing him sone for to cum hame fra hand Quhilk he obeyit his fathers haill command; Rolland Seven S. 8369. The bairne quhik the said Ionet Fyff his dochteris with all his newoyis sall stand in satisfactioun of all guidis and geir; 1586 Edinb. Test. XVI 285b. Mair I acclame hime fyftie days work four shillings the day quhilk works peartly for houlding his plought quhene his ploughmen ran away ... quhilk he promist payment; 1672 Kirkcudbr. Sheriff Ct. Processes No. 159.