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Consonants in Southern Dialect.

§ 108. voiced front lateral. In Middle Sc. there was a sound represented by l3, ly, lz, which is supposed to have been identical with l mouillé in French (dialect) tailleur, Sp. calle, It. egli. Murray (D.S.C.S., p. 124) says that this sound was still in existence in his time in such words as bailie, tailor, collier, feverfuilyea (feverfew). Watson, W.-B., p. 11 gives bailyea, collyer, Dalyell, tailyir, feverfuilyie (obsol.), tuilyie (obsol.) He adds, however, that even derivative forms with simple l are obsol. In Canobie, older people until recently used a peculiar l sound after all vowels, the contact being between the after-blade and fore-palate (or after-gum). In Langholm a more forward sound is heard after [i] and the diphthongs [@i, ei, ei]. The point of the tongue comes forward to the teeth and the after-blade rests on the fore-gum. The Canobie variety closely resembles the Continental liquid l, but the Langholm rather that of the Continental teeth l. The difference between the Canobie and Langholm varieties forty years ago was so marked that Langholm schoolboys made great fun of the pronunciation of their Canobie comrades. In other Sc. dialects this Middle Sc. sound has become either point l or point l + y, as Dalzell = Dalyell,1 tailor = teily@r, spuilzie = spoolie, ki'nallie, Fr. canaille; was often written lz in Middle Sc. and hence arose the artificial pronunciation Dalzell.
§ 109. k and g have been lost before n in words like knowe, gnaw.
§ 110. voice front nasal. This sound was written in Middle Sc. n3, ny, nz, and approached probably the sound of the Fr. gn in digne, signe. These Fr. words in Middle Sc. rhymed with native words like sing, ring, etc. In Dr Ellis's E.E.P., I., p. 298, Murray gives gaberluinzie and cuinzie as still in existence c.1863. In Rxb., Watson says lunzie (loin) was still current c.1840. See Rxb. W.-B., p. 10. The sound is no longer heard in e.Dmf., although loon = loin [lun] survives. The place-names Glenzier in Canobie and Enzie in Westerkirk probably had this sound. The pronunciation of the former in the Stat. Acc. of Scot., XIV., 1793, is given as ['glIngjir]. Its modern pronunciation is ['glIng@r], and that of Enzie is ['eini]. Cf. Enzie in Bnffsh., pronounced ['i ngi] derived from O.N. engi = a grassy field.

§ 110.1. As in the similar case of l3, n3 was mistaken for nz, and a new pronunciation of proper names arose, like McKenzie, Menzies, Cockenzie. The older pronunciation is McKingie, Mingies, Cockengie (also Cockennie), where ng takes the place of the original . In other Sc. dialects this old sound is generally represented by ng [ng], as spaingie (Spanish cane), mengie (a crowd), lingle (a shoemaker's thread), and fingan (feigning), sign-ifie (Bch.).2

§ 111. ch [x] with back vowels. This consonant is generally pronounced with back or lip rounding, as in lach = laugh [lax]. The on-glide to ch = [x] is voiced by the preceding vowel and the whole gives a diphthongal effect, hence the word might be written phonetically [laux]. So also saugh, cough, trough.3 There are two forms for words like bought, sought, daughter, fought 4; dafter has also been heard in Teviotdale, see Watson, W.-B., p. 6.

§ 111.1. This labialised [x] is interesting because it helps to explain the transition from O.E. h [x] to the St.Eng. and dialectal f in words like rough, tough, cough, enough. In the Eng. sound the lip action has been developed and the back action of the tongue lost. Cf. a similar change of wh to f in n.Sc., as in fa for wha. See § 134.

§ 111.2. ch [] with front vowels [i, I, æ, e, e]. The tongue is always advanced in the mouth and for [i] and [I] it reaches as far forward as in the German ch in ich, siech, mich. In the other Sc. dialects the advance of the tongue is well marked for [i] and [I], but much less so for the other front vowels. In the older s.Sc. pronunciation of hicht, licht, micht, fecht the ch is still heard with a [j] glide before it --- e.g. fight, height [fæjt, hejt], etc., but in the younger generation a diphthong [ei] or [æi] has taken its place, hence we have the doublets [fæit, heit], etc.
§ 112. f is replaced by th [þ] in [þræ] = from, cf. throm = from in Easter Ross, and per contra in feets = theets (traces in plough), frock-soam (ox-chain), [þ] is replaced by f.
§ 113. d after l and n (see §§ 64, 64.1) is not much in evidence in e.Dmf. or in Rxb. See Watson, W.-B., p. 8, § 4.
§ 114. In this dialect the distinction between the pr.p. and the gerund is maintained in Teviotdale and Canobie as an and in --- -e.g. runnan and runneen.5 ``He's chappan at the door'' 6 ``He likes chappeen at the door.'' 7
§ 115. This district was the meeting-ground of Anglian, Gael, Briton, Norse and Norman. Three of its river valleys, the Esk, Annan and Liddel, with the country up to the walls of

1 Also [dI'el],
2 'spengi, 'mengi, lIngl, 'fIng@n, 'sIngIfi.
3 saux, kOux, trOux.
4 bOuxt + bOut, sOuxt + sOut, 'dOuxt@r + 'dOut@r, fOuxt + fOut.
5 'rVn@n, 'rVnin.
6 eiz 'tap@n @t ð@ dø:r.
7 i leiks 'tapin @t ð@ dø:r.

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