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INTRODUCTION


deeper quality (= l.bk.l.) than the a of the northern district, which is either m.bk.l. or (as in I.Sc.) m.bk.l. adv.
§ 103. All the O.E. vowels or combinations of vowels that have become ee [i] in final position in other Sc. dialects have a diphthong in this dialect, ey = [ei, æi or @i].


§ 103. 1. O.E. : he, me, thee, we; O.E. æ (i-umlaut of ): sea; O.E. g: elay, key; O.E. ah, ag: lea, eye; O.E. o: be, bee, free, knee, lee (lang), see, three, tree; O.E. og: dree (suffer), fly (n. and v.), lie (fib), thigh [þei]. Because of this curious diphthongisation of final oo and ee the dialect is often called the dialect of yow and mey, or as a Lockerbie couplet has it ---
Yow an' meyee, an' the bern dor keyee,
The sow an' the threyee weyee pigs.
(Dumfriesshire, by Hewison, p. 181.)

§ 104. One of the most marked features of this dialect is the use of the [æ] vowel, which is almost identical with the vowel used in southern St.Eng. in words like back, bad, bat, rap, ram. The vowel in s.Sc., however, does not, as a rule, occur in the same series of words as in southern St.Eng., but (1) in words which have the spelling e (O.E. e in closed syllables) --- e.g. bed, led, pen, hen, ken, fend, lend, send. Hence their neighbours often twit these dialect speakers with saying bad for bed, pan for pen, and Nallie for Nellie. (2) Freq. in words where a occurs before ss, sh, r, that have [e] or [e] in other Sc. dialects --- e.g. ash, wash, asp, clasp, hasp, fasten, grass, cart [+ e], harvest. (3) In words with O.E. e in open syllables with later shortening --- e.g. bever (tremble), feather, fettle (condition), fret, leather, trade, tread. (4) In later shortenings of other long vowels (see § 29) --- e.g. bled, bless (e.Dmf.), bred, met, adder ['æð@r], bladder ['blæð@r], herring, read, bet (hardened --- of feet), farl (quarter of an oatcake), yammer (e.Dmf.), heard, ten. (5) In Romance words with the spelling e [e], as in vessel, pet, fenny (clever), mend, stent (assessment), sense, tent (in ``Tak tent'' = take care).
§ 105. O.E. had a peculiar development in this dialect --- viz. uo [u@] --- and in Murray's time, in the Hawick district, it was still a main feature of the dialect. Till the end of the last War the same sound was general in the same class of words in Langholm and Canobie. Examples in open syllables, chosen, coal, collier, foal, froth, nose, throat 1; in closed syllables, corn, horn, folk, poll, poke (Scand. in poke-net).2 From Romance we have brooch, cloak, close (n.), coat, boast, rogue, dose, report, roset, sole, sort, vote [bru@t, etc.]. In some of the northern Eng. dialects this o is also diphthongised, but the stress may be thrown on to the second element of the diphthong: thus for s.Sc. cuorn [ku@rn] we get Cum. cworn [kwOrn]. Watson, in his W.-B., p. 30, says that in Jedwater the [u@] had by 1870 become oo [u] in body, bogle, bonnie, ony, mony.
§ 105. 1. Murray says (D.S.C.S., pp. 111, 112) that (1) when o is initial or preceded by a silent h the result is [wV], but (2) when the h is sounded the result is []. His examples of (1) are orchard, orpkine, open ['wVrt@t, wVrpi(leaf), 'wVp@n]; of (2) hole, hope [Vl, Vp]. Wurtvhet is still known in Canobie, but is obsol. in Rxb. (Watson, W.-B., p. 335). Wurpie is now obs. in e.Dmf. and obsol. in Rxb. In s.Sc. howp is hope, meaning expectation, and whup a narrow valley; cf. Whupland for Hopland, Sanday, Orkney (Marwick, Intro., xlv).
§ 105.2. When o comes in contact with a lip letter, p, b, m, f, in e.Dmf. and Teviotdale dialects it does not change into a, thus crop, croft, thropple, etc., are not changed into crap, draft, thrapple. See § 54. The diphthong oi [OI] does not change into [@i] as in other Sc. dialects --- e.g. oil, boil, toil. See § 46.


§ 106. Murray (D.S.C.S., pp. 116-117) says that the U. Teviotdale dialect of Rxb. distinguishes between (1) the diphthong derived from ow, ol, og and (2) that derived from (final), uv, ul, ug. The examples given of the first set are bowe (a bow to shoot with), lowe (a flame), powe (poll), howe (hollow), grow,3 so that bow (n.) [bOu] is distinguished in this dialect from bowe (v.) [bVu] (to bend), powe (head) [pOu] from powe [pVu] (to pull). All other Scottish mainland dialects have [Vu] in (1) and [u:] in (2), and the distinction between the two diphthongs has now been lost in many parts of s.Sc. See Watson, W.-B., Intro., §§ 63, 69.


§ 106.1. The following are examples of ol heard from older speakers in e.Dmf. (Langholm and Canobie): yolk [jOuk], Mid.Eng. 3olke, m.Sc. (18th cent.) yowk, bolsr, bowt (skein of wool), bowl, colt, dowie (low-spirited), howk (dig(, knowe, moudiewart (mole), also stolen.4
§ 106.2. From O.E. of, og, w, w: yowe (ewe), ower, owerm (confusion), bow (n), forhowe (forsake nest), enow, grow, four, choke.5


§ 107. O.E. and . In this dialect the representative of these two vowels is a sound which approaches very nearly to the e of Mod.Eng. set. In words like big, pig, rig and ring, king a diphthong between [ei and @i] has been heard in n.Rxb. --- e.g. in Smailholm.6 Cf. Fif., e.Abd., nn.Sc.


1 tu@zn, ku@l, 'ku@lI@r, fu@l, fru@, nu@z, þru@t.
2 ku@rn, hu@rn, fu@k, pu@l (as in pu@@ hid = crop the hair), pu@k.
3 bOu, lOu, pOu, hOu, grOu.
4 'bOust@r, 'bOuw@l, kOut, mOu, stOun, etc.
5 jOu, Ouw@r, 'Our@m, Ou, f@r'hOu, @ 'nOu, gr,Ou, f,Ouwr, tOuk.
6 b@ig, p@ig, r@ig, r@ing, k@ing (Rxb1.).



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