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PHONETIC DESCRIPTION OF SCOTTISH LANGUAGE AND DIALECTS


remarkable for its peculiarly developed vowel system, which in some respects resembles that of the n.Eng. dialects.
§ 97.1. O.E. , which becomes [e] in the other dialects, is diphthongised in this. Murray writes the diphthong i' representing [I@]. The first element is h.fr. half tense and slightly lowered, the second being very weak and often elided in rapid speech --- e.g. blate (modest), baith, braid, claes, drove (v), grope, load (n.) in leead treis (shelmonts or frame laid on a cart), loaf, rope, soap1 These words might be written beeath, breead, cleeaz, etc.
§ 97.2. O.E. in open position also developed into this diphthong --- e.g. made, spade, sale, tale, bake, cake, rake (n.), make, shake, lamiter (lame man), name, shame, tame.2 This sound was common in Teviotdale c.1870 (see D.S.C.S., pp. 105, 144), and can still be heard from middle-aged and old people in Langholm and Canobie and e.Dmf., but in other districts it is obsolescent or obsolete, as in Jedburgh, where it has been replaced by [è]. See Watson's W.-B., Intro., §§ 37 and 53.
§ 97.3. O.E. æg words have [e] in this dialect --- hail (frozen rain), nail, tail.3 See § 49(2).
§ 97.4. When the word began with a vowel or h the stress fell on the second element of the diphthong and a y [j] sound was produced instead of i [I], as in yae, yin, +yick, +yicker, yill, yince, yits, hyim, hyirsch, hyil,4 for one (adj.), one (pron.), oak, acre, ale, once, oats, home, hoarse, whole. Teviotdale has yen, yek, etc., in the above. See D.S.C.S., p. 105.
§ 98. Scand. likewise gives rise to [I@] --- e.g. flake, kail, spae, but Scand. ei, æi, ey, eg give rise to the vowel sound in fate [e], as in skail (scatter), swaip (to slant), fley (frighten), hain (save). Many N.Eng. dialects observe a similar distinction between O.E., Scand. on the one hand, and Scand. ei, ey, etc., on the other.5 This distinction enables one to say whether the dialect form of a word like weak (O.E. wc, Scand. veikr) is of O.E. or Scand. origin.
§ 99. Instances of Romance words having this diphthong [I@] are ace, face, mason, place, scailie (slate pencil), able, table, search, term.6
§ 100. O.E. is still represented by a rounded front vowel. In the towns the vowel is beginning to unround, especially in final position and before r, se= [z], v, so that shoe, do, too, moor, floor, use (v.) from the younger generation are shae. dae, tae, mair, flair, yaiz.7 Before other conson ants, the ui sound has been kept with the v alue of [y] h.fr.l.r. and lowered as in mune, guid. § 100.1. The O.E. group (see § 35.6), containing words like enough. to u gh, has [iu] Langholm and [øu] Canobie [I'niux or I'nøux]. § 100.2. T his iu diphthong occurs irregularly in leuch and deuch from o.N. lgr = low, and O.E. dh = dough, which should give [lI@x and dI@x] in s.Sc., laich and daich in other Sc. dialects. Leuch [x] occurs frequently in the order Ballads:


Up bespake then Jocky Ha,
For leugh o Liddisdale cracked he
(Archie o Cawfield, No. 188, Child, 1904.)
He has tane the Laird's jack on his back,
The twa-handed sword that hangg lieugh by his thigh.
(Dick o the Cow, No. 185, Child, 1904.)


§ 101. O.E. in final position is diphthongised in t his dialect. So likewise is any long in final position, arising from the loss of a consonant. such as g or l or v, or from Rom. ou. The diphthong thus produced is [Vul].
Examples: brow, cow, dove, +dow (O.E. dugan) --- as in ``How do you dow (e.Dmf.)?'' --- how, now, full, pull, sow (n.), allow (Rom.), through, you.8 In all the other Sc. dialects oo [u:] occurs normally in these words.
§ 102. The [] vowel regular in the Mid Sc. dialects from O.E. w, g, does not occur in this dialect, except as an intruder --- e.g. (1) blaw, craw, snaw; (2) claw, draw, gnaw, daw (dawn), which might be written bla' or blaa [bl&a.:]. The vowel [n] in these words, as in Gall. also, is of a


1 blI@t, bI@þ, brI@d, klI@z, etc.
2 mI@d, spI@d, sI@l (but sail is se:l), etc.
3 hel, nel, tel.
4 je:, jn, jk, jk@r, jl, jns, jts, hjm, hjr, hjl.
5 See Gr. of Dial. of Lorton (Cum.), by Brilioth; of Kendat (Westmorland), by Hirst; The Dial. of Hackness (e.Yks.), by Cowling; Der Dialekt von Stokesley (n.,Yks.), by Klein (Palaestra, 124).
6 jI@s or js, f&i.@s, 'mI@sn, plI@s, 'skI@li, jbl, tI@bl, sI@rt, tI@rm.
7 e:, de:, te:, me:r, fle:r, je:z.
8 brVu, kVu, dVu, dVu, lVu, nVu, fVu, pVu, sVu, @'lVu, þrVu, jVu.



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