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INTRODUCTION


people for three months every summer. No wonder then that we have Glasgow vocables and Glasgow idioms here.''
The result in Kintyre of the mingling of Glasgow and wm.Sc. in contact with Gaelic is very curious, both on the pronunciation and idiom, and will be illustrated in the Dictionary under the various items. We here cite some examples: hoot and whoot for what. ``Hoot are ye sayin'?'' ``He wuz cairryin on like I donno whoot (hoot),'' but whit (Glasgow) can be heard in conjunction with another word, as whit wey and whit for. Cf. the h for wh in Avoch, Black Isle, Rs. and Crm., where the h is lost altogether if the word is not under stress. The Gaelic plosive after t and d can still be heard, even in the speech of children. Initial t and initial d followed by a [j] sound frequently become ch = [t] and j [d] --- e.g. Tuesday, tune, tough, dew, duck.1


§ 95.1. Some points in which this dialect agrees with Ayrshire:
(1) in dropping ``d'' after ``n,'' as in gru and lan for ground and land, etc.;
(2) in changing ``o'' with a labial consonant into ``a,'' as in aff, drap, laft, larry, tap, for off, drop, loft, lorry, top, etc.;
(3) in preferring the u [V] sound to oo [u] in the O.E. class (see § 35.6) --- e.g. enough, hook, tough, for enyuch, hyuk, chuch 2;
(4) in unrounding the ui vowel --- e.g. abuin becomes abin (above).
§ 95.2. On the other hand it differs in the following points:
(1) it prefers ``u'' [V] to i and e [I, e], not only after ``w'' but in other words --- e.g. cluver, duvle, fush, hull, shulter, slup, for clever, devil, fish, hilt, shelter, slip;
(2) it prefers ``aa'' to ``aw'' [], as in aa, baa, daar, kaaf, smaa, waa, whaar, for all, ball, dare, chaff, small, wall, where;
(3) in the O.E. (i-umlaut of ), open ``e'' and ``a'' classes there is a balance between ``ai'' [e] and ``ee'' [i] --- e.g. chape, daith, for cheap, death, against de' e, heed, meer, sweet, for deaf, head, mare, sweat (see § 88);
(4) we find also howld, owld, sowld, for hold, old, sold, as in other Celtic areas;
(5) the diphthong i [@i or ei] before k is often monophthongised, especially in emphatic position --- e.g. in like and dile, which become lake and dake. ``Hoot wuz it lake?'' 3 ``He wuz leanin' ower the dake.'' A similar change has been noted for Gall., some parts of n.Sc. and Sh. See § 29.1.
(6) Scand. words like gowk, roup (see § 47(3)) have [o] in this dialect.

South Mid Scots.
§ 96. sm.Sc. includes the extreme south of Ayr, Wgt., Kcb., w.Dmf or Nithsdale, the country west of Locharmoss and the high ground to the north of it.
§ 96.1. This district retains the ui vowel, but the influence of Ayr settlers from m. and n.Ayrsh. has had an effect on the purity of the old pronunciation. There was a time when such pronunciations as min for moon and shae for shoe excited the derision of the natives and were considered a vile importation of the hated Kyloes or the ``Glesca Eerish.'' See Trotter's Gall. Gossip, Intro., pp. 5-8. In the towns --- e.g. in Kirkcudbright --- the ui vowel, when final and before [r, z, ð, v] was beginning to be unrounded into a as in fate [e] even before the War --- e.g. shoe, do, moor, poor had become shae, dae, mair, pair. Since the war other O.E. (see §§ 35.1, 35.2) words and Romance words in u and ui are beginning to be unrounded, and min shin, gyid may be heard for the older mune, shune, guid, the vowel being either [ or ]. This is especially the case in w.Dmf. Words like enough, tough retain the older pronunciation --- i.e. enyooch, tyooch [@'njux, tjux] --- as in the Lothians.


§ 96.2. The O.E. vowels (North.) æ (i-umlaut of ), a and in open position (see § 29, n.) have the same development as in em.Sc. (b) and wm.Sc. See § 88.
§ 96.3. The aw sound of em. and wm.Sc. = [] has not been adopted in this dialect except in Nithsdale, where its presence may be due to the fact that it lies on the direct route to Glasgow; thus blaw, craw, bawr are blaa, craa, baar, etc.
§ 96.4. The vowel a [&a.] in w, words is of a deeper variety, l.bk.l., than that used in n.Sc. and is often confused with [].
§ 96.5. In some words the diphthong @i is monophthongised --- e.g. in like and dike --- probably from the shortened vowel in derivatives and compounds. See § 29. 1.
§ 96.6. In the, on the, of the, at the, in many phrases are contracted into i' e' and even to one sound ee [i] as i' e' toon, i' e' mornin, wrang i' heed, i back i dike = in the town, in the morning, wrong in the head, at the back of the dike.4 See §§ 125, 158.
§ 96.7. c = [k] and g as in get coming before front vowels are followed by a y sound [j], which is assigned to Gaelic influence --- e.g. ken, kirk, get, girn = kyen, kyirk, gyet, gyirn (see § 141); Gall. has been subjected to many linguistic influences, but the evidence of place and personal names shows that Gaelic must have been at least a very important factor in its dialect, yet f = wh, as in fa and fat and far of the n.Sc., is not found here at all. d is dropped after l and n, and in the second case the n is distinctly lengthened. In Wigtownsh. the dialect has been influenced in some parts by the influx of Irish immigrants.


SOUTHERN SCOTS


§ 97. This d istrict comprises m. and e.Dmf., Rxb. and Slk. It may be described as the dialect of the valleys of the Annan, the Esk, the Liddel, the Teviot and the Yarrow. It is


1 tuzd, tun, tVx, du:, dVk.
2 Ayr and Kintyre: @'njVx, çjVk, tVx. Lothian: @'njux, çjuk, tjux.
3 hut wVz t lek (hut lek wVst)
4 i e tun, i e 'mOrnm, rang i hid, i bak i d@ik (dek). Cf. a similar contraction in Per., w.Ags. and Cai.



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