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a'm (Rom.)alum
hause (Scand.)"halse" [neck]
scaud (Rom.)scald
tauch (obs.)tallow

§ 78.2. When the vowel was , a diphthong is now generally the result = [Vu]
moudiewort, moudiewarpmouldwarp (Eng. dial).
row (Rom.)roll
souder (Rom.)solder
thowthole (pin of boat)

§ 78.3. When the original vowel was , a long is now the result, with occasional shortenings.
coom (Rom.) roots of grain in malting)culm
pu'pit (Rom.)pulpit

§ 79. ng in the middle of a word is a single sound [ng] v.bk.n., pronounced as in the St.Eng. sing-er --- e.g. sing-le [sIngl], ang-ry ['angr], lang-er ['lang@r]. In the suffix ing, ng is always sounded n as sing-in or sing-en ['sIng@n] = singing, pr.p. or gerund. In length, strength, ng also = n [lenþ, strenþ]. For so-called liquid ng see § 110.
§ 80. In Sc. the letter r stands for the point trilled r. r is not generally lost before another consonant. In districts which have recently been Gaelic in speech the r is generally a v.p.fric. retracted. The burr is known only as an individual defect of speech.

Dialect Districts

Main Dialect Division.
§ 81. On the basis of phonetic distinctions the Mainland of Scotland is divided into three great areas, Mid, Southern and Northern. Mid Sc. again has three subdivisions, em.Sc., wm.Sc. and sm.Sc. Southern Sc. comprises m. and e.Dmf., Rxb. and Slk. Northern Sc. is subdivided into sn.Sc., mn.Sc., nn.Sc. Outside Scotland we have (1) the Insular Division, embracing the Ork. and the Sh. Is., and (2) Ulster Sc., spoken chiefly in the counties of Antrim and Down. The counties corresponding to these divisions are named on pp. xlvii, xlviii.

Character of Dialect Division.
§ 82. It must not, however, be inferred that the dialect districts marked on Map 2 are like watertight compartments, entirely separate from each other. Unless a great natural barrier intervenes, such as a barren waste of country, a mountain range or a wide river, dialects pass gradually into each other, leaving a neutral district between every two --- e.g. as we pass westward from Angus coastline we come to a district where the fa and steen and heid of the coast and whaw and stane and head of Perthshire can all be heard, but before we reach the west border we enter a region where the second series alone is in common use. The map will show that the dialect regions are not always identical with the county divisions --- e.g. Abdsh. dialect extends across the Dee into the Mearns. The dialect of Rxb. extends through e. and m.Dmf., but disappears in w.Dmf., which dialectally belongs to Gall. Sc. It will thus be seen that, in

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